Alphonso Sentence Examples
His title of El Mansur, "The Victorious," was earned by the defeat he inflicted on Alphonso VIII.
Peter died in 1285, leaving Aragon to his eldest son Alphonso, and Sicily to his second son James.
When Alphonso died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother Frederick as regent of Sicily.
Immediately after the restoration of Alphonso XII., early in 1875, Ruiz Zorilla went to France.
Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alphonso V., whose reign was mainly spent in Italy.Advertisement
In 1031 it became the capital of a small Moorish kingdom, and, though temporarily held by the Portuguese in 1168, it retained its independence until 1229, when it was captured by Alphonso IX.
He held a high place in the favour of King Alphonso V., who entrusted him with the management of important state affairs.
On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years (1484-1492) the post of a minister of state under Ferdinand and Isabella.
His father, Alphonso Taft (1810-1891), born in Townshend, Vermont, graduated at Yale College in 1833, became a tutor there, studied law at the Yale Law School, was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1838, removed to Cincinnati in 1839, and became one of the most influential citizens of Ohio.
But though given in charters, and claimed by Alphonso VI.Advertisement
Alphonso was at once a patron of the church, and a protector if not a favourer of the Mahommedans, who formed a large part of his subjects.
The castle was erected by Alphonso of Aragon; the cathedral, consecrated in 1088, has a rose window and side portal of 1481.
A military and republican rising hastened Sagasta's fall, and he was not readmitted into the councils of Alphonso XII.
Castile was left to his eldest son Sancho, Leon to Alphonso, Galicia to Garcia, Zamora and Toro to his two daughters Urraca and Elvira.
He made more than one attempt to be reconciled with Alphonso, but, his overtures being rejected, he turned his arms against the enemies of the Beni Houd, extending their dominions at the expense of the Christian states VI.Advertisement
In a barbarous Latin poem, written in celebration of the conquest of Almeria by Alphonso VII.
His second son, Sancho, enforced his claim to be heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, the elder brother who died in Alphonso's life.
On the 25th of January 1494 Ferdinand died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II.
But when the French invasion became a reality he was alarmed, recognized Alphonso as king, and concluded an alliance with him in exchange for various fiefs to his sons (July 1494).
Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.Advertisement
Shortly afterwards he induced Alphonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, to marry her, thus establishing her as heiress to one of the most important principalities in Italy (January 1502).
This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.
In 734 it was occupied by the Moors, who in turn were driven out by Alphonso I.
In 1072 it was forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother Alphonso VI.
In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.Advertisement
About the same time the republic was exposed to still graver danger by the conspiracy of some of its leading citizens to seize the reins of power and place the city under the suzerainty of Alphonso, as it had once been under that of the duke of Milan.
But the plot came to light; its chief ringleaders were beheaded, and many others sent into exile (1456); and the death of Alphonso at last ended all danger from that source.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
The balia was reconstituted several times by the imperial agents - in 1530 by Don Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 1540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1548 by Don Diego di Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule.
Alphonso III, the Aragonese king, being hard pressed, had to promise to withdraw the troops he had sent to help his brother James in Sicily, to renounce all rights over the island, and pay a tribute to the Holy See.
But Alphonso died childless in 1291 before the treaty could be carried out, and James took possession of Aragon, leaving the government of Sicily to the third brother Frederick.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
He assumed the title of Alphonso XII.; for although no king of united Spain had previously borne the name, the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy, represented by the eleven kings of Leon and Castile already referred to.
Early in 1878 Alphonso married his cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of the duc de Montpensier, but she died within six months of her marriage.
Alphonso died of phthisis on the 24th of November 1885.
After refusing several crowned heads in marriage, Costanca was at last persuaded to accept the hand of the infante Dom Pedro, son of Alphonso the Proud, king of Portugal.
Alvaro Gonzales, Pedro Coelho, and Diogo Lopes Pacheco persuaded the king, Alphonso, that his throne was in danger from an alliance between his son and the Castros, and with all the brutality of the age they urged the king to remove the danger by murdering the poor woman.
