Altai Sentence Examples
Only a part of this great continental divide (including such ranges as the Hindu Kush, Tian-shan, Altai or Khangai) rises to any great height, a considerable portion of it being below 5000 ft.
Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.
A line of elevation is continued west of the Altai to the Ural Mountains, not rising to considerable altitudes; this divides the drainage of south-west Siberia from the great plains lying north-east of the Aral Sea.
In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
Of the two divisions (Kara Kirghiz and Kassak Kirghiz) into which the Kirghiz tribes are divided by Russian authorities, the Kassak Kirghiz is the more closely allied to the Mongol type; the Kara Kirghiz, who are found principally in the valleys of the Tian-shan and Altai mountains, being unmistakably Turkish.Advertisement
On arrival at the supreme Mongol court - either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikal - Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents.
Siberia, on the Altai, and on the Yenisei in the Minusinsk region, are relics of Ugro-Samoyedes.
The Alai range of the Pamir, continued by the Kokshaltau range and the Khan-tengri group of the Tian-shan, and the Sailughem range of the Altai, which is continued in the unnamed border-range of West Sayan (between the Bei-kem and the Us), belong to this category.
The resemblance is further sustained by a broad belt of elevated plains, 'ranging from 1200 to 1700 ft., which s The upper Bukhtarma valley in the Sailughem range of the Altai system appears to belong to the same type.
Silver and lead ores exist in the Altai and the Nerchinsk Mountains, as well as, copper, cinnabar and tin.Advertisement
Iron-ores are known;at several places on the outskirts of the alpine tracts (as about Irkutsk), as well as in the Selenginsk region and in the Altai.
Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water;basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin.
Lastly, from the Altai region, as well as from the Nerchinsk Mountains, precious stones, such as jasper, malachite, beryl, dark quartz, and the like, are exported.
The Ekaterinburg stone-polishing works in the Urals and those of Kolyvan in the Altai are well known.
Several alpine lakes, of which the picturesque Teletskoye may be specially mentioned, occupy the deeper parts of the valleys of the Altai.Advertisement
Although very heavy falls of snow take place in the alpine tracts - especially about Lake Baikal - on the other side, in the steppe regions of the Altai and Transbaikalia and in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk, the amount of snow is so small that travellers use wheeled vehicles, and cattle are able to find food in the steppe.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
But even in these districts the botanist and the geographer can easily distinguish between the chern or thick forest of the Altai and the taiga of East Siberia.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Their territories are being rapidly occupied by Russians, and their settlements are cut in two by the Russian stream - the Baraba Tatars and the Yakuts being to the north of it, and the others having been driven back to the hilly tracts of the Altai and Sayan Mountains.Advertisement
The Mongols (less than 300,000) extend into West Siberia from the high plateau - nearly 20,000 Kalmucks living in the eastern Altai.
The climate of Siberia, however, cannot be called unhealthy, except in certain localities where goitre is common, as it is on the Lena, in several valleys of Nerchinsk and in the Altai Mountains.
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
The chief grain-producing regions of Siberia are - the Tobol and Ishim region, the Baraba, the region about Tomsk and the outskirts of the Altai.
Out of the total area of over 3,000,000,000 acres of land in Siberia, close upon 96% belong to the state, while the cabinet of the reigning emperor owns 114,700,000 acres (112,300,000 in the Altai and 2,400,000 in Nerchinsk) or nearly 4%.Advertisement
Bee-keeping is widelycarried on, especially in Tomsk and the Altai.
From Tyumen the road proceeds to Omsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, sending off from Kolyvan a branch south to Barnaul in the Altai and to Turkestan.
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
From that point the boundary coincides with the main waterparting of the Altai Mountains till it reaches Mount Kalas.
Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.
It appears, however, from Russian explorations during the last third of the 19th North- century, that it has all the characteristics of an elevated western plateau, of a rhomboid shape (like Bohemia), bounded by four mountain ranges; namely, the Russian Altai on the N.W., the Sayans on the N.E., the Kentei range on the S.E., and the Ektagh Altai on the S.W.
The border-ridge character of the Sayans (Ergik-targak-taiga) is well established, and the same orographic character is confirmed by recent explorers with regard to the Sailughem range of the Altai.
The only point still remaining undecided is whether the valleys of the Bom-kemchik (a tributary of the Yenisei) and its left-hand tributaries do not belong geographically to the Altai region.
Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.
Thus the Ektagh Altai is a true border-rangethat is, a lofty and steep escarpment facing the Dzungarian depression, with a gentle and relatively short slope towards the plateau.
This massive swelling is cut into, between the Ektagh Altai and the eastern T`ien-shan, by the relative depression of Tarbagatai and Dzungaria, 1500 to 3000 ft.
The Kobdo river, which rises in the Dain-gol (7060 ft.) in the Ektagh Altai, winds in great curves across the plateau, and enters Lake Kara-usu (3840 ft.), which also receives the Buyantu, an outflow from Lake Kobdo, and is connected by a small river with another large lake, Durga-nor, situated a score of miles to the east.
There are also many smaller lakes fed by the glaciers of the Sailughem (Achit-nor, 4650 ft., and Uryu-nor), and others scattered through the Ektagh Altai.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
The Siberian roe (C. pygargus), which is common in the Altai, is larger and paler than the type species, with shorter and more hairy ears, a larger white rump-patch, and small irregular snags on the inner border of the antlers.
Mention may also be made here of clausthalite (lead selenide, PbSe) and altaite (lead telluride, PbTe), which, with their lead-grey colour and perfect cubic cleavage, closely resemble galena in appearance; these species are named after the localities at which they were originally found, namely, Klausthal in the Harz and the Altai mountains in Asiatic Russia.
