All these details of the well-known legend are already related by St Ambrose (De Offic. i.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
ranked the festival of St Thomas with those of the four great Latin fathers, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome and Gregory.
Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan pitted itself against the Catholics, under the famous Ambrose, bishop of that city.
He was condemned by a Roman synod under Bishop Siricius in 390, and afterwards excommunicated by another at Milan under the presidency of Ambrose.
Certain peculiarities introduced by St Ambrose distinguish the ritual of Milan from that of the general church.
St Cyprian, St Ambrose and St Augustine, St Paulinus of Nola and St John Chrysostom had practised law as teachers or advocates.
St Ambrose and St Paulinus had even held high administrative and judicial offices.
The Latin West was scarcely less productive; it is enough to mention Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, Leo of Rome, Jerome, Rufinus, and a father lately restored to his place in patristic literature, Niceta of Remesiana.'
This idea is repeated in Ambrose and Augustine, and has since been a dominant idea of both Eastern and Western Christendom.
south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."
AMBROSE THE CAMALDULIAN, the common name of AMBROGIO TRAVERSARI (1386-1439), French ecclesiastic, born near Florence at the village of Portico.
Though this cause was unsuccessful, Ambrose is interesting as typical of the new humanism which was growing up within the church.
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
The change was brought about by two causes - first, Greek theology, which reached the West chiefly through Jerome Rufinus and Ambrose, and, second, the new idea of the church wrought out by Augustine on the basis of the altered political situation of the church.
Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose and Gregory; though Bede's reading is very far from being limited to these.
Ambrose Philips >>
For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success, but gradually he sank into indolence, occupied himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose.
epp. 2 and 61; Ambrose, De fide, prolegomena to Epistolae II, 17, 21, Consolatio de obitu Valentiniani; H.
According to St Ambrose (in Psalm 118, oct.
The Acta of St Sebastian, falsely attributed to the same St Ambrose, are far less sparing of details.
Fay's singular powers in this direction were well shown by his Jdvor orvos es Bakator Ambrus szolgdja (Doctor Javor and his servant Ambrose Bakator), brought out at Pest in 1855.
Isaac Ambrose >>
But Auxentius died soon afterwards, and his successor, Ambrose, undertook to bring these hitherto abortive efforts to a successful conclusion, and to complete the return of Illyria to the confessions of Nicaea.
Ambrose Pare), their art would not have lain so long in degradation.
If also the passage in Ambrose of Milan (on Luke i.
In Ambrose, Augustine and Leo I., sacrilegium means sacrilege.
From Campania Paulinus returned to his native place and came into correspondence or personal intimacy with men like Martin of Tours and Ambrose of Milan, and ultimately (about 389) he was formally received into the church by bishop Delphinus of Bordeaux, whence shortly afterwards he withdrew with his wife beyond the Pyrenees.
In the following year he went into Italy, and after visiting Ambrose at Milan and Siricius at Rome - the latter of whom received him somewhat coldly - he proceeded into Campania, where, in the neighbourhood of Nola, he settled among the rude structures which he had caused to be built around the tomb and relics of his patron saint.
Merlin (Myrddin), the famous wizard, bard and warrior, perhaps an historical figure, first introduced by Geoffrey of Monmouth, originally called Ambrose from the British leader Ambrosius Aurelianus, under whom he is said to have first served.
Through Jacques Colure (or Colin), abbot of St Ambrose in Bourges, he obtained a tutorship in the family of a secretary of state.
Many bishops approved the act, but Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours condemned it.
See Samuel Orcutt and Ambrose Beardsley, History of the Old Town of Derby (Springfield, 1880); and the Town Records of Derby from 1655 to 1710 (Derby, 1901).
This is seen in Ambrose of Milan, with whom may be named Hilary of Poitiers and Gaudentius of Brescia, the friend of Chrysostom, and a link between him and Ambrose.
PELAGIA An Antiochene saint of this name, a virgin of fifteen years, who chose death by a leap from the housetop rather than dishonour, is mentioned by Ambrose (De virg.
But there is no doubt of the existence of the first Pelagia of Antioch, the Pelagia of Ambrose and Chrysostom.
by Ambrose in the case of Theodosius himself (390); but the temptation to wield it as an instrument of secular tyranny too often proved to be irresistible.
The series of the Fathers alone contains Jerome (1516), Cyprian (1520), Pseudo-Arnobius (1522), Hilarius (1523), Irenaeus (Latin, 1526), Ambrose (1527), Augustine (1528), Chrysostom (Latin, 1530), Basil (Greek, 1532, the first Greek author printed in Germany), and Origen (Latin, 1536).