The three murderers of Inez were sent out of the kingdom by Alphonso, who knew his son too well not to be aware that the vengeance would be tremendous as the crime.
In 1357, however, Alphonso died, and the infante was crowned king bf Portugal.
His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso.
The marriage was declared null by the pope, to whom Alphonso paid no attention till he was presumably tired of his wife.
Alphonso died almost immediately after, on the 12th of May 1357.
In 798 he had concluded an alliance with Alphonso II., king of the Asturias, and a series of campaigns mainly under the leadership of King Louis resulted in the establishment of the " Spanish march," a district between the Pyrenees and the Ebro stretching from Pampeluna to Barcelona, as a defence against the Saracens.
Joanna refused to adopt Louis owing to the influence of Caracciolo, who hated Sforza; she appealed for help instead to Alphonso of Aragon, promising to make him her heir.
After much fighting by land and sea, Alphonso entered Naples, and in 1422 peace was made.
But dissensions broke out between the Aragonese and Catalans and the Neapolitans, and Alphonso had Caracciolo arrested; whereupon Joanna, fearing for her own safety, invoked the aid of Sforza, who with difficulty carried her off to Aversa.
There she was joined by Louis whom she adopted as her successor instead of the ungrateful Alphonso.
Sforza was accidentally drowned, but when Alphonso returned to Spain, leaving only a.
In 1511 the Portuguese under Alphonso d'Albuquerque occupied Malacca, and in November of that year an expedition under Antonio de Abreu was despatched to find a route to the Moluccas and Banda Islands, then famous for their cloves and nutmegs.
The pope's recognition of the claims to Naples of King Alphonso of Aragon withdrew the last important support from the council of Basel, and enabled him to make a victorious entry into Rome on the 28th of September 1443, after an exile of nearly ten years.
In her thirteenth year her brother promised her in marriage to Alphonso of Portugal, but she firmly refused to consent; her resistance seemed less likely to be effectual in the case of Pedro Giron, grand master of the order of Calatrava and brother of the marquis of Villena, to whom she was next affianced, when she was delivered from her fears by the sudden death of the bridegroom while on his way to the nuptials in 1466.
The Arab writers who speak of the Spanish kings of the north-west as the Beni-Alfons, appear to recognize them as a royal stock derived from Alphonso I.
In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of Alphonso VI.
The fraud was detected by a Jew, who was one of the envoys of Alphonso.
Alphonso retaliated by a destructive raid.
When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085, El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see Spain, History, and Almoravides).
He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide.
These acts, which the vices of Alphonso had rendered necessary, were sanctioned by the Cortes in 1668.
Though christened Ramon (Raymond), the favourite name of his line, he reigned as Alphonso out of a wish to please his Aragonese subjects, to whom the memory of the Battler was dear.
As king of Aragon he took a share in the work of the reconquest, by helping his cousin Alphonso VIII.
When a prisoner in the hands of Filipo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, in 1435, Alphonso persuaded his ferocious and crafty captor to let him go by making it plain that it was the interest of Milan not to prevent the victory of the Aragonese party in Naples.
Alphonso founded nothing, and after his conquest of Naples in 1442 ruled by his mercenary soldiers, and no less mercenary men of letters.
After his son's death, it was a prey to internal dissensions and finally came under Alphonso I.
An agreement was very quickly concluded with King Alphonso of Naples.
The short reign of the Spaniard, Alphonso de Borgia, as Pope Calixtus III., is almost completely filled by his heroic lll., efforts to arm Christendom for the common defence Calixtus 1455-1458.
The former of these, which was distinguished by the unusual largeness of its concessions, and by the careful minuteness of its details, rapidly extended to many places in the neighbourhood, while the latter charter was given also to Miranda by Alphonso VI., and was further extended in 1181 by Sancho el Sabio of Navarre to Vitoria, thus constituting one of the earliest written fora of the "Provincias Vascongadas."
