Aluminium Sentence Examples
If phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates are precipitated.
Next to aluminium, tin was found to be the most effective of the metals enumerated above.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
Aluminium, iron, platinum and many other metals may thus take up so much carbon as to become brittle and unforgeable.
Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.Advertisement
Leather and rubber goods, gold, silver and aluminium wares, machinery, wall-paper, and stained glass are also among other of its staple products.
Later in that year they patented a process for the reduction of aluminium by carbon, and in 1886 an electric furnace with sliding carbon rods passed through the end walls to the centre of a rectangular furnace.
Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
The reduced aluminium alloys itself immediately with the fused globules of metal in its midst, and as the charge becomes reduced the globules of alloy unite until, in the end, they are run out of the tap-hole after the current has been diverted to another furnace.
It was found in practice (in 1889) that the expenditure of energy per pound of reduced aluminium was about 23 H.P.-hours, a number considerably in excess of that required at the present time for the production of pure aluminium by the electrolytic process described in the article Aluminium.Advertisement
Sainte Claire Deville working independently obtained aluminium by the electrolysis of the fused double sodium aluminium chloride.
The substance AuAl 2 is the most remarkable compound of two metals that has so far been discovered; although it contains so much aluminium its melting-point is as high as that of gold.
In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.
Titanium is alloyed in small quantities with aluminium for use in naval architecture.
One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.Advertisement
It functions chiefly as an acidic oxide, 'being less basic than aluminium oxide, and forming no stable oxy-salts.
Tantalum pentafluoride, TaF5, for a long time only known in solution, may be obtained by passing fluorine over an alloy of tantalum and aluminium, and purifying by distillation in a vacuum.
Sulphuretted hydrogen, which is invariably present in commercial acetylene, is formed by the decomposition of aluminium sulphide.
Mourlot has shown that aluminium sulphide, zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide are the only sulphur compounds which can resist the heat of the electric furnace without decomposition or volatilization, and of these aluminium sulphide is the only one which is decomposed by water with the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Dorp (Ber.,1874,7,P.578) obtained orthobenzoyl benzoic acid by heating phthalic anhydride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.Advertisement
Troost produced crystallized zirconium by fusing the double fluoride with aluminium in a graphite crucible at the temperature of melting iron, and extracting the aluminium from the melt with hydrochloric acid.
The best metals for coinage are gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin, nickel, aluminium, zinc, iron, and their alloys; certain alloys of gold, silver, copper and nickel have the best combination of the required qualities.
There are wood-pulp factories (one worked by an English company employing over 1000 hands), factories for calcium carbide (used for manufacturing acetylene gas), paper and aluminium; and spinning and weaving mills.
It consists of a disk of aluminium, the axis of which is geared to a counting mechanism and which runs between the poles of permanent magnets that create eddy currents in it and therefore exert a retarding force.
The metal as prepared by electrolysis generally contains traces of aluminium and silica.Advertisement
Cryolite, a fluoride of aluminium and sodium, is extensively mined in Greenland and elsewhere for industrial purposes.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
In practice the metal is placed on aluminium trays traversing an iron tube heated to 300 0, through which a current of air, freed from moisture and carbon dioxide, is passed; the process is made continuous, and the product contains about 93% Na202.
Dr. Goldschmidt's principal discovery related to a simple and safe method of ignition, as the action of aluminium when mixed with various oxides, sulphides, and chlorides was well known.
Fine aluminium will not burn below the temperature of molten cast iron, and previous experimenters had resorted to heating their mixtures in a crucible.
For small standard weights platinum (Î”=21.45) and aluminium (Î”=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (Î”=11.00).
It is a monobasic acid, forming one normal and two acid potassium salts, and basic salts with iron, aluminium, lead and copper.
In the space between them is suspended a "needle" which consists of a light aluminium axis, to which are affixed a number of paddle-shaped aluminium blades.
This needle is suspended by a fine platinum silver wire, and its normal position is such that the aluminium paddle blades are just outside the quadrantal-shaped plates.
If the needle is connected to one terminal of a circuit, and the fixed plates or cells to the other member of the circuit, and a difference of potential is created between them, then the movable needle is drawn in so that the aluminium blades are more included between the fixed plates.
The production of aluminium rose from 83 lb in 1883 to 7,500,000 lb in 1903, and a consumption (the Geological Survey not reporting the production) of 17,211,000 lb in 1907.