(a) The Martyrdom is quoted by the Opus Imperfectum, Ambrose, Jerome, 1 Published by them in the Amherst Papyri, an account of the reek papyri in the collection of Lord Amherst (1900), and by harles in his edition.
Prudentius shows Ambrose as his master here, but gives to Ambrose's mystic symbolism much clearer expression.
Ambrose, Augustine and Hilary commended the example of the psalmist who gave praise "seven times a day" (Ps.
of a law-court, and was adopted in that sense by the church as early as Ambrose (c. 350).
Although he had left the church, his earlier writings continued to be extensively read; and in the 4th century his works, along with those of Cyprian, were the principal reading of Western Christians, until they were superseded by those of Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory.
The two existing manuscripts of the Liber are in the Vatican library, Rome, and in the library of St Ambrose at Milan.
Among the first of those whom we know to have attached importance to the placing of relics in churches is Ambrose of Milan (Ep. 22), and the 7th general council of Nicaea (787) forbade the consecration of churches in which relics were not present, under pain of ex communication.
AMBROSIANS, the name given to several religious brother hoods which at various times since the 14th century have sprung up in and around Milan; they have about as much connexion with St Ambrose as the "Jeromites" who were found chiefly in upper Italy and Spain have with their patron saint.
addressed to the monks of the church of St Ambrose outside Milan.
Their leader Ambrose went so far as to hold further that the revelation which was vouchsafed to him was a higher authority than the Scriptures.
Here St Ambrose baptized St Augustine; here he closed the doors against the emperor Theodosius after his cruel massacre at Thessalonica; here the Lombard kings and the early German emperors caused themselves to be crowned with the iron crown of Lombardy, and the pillar at which they took their coronation oaths is preserved under the lime-trees in the piazza.
The church was built by St Ambrose early in the 4th-century (on the site of a temple of Bacchus it is said), but as it stands it is a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, recently well restored (like many other churches in Milan), with a brick exterior, like so many churches of Milan and Lombardy, curious galleries over the facade, and perhaps the most perfectly preserved atrium in existence.
In a great silver reliquary (modern) in the crypt lie the bones of St Ambrose,.
The Lombards were Arians, and the archbishops of Milan from the days of Ambrose had been always orthodox.
Its inhabitants became for the first time Milanese, attached to the standard of St Ambrose - no longer subjects of a foreign conqueror, but a distinct people, with a municipal life and prospects of their own.
The last of the great Latin Fathers and the first representative of medieval Catholicism he brings the dogmatic theology of Tertullian, Ambrose and Augustine into relation with the Scholastic speculation of later ages.
Ambrose and S.
he lived in retirement, occupied with the care of his villa and with his studies, one of the fruits of which was an edition of the works of Ambrose; not neglecting, however, to follow the course of affairs, but carefully avoiding every occasion of offence.
In the narrower sense of "Mass" it is first found in St Ambrose 20, 4, ed.
On the front are figures of Christ and the twelve apostles; the ends and back have reliefs illustrating the life of St Ambrose.
This agrees with his legend as known to Ambrose and Paulinus of Nola, and is the most probable in itself.
Irenaeus regards as heretical the opinion that the souls of the departed pass immediately into glory; Tertullian, Cyprian, the Acts of St Perpetua, Clement of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Basil, Gregory of Nyassa, Ambrose, Chrysostom and Jerome, all speak of prayer for the dead and seem to imply belief in a purgatory, but their view seems to have been affected by the pre-Christian doctrine of Hades or Sheol.
Saint Ambrose AMBROSE (fl.
Ambrose followed Richard I.
Ambrose is surprisingly accurate in his chronology; though he did not complete his work before 1195, it is evidently founded upon notes which he had taken in the course of his pilgrimage.
The Itinerarium Regis Ricardi (formerly attributed to Geoffrey Vinsauf, but in reality the work of Richard, a canon of Holy Trinity, London) is little more than a free paraphrase of Ambrose.
The first book of the Itinerarium contains some additional facts; and the whole of the Latin version is adorned with flowers of rhetoric which are foreign to the style of Ambrose.
See the edition of L'Estoire de la guerre sainte by Gaston Paris in the Collection des documents inedits sur l'histoire de France (1897); the editor discusses in his introduction the biography of Ambrose, the value of the poem as a historical source, and its relation to the Itinerarium.
Saint Ambrose >>
Accordingly he was received into the church by one Berry, himself an apostate, and entered the Jesuit College of Valladolid as Brother Ambrose.