In the course of the 12th and 13th centuries the number of such documents increased very rapidly; that of Toledo especially, granted to the Mozarabic population in 1 101, but greatly enlarged and extended by Alphonso VII.
Latterly the word fuero came to be used in Castile in a wider sense than before, as meaning a general code of laws; thus about the time of Saint Ferdinand the old Lex Visigothorum, then translated for the first time into the vernacular, was called the Fuero Juzgo, a name which was soon retranslated into the barbarous Latin of the period as Forum Judicum; 4 and among the compilations of Alphonso the Learned in like manner were an Espejo de Fueros and also the Fuero de las leyes, better known perhaps as the Fuero Real.
Until about 1213 they were known as the Knights of San Julian del Pereyro; but when the defence of Alcantara, newly wrested from the Moors by Alphonso IX.
In January 1256, however, William was killed, and in the following year there was a double election for the German crown, Alphonso X., king of Castile, a grandson of Philip of Swabia, and Richard, earl of Cornwall, brother of the English king Henry III., being each chosen by parties of electors.
Richard was crowned in May 1257, but the majority of his subjects were probably ignorant of his very name; Alphonso did not even visit the country over which he claimed to rule.
An heir to the throne was born on the Loth of May 1907, and received the name of Alphonso.
Alphonso of Leon considered himself tricked, and the young king had to begin his reign by a war against his father and a faction of the Castilian nobles.
He revived the university first founded by his grandfather Alphonso VIII., and placed it at Salamanca.
By Peter's death Aragon and Sicily were separated; his eldest son Alphonso took Aragon, and his second son James took Sicily, which was to pass to the third son Frederick, if James died childless.
In 1291 James succeeded Alphonso in the kingdom of Aragon, and left Frederick not king, according to the entail, but only his lieutenant in Sicily.
In 1086 he was invited by the Mahommedan princes in Spain to defend them against Alphonso VI., king of Castile and Leon.
When every allowance is made, Alphonso VI.
Alphonso kept his word.
Whatever truth may lie behind the romantic tales of Christian and Mahommedan, we know that Alphonso represented in a remarkable way the two great influences then shaping the character and civilization of Spain.
Zaida, * who became a Christian under the name of Maria or Isabel, bore him the only son among his many children, Sancho, whom Alphonso designed to be his successor, but who was slain at the battle of Ucles in 1108.
Women play a great part in Alphonso's life.
The town is said to have been founded by Alphonso IX.
In book I, chapters 40 and 42, it is recorded that the Infante Alphonso of Portugal suggested a radical change in the narrative of Briolanja's relations with Amadis.
This prince has been identified as the Infante Alphonso who died in 1312, or as Alphonso IV.
Peter died the same year, leaving Aragon to his son Alphonso III.
Caracciolo, the queen's new lover, Alphonso of Aragon, whom she adopted as her heir, and Louis III.
The succession was disputed by Rene of Anjou and Alphonso, but the former eventually renounced his claims and Alphonso was recognized as king of Naples by Pope Eugenius IV.
Under Alphonso, surnamed "the Magnanimous," Sicily was once more united to Naples and a new era was inaugurated, for the king was at once a brilliant ruler, a scholar and a patron of letters.
Ferdinand found, however, that Alphonso had not really consolidated his power, and he had practically to reconquer the whole country.
Alphonso abdicated, his son Ferrandino and his brother Frederick withdrew to Ischia, and only a few towns in Apulia still held out for the Aragonese.
At the age of thirteen he was married to Leonora, daughter of Alphonso VIII.
A son born of the marriage, Alphonso, was recognized as legitimate, but died before his father, childless.
During the remaining twenty years of his life, James was much concerned in warring with the Moors in Murcia, not on his own account, but on behalf of his son-in-law Alphonso the Wise of Castile.
He also vanquished Alphonso Raymond of Castile, his mother's ally, and thus freed Portugal from dependence on the crown of Leon.
Alphonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarem in 1146 and Lisbon in 1147.
Alphonso was a man of gigantic stature, being 7 ft.