It is a silicate, containing aluminium, magnesium and iron' brought originally from Greenland, and since found in a rock from the Vizagapatam district in India.
Goldschmidt (Annalen, 1898, 301, p. 19) in which the oxide is reduced by metallic aluminium; and if care is taken to have excess of the sesquioxide of chromium present, the metal is obtained quite free from aluminium.
Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.
Hartley has employed it with great success, and in cyanite (a silicate of aluminium) has found a material which is infusible at the temperature of this flame, and is therefore suitable to hold the substance which it is desired to examine.
The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.
Such phenomena are well known in the alums - double sulphates of aluminium with another metal.
Although never met with in the free state, aluminium is very widely distributed in combination, principally as silicates.
Naming the new metal in anticipation of its actual birth, he called it alumium; but for the sake of analogy he was soon persuaded to change the word to aluminum, in which form, alternately with aluminium, it occurs in chemical literature for some thirty years.
Cryolite (A1F 3.5NaF) is a double fluoride of aluminium and sodium, which is scarcely known except on the west coast of Greenland.
Aluminium silicate is the chemical body of which all clays are nominally composed.
Bauxite is a hydrated oxide of aluminium of the ideal composition, Al 2 0 3.2H 2 0.
Deville first selected the chloride as his raw material, but observing it to be volatile and extremely deliquescent, he soon substituted in its place a double chloride of aluminium and sodium.
So long as the metal was principally regarded as a necessary ingredient of aluminium-bronze, the Cowles process was popular, but when the advantages of aluminium itself became more apparent, there arose a fresh demand for some chief method of obtaining it unalloyed.
Many metals, of which copper, silver and nickel are types, can be readily won or purified by the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, and theoretically it may be feasible to treat aluminium in an identical manner.
Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.
Molten cryolite dissolves roughly 30% of its weight of pure alumina, so that when ready for treatment the solution contains about the same proportion of what may be termed "available" aluminium as does the fused double chloride of aluminium and sodium.
For the production of the final aluminium, ioo parts of the chloride and 45 parts of cryolite to serve as a flux were powdered together and mixed with 35 parts of sodium cut into small pieces.
Webster patented an improved process for making alumina, and the following year he organized the Aluminium Crown Metal Co.
Castner's sodium patents appeared, and The Aluminium Co.
Castner had long been interested in aluminium, and was desirous of lowering its price.
Grabau patented a method of reducing the simple fluoride of aluminium with sodium, and his process was operated at Trotha in Germany.
In 1888 the Alliance Aluminium Co., organized to work certain patents for winning the metal from cryolite by means of sodium, erected plant in London, Hebburn and Wallsend, and by 1889 were selling the metal at 11s.
The Aluminium Company's price in 1888 was 20S.
About ioo lb of bronze, containing from 15 to 20 lb of aluminium, were obtained from each run, the yield of the alloy being reported at about 1 lb per 18 e.h.p.-hours.
Although the copper took no part in the reaction, its employment was found indispensable, as otherwise the aluminium partly volatilized, and partly combined with the carbon to form a carbide.
Kleiner propounded a cryolite method which was worked for a time by the Aluminium Syndicate at Tyldesley near Manchester, but was abandoned in 1890.
Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.
After prolonged experiments in a factory owned by Messrs Bernard Freres at St Michel in Savoy, Minet's process was given up, and at the close of the 19th century the Heroult-Hall method was alone being employed in the manufacture of aluminium throughout the world.
The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.
About 1897 the Bernard factory at St Michel passed into the hands of Messrs Pechiney, the machinery soon being increased, and there, under the control of a firm that has been concerned in the industry almost from its inception, aluminium is being manufactured by the Hall process on a large scale.
In July 1888 the Societe Metallurgique Suisse erected plant driven by a 500 h.p. turbine to carry out Heroult's alloy process, and at the end of that year the Allgemeine Elektricitais Gesellschaft united with the Swiss firm in organizing the Aluminium Industrie Actien Gesellschaft of Neuhasen, which has factories in Switzerland, Germany and Austria.
The Societe Electrometallurgique Francaise, started under the direction of Heroult in 1888 for the production of aluminium in France, began operations on a small scale at Froges in Isere; but soon after large works were erected in Savoy at La Praz, near Modane, and in 1905 another large factory was started in Savoy at St Michel.
