Alphabet Sentence Examples
Soon after the dialect had reached its latest form, the Latin alphabet was adopted.
She taught the young people the alphabet, and several of them learned to talk with her.
In Greek, where I is the twentieth letter of the alphabet, or, if the merely numerical and p are excluded, the eighteenth, another form 1 or S according to the direction of the writing is also widespread.
She has learned that EVERYTHING HAS A NAME, AND THAT THE MANUAL ALPHABET IS THE KEY TO EVERYTHING SHE WANTS TO KNOW.
One who is entirely dependent upon the manual alphabet has always a sense of restraint, of narrowness.Advertisement
One who reads or talks to me spells with his hand, using the single-hand manual alphabet generally employed by the deaf.
The manual alphabet is that in use among all educated deaf people.
An important advance on this was proposed in 1797 by Lomond,' who used only one line of wire and an alphabet of motions.
The interpunct is double with the Umbrian alphabet, single and medial with the Latin.
The resemblance was so close that Prinsep called the alphabet he was deciphering the Pali alphabet, and the language expressed in it he called the Pali language.Advertisement
This letter corresponds to the second symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like the Russian, from medieval Greek, in which the pronunciation of this symbol had changed from b to v.
In the Phoenician alphabet it takes a form closely resembling the English W, and this when moved through an angle of 90 is the ordinary Greek sigma 2.
Many of the highest dignitaries of state did not know their alphabet.
I know not the first letter of the alphabet.
These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.Advertisement
Some even rearranged the contents according to the alphabet or to zoological affinity.
The Buddhist influence is not merely religious, for it is always accompanied by Indian art and literature, and often by an Indian alphabet.
The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.
As a proof of the thoroughness and conscientiousness of Dlugosz it may be mentioned that he learned the Cyrillic alphabet and took up the study of Ruthenian, "in order that this our history may be as plain and perfect as possible."
Two inscriptions in the Old Corinthian alphabet came to light.Advertisement
The Assyrians with all their culture, never attained the stage of analysis which demonstrates that only a few fundamental sounds are involved in human speech, and hence that it is possible to express all the niceties of utterance with an alphabet of little more than a score of letters.
Apart from the historic interest of the site, as the only Greek colony in Egypt in early times, the chief importance of the excavations lies in the rich finds of early pottery and in the inscriptions upon them, which throw light on the early history of the alphabet.
By the word alphabet, derived from the Greek names for the first two letters - alpha and beta - of the Greek alphabet, is meant a series of conventional symbols each indicating a single sound or combination of sounds.
The history of the Brahmi alphabet is more difficult.
But I didn't even know the Greek alphabet!Advertisement
Books supplemented, perhaps equaled in importance the manual alphabet, as a means of teaching language.
It is a clumsy and unsatisfactory way of receiving communication, useless when Miss Sullivan or some one else who knows the manual alphabet is present to give Miss Keller the spoken words of others.
For the symbol which was used at Ephesus and other places in Asia Minor and elsewhere for the sound represented by -aa- in Ionic Greek, by -TT- in Attic, see ALPHABET.
Franciscus Vieta (Francois Viete) named it Specious Arithmetic, on account of the species of the quantities involved, which he represented symbolically by the various letters of the alphabet.
In this alphabet the Greek letter p (or rather a very similar letter with the loop a little lower down) is used to represent sh, and there are some peculiarities in the use of o apparently connected with the expression of the sounds h and w.
This does not mean, what is often alleged, that nobody before him had ever thought of choosing symbols different from numerals, such as the letters of the alphabet, to denote the quantities of arithmetic, but that he made a general custom of what until his time had been only an exceptional attempt.
The reforms proposed included the adoption of European time, the European calendar, and the Latin alphabet; the abolition of veiling of women - as a practice of far-reaching, injurious influence upon the race; the abolition of the annual, month-long fast of Ramazan, and of the Feasts of Bairam.
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
This alphabet, which is probably the parent of the South-Indian character, is undoubtedly derived from the so-called Phoenician alphabet, the connecting link being the forms of the Sala inscriptions and of the Thamudaean inscriptions found by Doughty and Euting.