King Alphonso the Great found his tombstone at Viseo with the inscription, "Hic requiescit Rodericus rex Gothorum."
Its distinctive name la Real, " the Royal," was conferred in memory of its capture by Alphonso XI.
After its capture by Alphonso the Wise of Castile (1252-1284), the town was a Christian stronghold on the borders of Moorish territory.
Gaston de Foix fell in the battle, in which he was supporting Alphonso.
This league was joined by a powerful group of princes and nobles and found recognition by the prince-electors of the Empire; but for want of leadership it did not stand the test, when Richard of Cornwall and Alphonso of Castile were elected rival kings in 1257.2 In the following centuries the imperial cities in south Germany, where most of them were situated, repeatedly formed leagues to protect their interests against the power of the princes and the nobles, and destructive wars were waged; but no great political issue found solution, the relative position of the parties after each war remaining much what it had been before.
Borneo began to be known to Europeans after the fall of Malacca in 1511, when Alphonso d'Albuquerque despatched Antonio d'Abreu with three ships in search of the Molucca or Spice Islands with instructions to establish friendly relations with all the native states that he might encounter on his way.
It was then taken by Alphonso XI.
The Moorish city was destroyed by Alphonso; it was first reoccupied by Spanish colonists from Gibraltar in 1704; and the modern town was erected in 1760 by King Charles III.
He here began a close friendship with the distinguished scholar, Antonio Beccadelli, through whose influence he gained admission to the royal chancery of Alphonso the Magnanimous.
Alphonso discerned the singular gifts of the young scholar, and made him tutor to his sons.
He is there represented together with his patron Alphonso and his friend Sannazzaro in adoration before the dead Christ.
In 1291, on the death of his elder brother, Alphonso, to whom Aragon had fallen, he resigned Sicily and endeavoured to arrange the quarrel between his own family and the Angevine House, by marriage with Blanca, daughter of Charles of Anjou, king of Naples.
Castelar kept apart from active politics during the twelve months that Serrano acted as president of the republic. Another pronunciamiento finally put an end to it in the last week of December 1874, when Generals Campos at Sagunto, Jovellar at Valencia, Primo de Rivera at Madrid, and Laserna at Logrono, proclaimed Alphonso XII.
Hence the contrast between his attitude from 1876 to 1886, during the reign of Alphonso XII., when he stood in the front rank of the Opposition to defend the reforms of that revolution against Senor Canovas, and his attitude from 1886 to 1891.
Among these adventurers was Count Henry of Burgundy, an ambitious warrior who, in 1095, married Theresa, natural daughter of Alphonso VI., king of Leon.
Count Henry ruled as a vassal of Alphonso VI., whose Galician marches were thus secured against any sudden Moorish raid.
Alphonso, who became count of Portugal in 1128, was one of the warrior heroes of medieval romance; his exploits were sung by troubadours throughout south-western Europe, and even in Africa " ibn Errik " - the son of Henry - was known and feared.
The annals of his reign have been encum Alphonso 1., bered with a mass of legends, among which must be g g included the account of a cortes held at Lamego in 1143; probably also the description of the Valdevez tournament, in which the Portuguese knights are said to have vanquished the champions of Leon and Castile.
Alphonso was occupied in almost incessant border fighting against his Christian or Moorish neighbours.
Twelve years of campaigning on the Galician frontier were concluded in 1143 by the peace of Zamora, in which Alphonso was recognized as independent of any Spanish sovereign, although he promised to be a faithful vassal of the pope and to pay him a yearly tribute of four ounces of gold.
Alphonso succeeded in conquering part of Galicia, but in attempting to capture the frontier fortress of Badajoz he was wounded and forced to surrender to Ferdinand II.
Alphonso was therefore released under promise to abandon all his conquests in Galicia.
Alphonso took advantage of these dissensions to invade Alemtejo, reinforced by the Templars and Hospitallers, whose respective headquarters were at Soure and Thomar.