In 1895 the British Aluminium Company was founded to mine bauxite and manufacture alumina in Ireland, to prepare the necessary electrodes at Greenock, to reduce the aluminium by the aid of water-power at the Falls of Foyers, and to refine and work up the metal into marketable shapes at the old Milton factory of the Cowles Syndicate, remodelled to suit modern requirements.
In 1907 a new company, The Aluminium Corporation, was started in England to carry out the production of the metal by the Heroult process, and new factories were constructed near Conway in North Wales and at Wallsend-on-Tyne, quite close to where, twenty years before, the Alliance Aluminium Co.
As a part of the voltage is consumed in the latter duty, only the residue can be converted into chemical work, and as the theoretical voltage of the aluminium fluoride in the cryolite is 4.0, provided the bath is kept properly supplied with alumina, the fluorides are not attacked.
The operation is essentially a dissociation of alumina into aluminium, which collects at the cathode, and into oxygen, which combines with the anodes to form carbon monoxide, the latter escaping and being burnt to carbon dioxide outside.
Theoretically 36 parts by weight of carbon are oxidized in the production of 54 parts of aluminium; practically the anodes waste at the same rate at which metal is deposited.
The bath is heated internally with the current rather than by means of external fuel, because this arrangement permits the vessel itself to be kept comparatively cool; if it were fired from without, it would be hotter than the electrolyte, and no material suitable for the construction of the cell is competent to withstand the attack of nascent aluminium at high temperatures.
Aluminium is so light that it is a matter requiring some ingenuity to select a convenient solvent through which it shall sink quickly, for if it does not sink, it short-circuits the electrolyte.
Aluminium is a white metal with a characteristic tint which most nearly resembles that of tin; when impure, or after pro longed exposure to air, it has a slight violet shade.
Commercial electrolytic aluminium of the best quality contains as the average of a large number of tests, 0.48% of silicon and 0.46% of iron, the residue being essentially aluminium itself.
Organic acids such as vinegar, common salt, the natural ingredients of food, and the various extraneous substances used as food preservatives, alone or mixed together, dissolve traces of it if boiled for any length of time in a chemicallyclean vessel; but when aluminium utensils are submitted to the ordinary routine of the kitchen, being used to heat or cook milk, coffee, vegetables, meat and even fruit, and are also cleaned frequently in the usual fashion, no appreciable quantity of metal passes into the food.
The highly electro-positive character of aluminium is most important.
This explains the failure of boats built of commercially pure aluminium which have been put together with iron or copper rivets, and the decay of other boats built of a light alloy, in which the alloying metal (copper) has been injudiciously chosen.
It also explains why aluminium is so difficult to join with lowtemperature solders, for these mostly contain a large proportion of lead.
It is necessary that it should be as pure as possible since the commercial product usually contains traces of ferric, manganic and aluminium oxides, together with some silica.
The different varieties of rays used are controlled by the intervention of screens or filtering substances, such as silver, lead or aluminium.
It is also soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, with evolution of hydrogen a behaviour similar to that shown by aluminium.
On concentration of the solution, the major portion of the aluminium present separates as alum, and the mother liquor remaining contains beryllium and iron sulphates together with a little alum.
This is now treated for some days with a hot concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate, which precipitates the iron and aluminium but keeps the beryllium in solution.
The iron and aluminium precipitates are filtered off, and the filtrate boiled, when a basic beryllium hydroxide containing a little ferric oxide is precipitated.
The hydroxide Be(OH)2 separates as a white bulky precipitate on adding a solution of an alkaline hydroxide to a soluble beryllium salt; and like those of aluminium and zinc, this hydroxide is soluble in excess of the alkaline hydroxide, but is reprecipitated on prolonged boiling.
Beryllium chloride BeC1 2, like aluminium chloride, may be prepared by heating a mixture of the oxide and sugar charcoal in a current of dry chlorine.
Like aluminium carbide it is slowly decomposed by water with the production of methane.
There is a subsidiary coinage (introduced in 1908) consisting of a nickel penny and a nickel tenth of a penny (the last-named was first coined in aluminium, but this metal proved unsuitable and was withdrawn).
Let this potential be denoted by V, and let v be the potential of the guard plate and the aluminium flap. This last potential is maintained constant by guard plate and flap being part of the interior coating of a charged Leyden jar.
