Josephus used the name Idumaea as including not only Gobalitis, the original Mount Seir, but also Amalekitis, the land of Amalek, west of this, and Akrabatine, the ancient Acrabbim,, S.W.
The question is further complicated by the account of Joshua's overthrow of Amalek apparently in the Sinaitic peninsula.
The same sentiment recurs in Yahweh's command to Saul to destroy Amalek utterly for its hostility to Israel (1 Sam.
The district of Amalek lay to the south of Judah (cp. 1 Chron.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
Twice Amalek seems to be mentioned as occupying central Palestine (Judg.
On this account Saul spared them when bidden by Yahweh to destroy Amalek; David, too, whilst living in Judah, appears to have been on friendly terms with them (I Sam.
Xv.; Amalek was too small and obscure.
It is of uncertain date; if the historical Amalek is meant, it may be early; but Amalek may be symbolical.
The Battle with Amalek at Rephidim.-This incident is derived from E, but is clearly out of place in its present context.
Xviii.), the departure from the mountain and the battle with Amalek (xvii.
Allusion is made to his campaign against Amalek (mentioned in xiv.
8 seq.), and this new defeat of Amalek, ascribed to David, proves a more successful undertaking than that which led to the rejection of Saul (xv.
Bless his counsels, his undertakings, and his work; strengthen his kingdom by Thine almighty hand, and give him victory over his enemy, even as Thou gavest Moses the victory over Amalek, Gideon over Midian, and David over Goliath.
A similar spirit appears among the prophecies ascribed to Balaam: "Amalek, first (or chief) of nations, his latter end [will be] destruction" (Num.