Legend has magnified the victory into the rout of 200,000 Moslems under five kings; but so far was the battle from being decisive that in 1140 the Moors were able to seize the fortress of Leiria, built by Alphonso in 1135 as an outpost for the defence of Coimbra, his capital.
But on the 15th of March 1147 Alphonso stormed the fortress of Santarem, and about the same time a band of crusaders on their way to Palestine landed at Oporto and volunteered for the impending siege of Lisbon.
Aided by these powerful allies, Alphonso captured Lisbon on the 24th of October 1147.
In 1171 Alphonso concluded a seven years' truce with the Moors; weakened by his wound and by old age, he could no longer take the field, and when the war broke out afresh he delegated the chief command to his son Sancho.
Alphonso died on the 6th of December 1185.
Lisbon had already (1179) received a charter from Alphonso I.
His attempts to strengthen the monarchy and fill the treasury at the expense of the Church resulted in his excommunication by Pope Honorius III., and Portugal remained under interdict until Alphonso II.
Estevao Soares, archbishop of Braga, placed himself at the head of the nobles and churchmen who threatened to usurp the royal power during Sancho II.'s minority, and negotiated an alliance with Alphonso IX., by which it was arranged that the Portuguese should attack Elvas, the Spaniards Badajoz.
They found a leader in Sancho's brother Alphonso, count of Boulogne, who owed his title to a marriage with Matilda, countess of Boulogne.
The pope issued a bull of deposition in favour of Alphonso, who reached Lisbon in 1246; and after a civil war lasting two years Sancho II.
The war which followed was ended by Alphonso III.
The celebration of this marriage, while Matilda, countess of Boulogne and first wife of Alphonso III., was still alive, entailed the imposition of an interdict upon the kingdom.
At the outset his legitimacy was disputed by his brother Alphonso, and a brief civil war ensued.
He arranged that his daughter Maria should wed Alphonso XI.
Pedro, the crown prince, afterwards married Constance, daughter of the duke of Penafiel (near Valladolid), and Alphonso IV.
In the victory won by the Christians on the banks of the river Salado, near Tarifa, he earned his title of Alphonso the Brave (1340).
Under Alphonso V., surnamed the African (1443-1481), the Gulf of Guinea was explored as far as Cape St Catherine, and three expeditions (1458, 1461, 1471) were sent to Morocco; in 1471 Arzila (Asila) and Tangier were captured from the Moors.
An unwise foreign policy simultaneously injured the royal prestige, for Alphonso married his own niece, Joanna, daughter of Henry IV.
Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Alphonso d'Albuquerque (1515), who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia.
Alphonso d'Albuquerque (q.v.), who succeeded Almeida in 1509, found it necessary to modify the policy formulated by his predecessor.
Tentative and hardly serious claims were also put forward by Pope Gregory XIII., as ex officio heir-general to a cardinal, and by Catherine de' Medici, as a descendant of Alphonso III.
Castello Melhor, hoping to secure further French support for his country, had arranged a marriage between Alphonso VI.
Castello Melhor was permitted to escape to France, while Alphonso VI.
The preAlphonsine period to which these men belong runs from 1200 to 1245 and produced little of moment, but in 1248 the accession of King Alphonso III., who had lived thirteen years in France, inaugurated a time of active and rich production which is illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Ajuda, the oldest collection of Peninsular verse.
Diniz, who had been educated by Amyeric of Cahors, proved himself the most fecund poetking of his day, though the pleiad of fidalgos forming his court, and the jograes who flocked there from all parts, were fewer in number, less productive, and lacked the originality, vigour and brilliance of the singers who versified round Alphonso III.
The death of King Diniz proved a severe blow to troubadour verse, and the reign of his successor Alphonso IV.
Epic poetry in Portugal developed much later than lyric, but the signal victory of the united Christian hosts over the Moors at the battle of the Salado in 1340 gave occasion to an epic by Alphonso Giraldes of which some fragments remain.
The Malaca conquistada of Francisco de SA de Menezes, having Alphonso d'Albuquerque for its hero, is prosaic in form, if correct in design.