There is a certain fixed guard disk B having a hole in it which is loosely occupied by an aluminium trap door plate, shielded by D and suspended on springs, so that its surface is parallel with that of the guard plate.
Finally, these observers traced the variation to the fact that the wire supporting the aluminium needle as well as the wire which connects the needle with the sulphuric acid in the Leyden jar in the White pattern of Leyden jar is enclosed in a metallic guard tube to screen the wire from external action.
It is also used in iron and brass foundries, and has been found useful as a flux for certain gold-ores and in the reduction of aluminium.
It may be prepared by distilling calcium benzoate; by condensing benzene with benzoyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride; by the action of mercury diphenyl on benzoyl chloride, or by oxidizing diphenylmethane with chromic acid.
After cooling a little, water is added, and then a few grammes of aluminium foil free from copper.
On this foil the copper in the solution is all precipitated by electrolytic action in a few minutes, and the aluminium is dissolved by the addition of an excess of sulphuric acid.
The ore is treated as described in the cyanide method until the copper precipitated by the aluminium foil has been washed and dissolved in 5 cc. of nitric acid; then 0.25 gramme of potassium chlorate is added, and the solution boiled nearly dry to oxidize any arsenic present to arsenic acid.
Considerable quantities of aluminium are obtained from the kaolin deposits in the vicinity.
Other important industries include the making of boilers, steam-engines, locomotives, anchors, chain-cables, sailcloth, ropes, paper, woollen and worsted goods, besides general engineering, an aluminium factory, a flax-spinning mill, distilleries and an oil-refinery.
This model, which was shown at the exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain at the Crystal Palace in 1868, consisted of two superposed screws propelled by an engine, the steam for which was generated (for lightness) in an aluminium boiler.
The bodies, frames and aeroplanes of the aerodromes were strengthened by vertical and other supports, to which were attached aluminium wires to ensure absolute rigidity so far as that was possible.
These were made largely of steel and aluminium, and one of them in 1896 made the longest flight then recorded for a flying machine, namely, fully half a mile on the Potomac river.
The backbone was a light but very rigid tube of aluminium steel, 15 ft.
The wings, or aeroplanes, four in number, consisted of light frames of tubular aluminium steel covered with china silk.
It may be obtained synthetically by Fittig and Tollens's method (above); by Friedel and Craft's process, devised in 1877, of acting with aluminium chloride on a mixture of benzene and methyl chloride; this reaction leads to the production of higher homologues which may, however, break down under the continued action of the aluminium chloride; or by heating the toluene carboxylic acids obtained by oxidizing the higher homologues of benzene.
The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.
Alum clay or bauxite, from which aluminium is manufactured, is found in the same county.
Alloys of copper with aluminium, though often nearly or completely destitute of tin, are known as aluminium bronze, and are valuable for their strength and the resistance they offer to corrosion.
In Fleitmann's test, the solution containing the arsenious compound is mixed with pure potassium hydroxide solution and a piece of pure zinc or aluminium foil dropped in and the whole then heated.
He also proved that the process of liquid diffusion causes partial decomposition of certain chemical compounds, the potassium sulphate, for instance, being separated from the aluminium sulphate in alum by the higher diffusibility of the former salt.
The thiophen ketones may be prepared by the interaction of thiophen and its homologues with acid chlorides in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.
Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts.
Soluble salts of manganese, aluminium, zinc, copper, gold, platinum and bismuth have, when given by the mouth, little action beyond their local astringent or irritating effects; but when injected into a blood vessel they all exert much the same depressing effect upon the heart and nervous system.
It is certain, however, that the finer-grained rocks are richest in alumina, and in combined water; hence the inference is clear that kaolin or some other hydrous aluminium silicate is the dominating constituent.
Others are rich in pyrites, which, on oxidation, produces sulphuric acid; this attacks the aluminous silicates of the clay and forms aluminium sulphate (alum shales).
Kiihne (D.R.P. 147,871) described a process in which external heating is not necessary, a mixture of aluminium turnings, sulphur and boric acid being ignited by a hot iron rod, the resulting aluminium sulphide, formed as a by-product, being decomposed by water.
Before reaching the paper the light passes through perforations in two iron plates which are, in fact, the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet; between these is an aluminium shutter which is attached to two parallel wires or thin strips.