In the following centuries we have the valuable epistles of Cyprian, of Gregory Nazianzen (to Cledonius on the Apollinarian controversy), of Basil (to be classed rather as letters), of Ambrose, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome.
During the age of Anne various Augustan poets in whom the lyrical faculty was slight, from Congreve and Richard Duke down to Ambrose Philips and William Somerville, essayed the epistle with more or less success, and it was employed by Gay for several exercises in his elegant persiflage.
The hymns are short poems going back in part to the days of Prudentius, Synesius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose (4th and 5th centuries), but mainly the work of medieval authors.
Winter's brother Thomas, John Grant, Ambrose Rokewood, Robert Keyes, Sir Everard Digby, Francis Tresham, a cousin of Catesby and Thomas Bates Catesby's servant, all, with the exception of the last, being men of good family and all Roman Catholics.
Perhaps the most remarkable incident in the life of Theodosius from a personal point of view is the incident of his submission to the reprimands of Ambrose, who dared to rebuke him and refuse to admit him to the Eucharist till he had done public penance for punishing a riot in Thessalonica by a wholesale massacre of the populace.
Such impartial conduct drew forth a remonstrance from Ambrose, who, where the interests of his creed were concerned, could forget the common principles of justice.
Much information may also be gleaned from the writings of St Ambrose, St Gregory of Nazianzus, Isidore of Seville, and the orators Pacatus, Libanius, Themistius.
The first mention for the Western Church occurs in St Ambrose (c. 388, Ep. 40 § 16, Ad Theodos.
St Ambrose, Ep. 29 and St Augustine, De civitate Dei, xxii.
He was tried, together with the two Winters, John Grant, Ambrose Rokewood, Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, before a special commission in Westminster Hall on the 27th of January 1606.
He was nevertheless condemned (390) both by Pope Siricius at a synod in Rome, and by Ambrose at another in Milan.
They grow out of the influence of Ambrose of Milan, but far more of Augustine of Hippo; and behind the latter to no small degree there is the greater influence of St Paul.
Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Gregory the Great are known as the four Latin Fathers.
AMBROSE (ANDREY SERTIS-KAMENSKIY) (1708-1771), arch bishop of Moscow, was born at Nezhine in the government of Chernigov, and studied in the school of St Alexander Nevskiy, where he afterwards became a tutor.
At the age of thirty-one he entered a monastery, where he took the name of Ambrose.
Ambrose, perceiving that this crowding together merely enabled the contagion to spread, had the image secretly removed.
Ambrose's works include a liturgy and translations from the Fathers.
Autpert Ambrose >>
Before, however, we take a brief survey of the progress of systematic ethics from Ambrose to Thomas Aquinas, it may be well to examine the chief features of the new moral consciousness that had spread through Graeco-Roman civilization, and was awaiting philosophic synthesis.
The attempt to Christianize the old Platonic list of virtues, which we have noticed in Augustine's system, was probably due to the influence of his master Ambrose, in whose treatise De officiis ministrorum we find for the first time an exposition of Christian duty systematized on a plan borrowed from a pre-Christian moralist.
It is interesting to compare Ambrose's account of what subsequently came to be known as the " four cardinal virtues " with the corresponding delineations in Cicero's 3 De officiis which served the bishop as a model.
Finally in the exposition of Christian Justice the Stoic doctrine of the natural union of all human interests is elevated to the full height and intensity of evangelical philanthropy; the brethren are reminded that the earth was made by God a common possession of all, and are bidden to administer their means for the common benefit; Ambrose, we should observe, is thoroughly aware of the fundamental union of these different virtues in Christianity, though he does Cicero's works are unimportant in the history of ancient ethics, as their philosophical matter was entirely borrowed from Greek treatises now lost; but the influence exercised by them (especially by the De officiis) over medieval and even modern readers was very considerable.
Under the influence of Ambrose and Augustine, the four cardinal virtues furnished a basis on which the systematic ethical theories of subsequent theologians were built.
The first instance of the application of the Theodosian law against heretics had the approval of the synod which met at Treves in the same year, but Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours can claim the glory of having in some measure stayed the hand of persecution.
His plan failed; and the emperor Theodosius, aided by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, preferred to make the Christian clergy into a body of imperial and conservative officials; while in return for their adhesion he abolished the Arian heresy and paganism itself, which could not survive without his support.