Of the four continuers of Brito's work, three are no better than their master, but Frei Antonio Brandao, who dealt with the period from King Alphonso Henriques to King John II., proved himself a man of high intelligence and a learned, conscientious historian.
But the country was not sufficiently civilized to deal with Paul as the Portuguese had dealt with Alphonso VI., a very similar person, in 1667.
In 1468 he was solemnly deposed in favour of his brother Alphonso, on whose death in the same year his authority was again recognized.
The marriage had been arranged by Alphonso VI.
Alphonso had the support of one section of the nobles who found their account in the confusion.
The marriage of Alphonso and Urraca was declared null by the pope, as they were third cousins.
He was finally compelled to give way in Castile and Leon to his stepson Alphonso,, son of Urraca and her first husband.
Alphonso the Battler won his great successes in the middle Ebro, where he expelled the Moors from Saragossa; in the great raid of 1125, when he carried away a large part of the subject Christians from Granada, and in the south-west of France, where he had rights as king of Navarre.
Rene's captivity, and the poverty of the Angevin resources due to his ransom, enabled Alphonso of Aragon, who had been first adopted and then repudiated by Jeanne II., to make some headway in the kingdom of Naples, especially as he was already in possession of the island of Sicily.
In 1441 Alphonso laid siege to Naples, which he sacked after a six months' siege.
Isabella was induced to abdicate in Paris on 25th June 1870 in favour of her son, Alphonso XII., and the cause of the restoration was thus much furthered.
On the occasion of one of her visits to Madrid during Alphonso XII.'s reign she began to intrigue with the politicians of the capital, and was peremptorily requested to go abroad again.
Almeria was captured in 1147 by King Alphonso VII.
His relations to the Portuguese house must have suffered by his repudiation of his wife Urraca, daughter of Alphonso I.
The archipelago consists of a number of coral islets and atolls comprising the African Islands (4), the St Joseph group (8), the Poivre Islands (9) and the Alphonso group (3).
In 1883 the dispute in connexion with the boundary between Colombia and Venezuela was submitted by the two governments to the arbitration of Alphonso XII., king of Spain, and a commission of five members was appointed to investigate the merits of the respective claims. The decision in this dispute was finally given by the queen regent of Spain on the 16th of March 1891.
A native of Xativa, he gained a great reputation as a jurist, becoming professor at Lerida; in 1429 he was made bishop of Valencia, and in 1444 a cardinal, owing his promotion mainly to his close friendship with Alphonso V., king of Aragon and Sicily.
During his papacy Calixtus became involved in a quarrel with his former friend, Alphonso of Aragon, now also king of Naples, and after the king's death in June 1458 he refused to recognize his illegitimate son, Ferdinand, as king of Naples, asserting that this kingdom was a fief of the Holy See.
Another had been Admiral of Castile in the reign of Alphonso the Wise.
He died at sea on the 10th of January 1896 when returning from active service with the British troops during the Ashanti War, and left three sons and a daughter, Victoria Eugenie, who was married in 1906 to Alphonso XIII., king of Spain.
This revival of Church and monastic influence began during the reign of Alphonso XII., 1877-1885, and considerably increased afterwards under the regency of Queen Christina, during the long minority of Alphonse XIII., the godson of Pope Leo XIII.
Alphonso swept all through that region, already more than half depopulated, slaying the lingering remnants of the Berbers, and carrying back the surviving Christians to the north.
Behind that shield of waste the Christian kingdom developed; from the death of Alphonso I.
He left his three kingdoms to his three sons Sancho, Alphonso and Garcia.
The reign, of Alphonso VI., which lasted till 1109, is one of the fullest in the Aiphonso annals of Spain.
Alphonso, who during his exile owed some good services to the Mahommedan king of Toledo, spared that city while his friend lived.
Yusuf came, and in 1086 inflicted a terrible defeat on Alphonso VI.