A wire or fibre carrying the aluminium siphon cradle is stretched across this bridge piece, and on it is also mounted the small electromagnet, forming part of the " vibrator " arrangement with its hinged armature, to which one end of the stretched wire carrying the siphon is fastened.
Moissan and P. Williams (Comptes rendus, 1897, 12 3, p. 6 33) by reducing the borate with aluminium in the electric furnace.
Cowper Coles has suggested aluminium cathodes; Andreoli has recommended cathodes of iron and anodes of lead coated with lead peroxide, the gold being removed from the iron cathodes by a brief immersion in molten lead; in the Pelatan-Cerici process the gold is amalgamated at a mercury cathode (see also below).
For small standard weights platinum (ÃŽâ€=21.45) and aluminium (ÃŽâ€=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (ÃŽâ€=11.00).
Among the heavy alloys, the aluminium bronzes (Cu, 9 o -97.5%; Al, 10-2.5%) occupy the most important position, showing mean tensile strengths increasing from 20 to 41 tons per sq.
Aluminium oxide or alumina, Al 2 0 3, occurs in nature as the mineral corundum, notable for its hardness and abrasive power (see Emery), and in well-crystallized forms it constitutes, when coloured by various metallic oxides, the gem-stones, sapphire, oriental topaz, oriental amethyst and oriental emerald.
Mendeleeff (c. 1869) from a consideration of the properties of aluminium, indium and zinc (see Element).
Throw on a Mugen-lookalike body kit, Volks rims, a carbon fibre hood, and a giant aluminium wing--the choice is yours.
The aluminium phones will get laser etched (i.e., "tattooed"), boasting original designs like dragons and the like.
The metal produces an enormous number of useful alloys, some of which, containing only i or 2% of other metals, combine the lightness of aluminium itself with far greater hardness and strength.
This subject is far from being exhausted, and it is not improbable that the alloy-producing capacity of aluminium may eventually prove its most valuable characteristic. In the meantime, ternary light alloys appear the most satisfactory, and tungsten and copper, or tungsten and nickel, seem to be the best substances to add.
The uses of aluminium are too numerous to mention.
With the increasing price of copper, it is coming into vogue as an electrical conductor for uncovered mains; it is found that an aluminium wire 0.126 in.
Assuming the materials to be of equal tensile strength per unit of area - hard-drawn copper is stronger, but has a lower conductivity - the adoption of aluminium thus leads to a reduction of 52% in the weight, a gain of 60% in the strength, and an increase of 26% in the diameter of the conductor.
Bare aluminium strip has recently been tried for winding-coils in electrical machines, the oxide of the metal acting as insulators between the layers.
When the price of aluminium is less than double the price of copper aluminium is cheaper than copper per unit of electric current conveyed; but when insulation is necessary, the smaller size of the copper wire renders it more economical.
Aluminium conductors have been employed on heavy work in many places, and for telegraphy and telephony they are in frequent demand and give perfect satisfaction.
Copper being 31 times as heavy as aluminium, whenever the latter costs less than 3 3 times as much as copper it is actually cheaper.
It must be remembered, too, that electrolytic aluminium only became known during the last decade of the 19th century.
Alumina is obtained as a white amorphous powder by heating aluminium hydroxide.
Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.
Precipitated aluminium hydrate finds considerable application in dyeing.
In addition to behaving as a basic oxide, aluminium oxide (or hydrate) behaves as an acid oxide towards the strong bases with the formation of aluminates.
Aluminium forms one series of salts, derived from the trioxide, Al 2 0 3.
Aluminium fluoride, AlF 3, obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and subliming the residue in a current of hydrogen, forms transparent, very obtuse rhombohedra, which are insoluble in water.
Aluminium chloride, AlC1 3, was first prepared by Oersted, who heated a mixture of carbon and alumina in a current of chlorine, a method subsequently improved by Wohler, Bunsen, Deville and others.
A purer product is obtained by heating aluminium turnings in a current of dry chlorine, when the chloride distils over.
As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
Aluminium bromide, AlBr 3, is prepared in the same manner as the chloride.
Aluminium sulphide, Al2S3, results from the direct union of the metal with sulphur, or when carbon disulphide vapour is passed over strongly heated alumina.
Aluminium sulphate Al(S04)3, occurs in the mineral kingdom as keramohalite, Al 2 (SO 4) 3.1811 2 0, found near volcanoes and in alum-shale; aluminite or websterite is a basic salt, Al 2 (SO 4) (OH)4.71120.