In Altai (Central Siberia) the Archimandrite Macarius, and among the Tatars in south-east Russia with headquarters at Kazan the great linguist Ilminski, did similar work.
For it is a remarkable fact that, of the 230 northern species which are most typical of the far north, 182 are found also in the Altai (taking this as a collective name for the mountains that form the southern boundary of Siberia).
In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic. The possibility of any extensive east to west migration having taken place direct from the Altai to the Alps seems excluded by the fact that 50 o ho of the arctico-altaic alpine plants are absent from the Caucasus.
A score of species, it is true - not such a number, be it observed, as was formerly supposed - are common to the Alps and Altai, but absent from the Arctic. But the species composing this Altaic element are not so numerous as the arctico-alpine species that are absent from the Altai.
Their gold was probably real, as gold still comes from the Altai.
The name Ala-tau also enters into the designation of (6), a range between the upper Yenisei and the upper Ob, in the government of Tomsk, namely, the Kuznetsk Ala-tau, forming an outlier of the Altai Mountains, and reaching 6000-7000 ft.
The Altai region, in West Siberia and Mongolia, is similar in character to Switzerland, but covers a very much greater area.
The Ek-tagh or Mongolian Altai, which separates the Kobdo basin on the north from the Irtysh basin on the south, is a true border-range, in that it rises in a steep and lofty escarpment from the Dzungarian depression (1550 to 3000 ft.), but descends on the north by a relatively short slope to the plateau (4000-5500 ft.) of north-western Mongolia.
Whereas the western Ek-tagh Altai rises above the snowline and is destitute of timber, the eastern double ranges barely touch the snow-line and are clothed with thick forests up to an altitude of 6250 ft.
On this side lies the culminating summit of the range, the doubleheaded Byelukha (the Mont Blanc of the Altai), whose summits reach 14,890 and 14,560 ft.
The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan lake (altitude, 1180 ft.), which is surrounded by fantastic granite domes and towers.
From this lake issues the Biya, which joins the Katun at Biysk, and then meanders through the beautiful prairies of the north-west of the Altai.
Farther north the Altai highlands are continued in the Kuznetsk district, which has a slightly different geological aspect, but still belongs to the Altai system.
The Russian Altai is composed mainly of mica and chlorite schists and slates, together with beds of limestone, and in the higher horizons Devonian and Carboniferous fossils occur in many places.
The Mongolian or Great Altai, on the other hand, consists mainly of gneiss and Archaean rocks.
The Altai proper is rich in silver, copper, lead and zinc ores, while in the Kuznetsk Ala-tau, gold, iron and coal are the chief mineral resources.
The Kuznetsk Ala-tau mines are only now beginning to be explored, while the copper, and perhaps also the silver, ores of the Altai proper were worked by the mysterious prehistoric race of the Chudes at a time when the use of iron was not yet known.
Most of the Altai region, covering an area of some 170,000 sq.
The ores of the Altai proper nearly always appear in irregular veins, containing silver, lead, copper and gold - sometimes all together, - and they are, or were, worked chiefly by Zmeinogorsk (or Zmeiev), Zyryanovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Riddersk (abandoned in 1861).
But the chief wealth of the northern Altai is in the Kuznetsk coal-basin, also containing iron-ores, which fills up a valley between the Kuznetsk Ala-tau and the Salair range for a length of about 270 m., with a width of about 65 m.
The capital of the Altai region is Barnaul, the centre of the mining administration and an animated commercial town; Biysk is the commercial centre; Kuznetsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, and the mining towns of Kolyvan, Zmeinogorsk, Riddersk and Salairsk are the next largest places.
Atkinson, Oriental and Western Siberia (1858); and Cotta, Der Altai (1871), are still worth consulting.
Of modern works see Adrianov, "Journey to the Altai," in Zapiski Russ.
They occupy three - distinct regions - a strip running west to east from Tobolsk to Tomsk, the Altai and its spurs, and South Yeniseisk.
They originated in the agglomerations of Turkish stems which in the region north of the Altai reached some degree of culture between the 4th and the 8th centuries, but were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols.
The Tarbagatai Mountains, still farther north, are often classified as belonging to the Altai system.
Towards the end of the Glacial period the Tian-shan Mountains had a flora very like that of northern Caucasia, combining the characteristics of the flora of the European Alps and the flora of the Altai, while the prairies had a flora very much like that of the south Russian steppes.
In one of the saga-like pieces - Pishan-Peshan's son - there seems to be a mention of the Baikal Lake, and possibly also of the Altai Mountains.
The Tarbagatai Mountains and their north-western continuation, the Chinghiz-tau, are sometimes considered to belong orographically to the Altai system; but there are good reasons for regarding them as an independent range.
The passes across the twin 1 It may however eventually turn out that these ranges, together with the Mechin-ola, farther to the north-east and intimately connected with the Karlyk-tau, belong to the Altai system.
It is the capital of the Altai mining districts, and besides smelting furnaces possesses glassworks, a bell-foundry and a mint.
It extends to Persia, the Altai range and northern and western China.
Typical mountain steppe mammals include Altai pika Ochotona alpina, arctic ground squirrel Citellus undulatus and Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus.
They are described under different names in Siberia - the Altai Mountains in West Siberia, the Kuznetskiy Ala-tau and the Us and Oya Mountains in West Sayan, the Nizhne-Udinsk taiga or gold-mine district, several chains pierced by the Oka river, the Kitoi Alps in East Sayan, the mountains of the upper Lena and Kirenga, the Olekminsk gold-mine district, and the unnamed mountains which project north-east between the Lena and the Aldan.
The Yeniseians were followed by the UgroSamoyedes, who also came originally from the high plateau and were compelled, probably during the great migration of the Huns in the 3rd century B.C., to cross the Altai and Sayan ranges and to enter Siberia.