Alphonso was compelled to withdraw a garrison he had placed in Murcia, and Valencia was, by his decision, given up by the widow of the Cid.
The interval of advance in the reconquest would have been shorter than it was but for the results of a most unfortunate attempt on the part of Alphonso VI.
Alphonso and Urraca came to open war, in which he claimed to be king of Castile by right of his marriage and his election by the nobles.
The confusion was increased by the fact that Alphonso, Urracas son by her first marriage with Raymond of Burgundy, was recognized as king in Gallicia, was bred up there by the able bishop Diego Gelmirez, and took an active part in the feuds of his mother and step-father.
In the meantime his quarrels with Urraca had not deterred Alphonso, who is surnamed the Battler in Aragonese history, from taking Saragossa in 1118, and from defeating the Almorvides at the decisive battle of Cutanda in 1120.
Aiphonso had conquered Cuenca, in the hill country between Castile and Valencia, in 1177, with the help of the king of Aragon, also an Alphonso, the son of Petronilla and of Ramon Berenguer of Barcelona.
The penitence of Almohdes took the field against Alphonso in force, Aragon.
To tighten the bond with Leon, Alphonso of Castile married his daughter Berengaria to its king Alphonso (1188-1230), the son of his uncle Fernando.
Alphonso died in 1214.
In 1230 the death of Alphonso of Leon opened the way to a final union of the crowns.
By Alphonso they were favored.
A part of the work of christianizing the Spain of the 13th century, and not the least part, was done by the monks of Cluny introduced by the French wife of Alphonso VI.
Alphonso X., El Sabio or Learned, made a fuero real, which was formed by combining the best parts of existing charters.
It was never so treated till it was promulgated at the Cortes of Alcal in 1338, in the reign of his great grandson, Alphonso XI.
Fernando, ungrateful to his mother and incapable as a king, died in 1312, leaving a son of less than a year old, Alphonso XI.
After another minority of confusion, Alphonso, surnamed of the Rio Salado, from the great Alphonse victory he won over an invading host from Africa, XI., 1312ruled with energy and real political capacity.
But Alphonso did not use his freedom to act legibus solutus except against such hoary and incorrigible intriguers as Don Juan ci Tuerto or the Caballero Diego Gil, whom he beheaded with seventeen of his men after promising them security for their lives.
John averted the danger by arranging a marriage between his son Henry and Constance, the eldest daughter of John of Gaunt, an alliance which united the two equally illegitimate lines representing Alphonso XI., and so closed the dispute as to the succession.
It had now become clear that the restoration of the Bourbons in the person of Don Alphonso, Isabellas son, was the only way of securing a final settlement.
From the moment that such former revolutionists as Sagasta, Ulloa, Leon y Castillo, Camacho, Alcnzo Martinez and the marquis de la Vega de Armijo declared that they adhered to the Restoration, Canovas did not object to their saying in the same breath that they would enter the Cortes to defend as much as possible what they had achieved during the Revolution, and to protest and agitate, legally and pacifically, until they succeeded in re-establishing some day all that the first cabinet of Alphonso XII.
He arranged with the king to moot a series of financial projects the acceptance of which by His Majesty would have implied a long tenure of office for the Conservatives, and so Alphonso XII.
Nothing daunted by the ominous attacks of the French people and press, King Alphonso went to Paris.
The president of the Republic and his ministers had to call in person on their guest to tender an apology, which was coldly received by Alphonso and his minister for foreign affairs.
King Alphonso went down to visit the district, and distributed relief to the distressed inhabitants, despite his visib?y failing health.
Alphonso alone remained cool, and would not listen to those who clamoured for a rupture with Germany.
On the 17th of May 1886, six months after the death of Alphonso XII., his posthumous son, Aiphonso XIII., was born at the palace of Madrid.
Sagasta derived much benefit from the divisions which made democracy powerless; and he Was able to cope with Carlism chiefly because the efforts of the pretender himself abroad, and of his partisans in Spain, were first restrained and then decisively paralysed by the influence of foreign courts and governments, above all by the direct interference of the Vatican in favor of the Spanish regency and of the successor of Alphonso XII.