But the humiliation of Theodosius before St Ambrose proved that the emperor could never claim to be a pontiff, and that the dogma of the Church remained independent of the The sovereign as well as of the people; if she sacrificed Chu~J,s her liberty it was but to claim it again and maintain independit more effectively amid the general languor.
SAINT AMBROSE (c. 340-397), bishop of Milan, one of the most eminent fathers of the church in the 4th century, was a citizen of Rome, born about 337-340 in Treves, where his father was prefect of Gallia Narbonensis.
Ambrose was early destined to follow his father's career, and was accordingly educated in Rome.
An address delivered to them at this crisis by Ambrose led to his being acclaimed as the only competent occupant of the see; though hitherto only a catechumen, he was baptized, and a few days saw him duly installed as bishop of Milan.
Having apportioned his money among the poor, and settled his lands upon the church, with the exception of making his sister Marcellina tenant during life, and having committed the care of his family to his brother, he entered upon a regular course of theological study, under the care of Simplician, a presbyter of Rome, and devoted himself to the labours of the church, labours which were temporarily interrupted by an invasion of Goths, which compelled Ambrose and other churchmen to retire to Illyricum.
The eloquence of Ambrose soon found ample scope in the dispute between the Arians and the orthodox or Catholic party, whose cause the new bishop espoused.
Gratian, the son of the elder Valentinian, took the same side; but the younger Valentinian, who had now become his colleague in the empire, adopted the opinions of the Arians, and all the arguments and eloquence of Ambrose could not reclaim the young prince to the orthodox faith.
This request appeared so equitable that he complied without hesitation; but Ambrose, foreseeing the consequence, prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops.
Ambrose was elected president; and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined, insisting that the meeting was a partial one, and that, all the bishops of the empire not being present, the sense of the Christian church concerning the question in dispute could not be obtained.
Ambrose was equally zealous in combating the attempt made by the upholders of the old state religion to resist the enactments of Christian emperors.
To this petition Ambrose replied in a letter to Valentinian, arguing that the devoted worshippers of idols had often been forsaken by their deities; that the native valour of the Roman soldiers had gained their victories, and not the pretended influence of pagan priests; that these idolatrous worshippers requested for themselves what they refused to Christians; that voluntary was more honourable than constrained virginity; that as the Christian ministers declined to receive temporal emoluments, they should also be denied to pagan priests; that it was absurd to suppose that God would inflict a famine upon the empire for neglecting to support a religious system contrary to His will as revealed in the Scriptures; that the whole process of nature encouraged innovations, and that all nations had permitted them, even in religion; that heathen sacrifices were offensive to Christians; and that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan ceremonies.
In the epistles of Symmachus and of Ambrose both the petition and the reply are preserved.
The increasing strength of the Arians proved a formidable task for Ambrose.
Ambrose refused, and was required to answer for his conduct before the council.
Many circumstances in the history of Ambrose are strongly characteristic of the general spirit of the times.
He was liberal to the poor; it was his custom to comment severely in his preaching on the public characters of his times; and he introduced popular reforms in the order and manner of public worship. It is alleged, too, that at a time when the influence of Ambrose required vigorous support, he was admonished in a dream to search for, and found under the pavement of the church, the remains of two martyrs, Gervasius and Protasius.
Although the court was displeased with the religious principles and conduct of Ambrose, it respected his great political talents; and when necessity required, his aid was solicited and generously granted.
When Maximus usurped the supreme power in Gaul, and was meditating a descent upon Italy, Valentinian sent Ambrose to dissuade him from the undertaking, and the embassy was successful.
On a second attempt of the same kind Ambrose was again employed; and although he was unsuccessful, it cannot be doubted that, if his advice had been followed, the schemes of the usurper would have proved abortive; but the enemy was permitted to enter Italy; and Milan was taken.
Justina and her son fled; but Ambrose remained at his post, and did good service to many of the sufferers by causing the plate of the church to be melted for their relief.
This Theodosius was sternly rebuked by Ambrose for the massacre of 7000 persons at Thessalonica in 390, and was bidden imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt.
In 392, after the assassination of Valentinian and the usurpation of Eugenius, Ambrose fled from Milan; but when Theodosius was eventually victorious, he supplicated the emperor for the pardon of those who had supported Eugenius.
Soon after acquiring the undisputed possession of the Roman empire, Theodosius died at Milan in 395, and two years later (4th April 397) Ambrose also passed away.
A man of pure character, vigorous mind, unwearying zeal and uncommon generosity, Ambrose ranks high among the fathers of the ancient church on many counts.