Aluminium sulphate, known commercially as "concentrated alum" or "sulphate of alumina," is manufactured from kaolin or china clay, which, after roasting (in order to oxidize any iron present), is heated with sulphuric acid, the clear solution run off, and evaporated.
Aluminium sulphate crystallizes as Al 2 (SO 4) 3.181120 in tablets belonging to the monoclinic system.
Aluminium nitride (A1N) is obtained as small yellow crystals when aluminium is strongly heated in nitrogen.
Aluminium phosphates may be prepared by precipitating a soluble aluminium salt with sodium phosphate.
Aluminium silicates are widely diffused in the mineral kingdom, being present in the commonest rock-forming minerals (felspars, &c.), and in the gem-stones, topaz, beryl, garnet, &c. It also constitutes with sodium silicate the mineral lapis-lazuli and the pigment ultramarine.
Forming the basis of all clays, aluminium silicates play a prominent part in the manufacture of pottery and porcelain.
Aluminium alloys have been studied in detail by Guillet.
In 1827 he obtained metallic aluminium as a fine powder, and in 1845 improved methods enabled him to get it in fully metallic globules.
By the same method as had succeeded with aluminium (reduction of the chloride by potassium) Wohler in 1828 obtained metallic beryllium and yttrium.
On the other hand, the cost of iron ore is likely to rise much faster than that of the potential aluminium ores, clay and its derivatives, because of the vast extent and richness of the deposits of this latter class.
It is possible that, at some remote day, aluminium, or one of its alloys, may become the great structural material, and iron be used chiefly for those objects for which it is especially fitted, such as magnets, springs and cutting tools.
Blowholes may be lessened or even wholly prevented by adding to the molten metal shortly before it solidifies either silicon or aluminium, or both; even as little as 0.002% of aluminium is usually sufficient.
The use of aluminium in the construction of all parts not liable to much wear is to be commended, owing to the smaller weight.
When prepared by the action of metals on bases, zinc or aluminium and caustic soda or caustic potash are used.
In the thallous series many analogies with lead compounds are observed; in the thallic some resemblance to aluminium and gold.
It unites with sulphuric acid giving an acid salt, T1HSO 4.3H 2 O, and with aluminium, chromium and iron sulphates to form an "alum."
The sulphate decomposes into sulphuric acid and the trioxide on warming with water, and differs from aluminium sulphate in not forming alums.
Wahl [German patent 70773 (1893)] prepare a 97% manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with 30% sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into manganous oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at a dull red heat, cooled in a reducing atmosphere, and finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminium in a magnesia crucible with lime and fluorspar as a flux.
The ferric and aluminium sulphates present are thus converted into insoluble basic salts, and the residue yields manganous sulphate when extracted with water.
So also with the numerous bronzes, the phosphor, the delta, the aluminium and other alloys of copper; each is made in several grades to render it suitable for different kinds of treatment.
Lagodzinski (Berichte, 1895, 28, p. 1427) has synthesized alizarin by condensing hemipinic acid [(CH30)2C6H2(COOH)2] with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.
Considerable interest is attached to the remarkable series of hydrocarbons obtained by Gomberg (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3150, et seq.) by acting on triphenylmethane chloride (from triphenylmethane carbinol and phosphorus pentachloride, or from carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride) and its homologues with zinc, silver or mercury.
The metal may be used uncombined, but large quantities of ferrotungsten are made in the electric furnace; other alloys are prepared by acting on a mixture of the oxides with aluminium.
Leaves of aluminium foil may with advantage be substituted for gold-leaf, and a scale is sometimes added to indicate the angular divergence of the leaves.
Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for the separation of iron from aluminium.
The production of aluminium in Switzerland and Scotland, carborundum and calcium carbide in the United States, and soda by the Castner-Kellner process, began to be conducted on an immense scale.
It may also be accomplished by calcination with ferrous sulphate, or other easily decomposable sulphates, such as aluminium sulphate.
Several basic salts are known, some of which occur as minerals; of these, we may mention brochantite, CuS04, 3Cu (OH 2), langite, CuSO 4, 3Cu(OH) 2, H 2 O, lyellite (or devilline), warringtonite; woodwardite and enysite are hydrated copperaluminium sulphates, connellite is a basic copper chlorosulphate, and spangolite is a basic copper aluminium chlorosulphate.