Austrian and Italian royal families and governments in showing sympathy to the widow of Alphonso XII.
King Alphonso XIII., whose enthronement took place with all the antique ceremonial on the 17th of May, was himself at Enthrone.
Alphonso was now shaking himself loose from the deadening influence of the reactionary court, and was beginning to display a disconcerting interest in affairs, information about which he was apt to seek at first hand., The resignation of the see of Valencia by Archbishop Nozaleda was a symptom of the new spirit.
Two months before (March 1013) King Alphonso, with characteristic courage, had paid a surprise visit to Barcelona, and the general enthusiasm of his reception seemed to prove that the disaffection was less widespread or deep than had been supposed.
The counts of Castiie began, as a body, and not as a line of chiefs, in the reign of Alphonso the Chaste (789842).
A monk, who was exclaustrated alter the death of Alphonso, but re turned to the cloister on the birth of his daughter Petronilia.
Married to Alphonso IX.
Berengaria resigned the crown of Castile to her son Fernando by the uricanonical marriage with Alphonso IX.
Elected by the Navar rese on the death of Alphonso of Aragon without issue.
Originally imposed in 1341 by Alphonso XI.
In 1208 he was declared of age, and soon afterwards Innocent arranged a marriage, which was celebrated the following year, between him and Constance, daughter of Alphonso II king of Aragon, and widow of Emerich or Imre, king of Hungary.
He drew up the manifesto issued in 1874 by the young king Alphonso XII., at that time a cadet at Sandhurst; but he dissented from the military men who were actively conspiring to organize an Alphonsist pronunciamiento.
Sagasta thereupon caused Canovas to be arrested(30thof December 1874); but the next day the Madrid garrison also proclaimed Alphonso XII.
On the decease of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447 he joined the Aragonese against Venice and Florence; but, presently changing his flag, fought valiantly against Alphonso of Aragon and forced him to raise the siege of Piombino.
On both occasions General Campos tried in vain to induce the other commanders to proclaim Alphonso XII.
He managed to escape, and after hiding in Madrid, joined General Daban at Sagunto on the 29th of December 1874, where he proclaimed Alphonso XII.
He was considered as a sort of supreme counsellor, being consulted by King Alphonso, and later by his widow, the queen-regent, in every important political crisis, and on every international or colonial question, especially when other generals or the army itself became troublesome.
After the death of King Alphonso, Campos steadily supported the regency of Queen Christina, and held high commands, though declining to take office.
The carta de logo (del luogo) or code of laws issued by her was in 1421 extended to the whole island by the cortes under the presidency of Alphonso V., who visited Sardinia in that year.
He sat in several parliaments of the reign of Alphonso XII.
At Cochin Siqueira took on board certain adherents of Alphonso d'Alboquerque who were in bad odour with his rival d'Almeida, among them being Magellan, the future circumnavigator of the world, and Francisco Serrao, the first European who ever lived in the Spice Islands.
His personal character does not stand out with the emphasis of those of Alphonso VI.
One of the most striking of the passages in the Cid's legendary history is that wherein he is represented as forcing the new king to swear that he had no part in his brother's death; but there was cause enough without this for Alphonso's animosity against the man who had helped to despoil him of his patrimony.
Garcia Ordonez accused him to Alphonso of keeping back part of the tribute received from Seville, and the king took advantage of the Cid's absence on a raid against the Moors to banish him from Castile.
The children of this marriage were Maria de las Mercedes, titular queen from the death of her father until the birth of her brother, born on the 11th of September 1880, married on the 14th of February 1901 to Prince Carlos of Bourbon, died on the 17th of October 1904; Maria Teresa, born on the 12th of November 1882, married to Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria on the 12th of January 1906; and Alphonso (see below).
The apogee of palace poetry dates from 1275 to 1280, when young King Diniz displayed his exceptional talents in a circle formed by the best troubadours of his father Alphonso III.