His great spiritual successor, Augustine, whose conversion was helped by Ambrose's sermons, owes more to him than to any writer except Paul.
Ambrose has also left several funeral orations and ninetyone letters, but it is as a hymn-writer that he perhaps deserves most honour.
Catching the impulse from Hilary and confirmed in it by the success of Arian psalmody, Ambrose composed several hymns, marked by dignified simplicity, which were not only effective in themselves but served as a fruitful model for later times.
Forster, Ambrose, B.
Ambrose (archbishop) >>
She also gave birth to Ayacanora by Birdcatcher, and to Araucaria by Ambrose, both very valuable brood mares, Araucaria being the dam of Chamant by Mortemer, and of Rayon d'Or by Flageolet, son of Plutus by Touchstone.
It`was held by Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, who uses the phrase pia fracas, Augustine, Leo I., and Gregory I., who expresses it in its worst form.
It is said that St Ambrose was the first to adapt the Platonic classification to Christian theology.
A commentary on St Paul's epistles, "brief in words but weighty in matter," and valuable for the criticism of the Latin text of the New Testament, was long attributed to St Ambrose.
There is scarcely anything to be said for the possibility of Ambrose having written the book before he became a bishop, and added to it in later years, incorporating remarks of Hilary of Poitiers on Romans.
The best presentation of the case for Ambrose is by P. A.
Last evening Ambrose told us how he had seen the leopard in a tree, eyeing up the zebra.
ligature of arteries long before Ambrose Pare.
Third, Mr Furlong takes issue with Ambrose Evans-Pritchard on the date of the first nationally called militia muster.
He had a namesake, an Archbishop of Ambrose's Milan, who died in 477.
He proclaimed himself the champion of the old Roman gods, and as a response to the appeal of Ambrose, is said to have threatened to stable his horses in the cathedral of Milan, and to force the monks to fight in his army.
In dealing with pagans and heretics Gratian, who during his later years was greatly influenced by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, exhibited severity and injustice at variance with his usual character.
AMBROSE (AMBROISE), AUTPERT (d.
For the 3rd, and especially the 4th and following centuries, the writers are much more numerous; for instance, in the East, Origen and his disciples, and later Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Apollinaris, Basil and the two Gregories, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Ephraim the Syrian, Cyril of Alexandria, Pseudo-Dionysius; in the West, Novatian, Cyprian, Commodian, Arnobius, Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, Jerome, Augustine, Prosper, Leo the Great, Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Faustus, Gennadius, Ennodius, Avitus, Caesarius, Fulgentius and many others.
Ambrose of Milan, by the discovery of the relics of Protasius and Gervasius (cf.
The only other types that merit notice are: (1) the Mozarabic Breviary, once in use throughout all Spain, but now confined to a single foundation at Toledo; it is remarkable for the number and length of its hymns, and for the fact that the majority of its collects are addressed to God the Son; (2) the Ambrosian, now confined to Milan, where it owes its retention to the attachment of the clergy and people to their traditionary rites, which they derive from St Ambrose (see Liturgy).
An extreme result of this influence is shown in Tertullian's view, that no Christian could properly hold the office of a secular magistrate in which he would have to doom to death, chains, imprisonment; but even more sober writers, such as Ambrose, extend Christian passivity so far as to preclude self-defence even against a murderous assault.
Christian Fortitude is essentially firmness in withstanding the seductions of good and evil fortune, resoluteness in the conflict perpetually waged against wickedness without carnal weapons - though Ambrose, with the Old Testament in his hand, will not quite relinquish the ordinary martial application of the term.
Ambrose's intense episcopal consciousness furthered the growing doctrine of the Church and its sacerdotal ministry, while the prevalent asceticism of the day, continuing the Stoic and Ciceronian training of his youth, enabled him to promulgate a lofty standard of Christian ethics.
Augustine describes a day when he saw his mentor, Ambrose, looking intently at an open book.
After staring for two or three minutes, Ambrose turned a page and continued staring.
When Augustine finally asked, "What are you doing?," Ambrose replied that he was reading.
Augustine said this could not be the case because he could neither hear Ambrose nor see his lips moving.
Ambrose replied that he was looking at the words and reading them that way.
Scary Stories for Kids by Stevenson, Ambrose, Robert Louis Bierce has several great stories in one book.
The chief of staff at St. Ambrose Hospital works with the clinic as well and is having a sexual relationship with Cooper.
Ambrose of Milan (Epistles ix.
St Ambrose, one of the greatest sons of Trier, was born here about 340.
Saints Ambrose and Augustine both spent days in deciding temporal causes.
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