Of these we may notice libethenite, Cu 2 (OH)PO 4; chalcosiderite, a basic copper iron phosphate; torbernite, a copper uranyl phosphate; andrewsite, a hydrated copper iron phosphate; and henwoodite, a hydrated copper aluminium phosphate.
Olivenite corresponds to libethenite; clinoclase, euchroite, cornwallite and tyrolite are basic arsenates; zeunerite corresponds to torbernite; chalcophyllite (tamarite or " copper-mica ") is a basic copper aluminium sulphato-arsenate, and bayldonite is a similar compound containing lead instead of aluminium.
The square piece of aluminium is pivoted round a horizontal stretched wire.
Matters are so arranged by giving a torsion to the wire carrying the aluminium disk F that for a certain potential difference between the plates H and G, the movable part F comes into a definite sighted position, which is observed by means of a small lens.
Beryllium to a certain extent stands alone in many of its chemical' properties, resembling to some extent the metal aluminium.
If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium.
If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.
The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.
It has been suggested that ultramarine is a compound of a sodium aluminium silicate and sodium sulphide.
The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
Owing to the great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates, have largely taken the place of stone.
The processes of zincography and of algraphy (aluminium printing) are essentially the same as lithography.
The manuscript maps intended to be produced by photographic processes upon stone, zinc or aluminium, are drawn on a scale somewhat larger than the scale on which they are to be printed, thus eliminating all those imperfections which are inherent in a pen-drawing.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
Klaproth in the mineral honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid, The acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and adding ammonia to the solution.
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.
To take a reading the torsion-head is turned until an aluminium pointer attached to the coil is brought to the zero position on a small scale; the strength of the field is then proportional to the angular torsion.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
So far, the best results have been attained with aluminium, and the permeability was greatest when the percentages of manganese and aluminium were approximately proportional to the atomic weights of the two metals.
Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.
Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
It was most commonly an iron sulphate, sometimes probably an aluminium sulphate, and usually a mixture of the two.
The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.
In the roasting process, sulphuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulphate, a similar condition of affairs being produced during weathering.
The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulphate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared.
Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
The newer glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or without the addition of the bases already named in reference to the older glasses, and - among acid bodies - boric anhydride (B20 3) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying extent.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.
It is easily broken down by many substances (aluminium chloride, zinc chloride, &c.) into ethyl chloride and carbon dioxide.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, aluminium, cadmium, iron (pure), nickel and cobalt are practically amorphous, the crystals (where they exist) being so closely packed as to produce a virtually homogeneous mass.
Thus, for instance, to% aluminium bronze is scratched by an ordinary steel knife-blade, yet the sets of needles used for perforating postage stamps last longer if made of aluminium bronze than if made of steel.
Aluminium is barely affected even at a white heat, if it is pure; the ordinary impure metal is liable to be very readily oxidized.
The most important of these are aluminium and zinc, which are converted into aluminate, Al(OK,Na) 3, and zincate, Zn(OK,Na) 2, respectively.
Aluminium, when pure and kept out of contact with siliceous matter, is only oxidized at a white heat, and then very slowly, into alumina, Al 2 O 3.
Sulphur.-Amongst the better known metals, gold and aluminium are the only ones which, when heated with sulphur or in sulphur vapour remain unchanged.
Aluminium, when alloyed with a few per cent of magnesium, gains greatly in rigidity while remaining very light; this alloy, under the name of magnalium, is coming into use for small articles in which lightness and rigidity have to be combined.
Several hydrated forms of aluminium oxide are known.
Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.
Potassium aluminate, K 2 Al 2 0 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo.
Fixity of all the parts was secured by a tubular mast extending upwards and downwards through about the middle of the craft, and from its extremities ran stays of aluminium wire to the tips of the aeroplanes and the end of the tubular backbone.
The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.
Boron dissolves in molten aluminium, and on cooling, transparent, almost colourless crystals are obtained, possessing a lustre, hardness and refractivity near that of the diamond.
Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
Treatment with casutic soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, which is reprecipitated by the addition of ammonium chloride.
Roscoelite is a mica in which the aluminium is largely replaced by vanadium (V203, 30%); it occurs as brownish-green scaly aggregates, intimately associated with gold in California, Colorado and Western Australia.
When the proportion of aluminium to manganese was made a little greater or smaller, the permeability was diminished.