The current Siamese characters are derived from the more monumental Cambodian alphabet, which again owes its origin to the alphabet of the inscriptions, an offshoot of the character found on the stone monuments of southern India in the 6th and 8th centuries.
The Siamese alphabet consists of 44 consonants, in each of which the vowel sound" aw "is inherent, and of 32 vowels all marked not by individual letters, but by signs written above, below, before or after the consonant in connexion with which they are to be pronounced.
The Uighurs employed an alphabet based upon the Syriac and borrowed from the Nestorian missionaries.
It is customary to quote these by small letters of the Latin alphabet, but there is a regrettable absence of unanimity in the details of the notation.
According to the Fihrist, Mani made use of the Persian and Syriac languages; but, like the Oriental Marcionites before him, he invented an alphabet of his own, which the Fihrist has handed down to us.
In this alphabet the sacred books of the Manichaeans were written, even at a later period.
The alphabet used is the one adapted by Mani himself from the Syriac estrangelo.
Thus, to take an example, he will not print a critical text of Plautus with two letters (Y and Z) which were no part of the Latin alphabet in the age of that comedian; still less will he introduce into Latin texts distinctions, such as i,j and u, v, which were not used till long after the middle ages.
For The Sake Of Greater Generality, The Days Of The Week Are Denoted By The First Seven Letters Of The Alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Which Are Placed In The Calendar Beside The Days Of The Year, So That A Stands Opposite The First Day Of January, B Opposite The Second, And So On To G, Which Stands Opposite The Seventh; After Which A Returns To The Eighth, And So On Through The 365 Days Of The Year.
Each Of The Thirty Lines Of Epacts Is Designated By A Letter Of The Alphabet, Which Serves As Its Index Or Argument.
The scale engraved upon one face of the stem contains fifty-five divisions, the top and bottom being marked o or zero and the alternate intermediate divisions (of which there are twenty-six) being marked with the letters of the alphabet in order.
The Runic alphabet seems to have been the only form of writing known to the Anglo-Saxons before the invasion of Britain, and indeed until the adoption of Christianity.
Originally the Runic alphabet seems to have been used for writing on wooden boards, though none of these have survived.
The adoption of Christianity brought about the introduction of the Roman alphabet; but the older form of writing did not immediately pass out of use, for almost all the inscriptions which we possess date from the 7th or following centuries.
The Roman alphabet was very soon applied to the purpose of writing the native language, e.g.
Eventually this alphabet was enlarged (probably before the end of the 7th century) by the inclusion of two Runic letters for th and w.
In Germany very few Runic inscriptions have been found, and there is nothing to show that the alphabet was used after the 8th century.
The Roman alphabet first came into use among the western and northern Teutonic peoples after their adoption of Christianity.
According to tradition - a tradition of which the, details are still open to criticism - the alphabet was introduced from India by Tonmi, a lay Tibetan minister who was sent to India in 632 by King Srong-btsan to study the Sanskrit language and Buddhist literature.
He remained twelve years with the emperor, and at his request framed for the Mongol language an alphabet imitated from the Tibetan, which, however, did not prove satisfactory, and disappeared after eightyfive years without having been very largely used.
Owing to the imperfection of the Hebrew alphabet, which, like that of most Semitic languages, has no means of expressing vowel-sounds, it is only partly possible to trace the development of the language.
The alphabet (see Writing) subsequently adopted is seen in its earliest form on the stele of Mesha, and has been retained, with modifications, by the Samaritans.
The Hebrew alphabet is also used, generally with the addition of some diacritical marks, by Jews to write other languages, chiefly Arabic, Spanish, Persian, Greek, Tatar (by Qaraites) and in later times German.
In Menangkabo, for instance, the Arabic alphabet displaced the Kavi (ancient Javanese) character previously employed.
They are written in an alphabet derived from an Aramaic source and recount the history of the northern branch of the Turks or Tu-kiue of Chinese historians.
By this time the Teutonic peoples had probably acquired the art of writing, though the origin of their national (Runic) alphabet is still disputed.
The ancient Arabic alphabet was very imperfect; it not only wanted marks for the short and in part even for the long vowels, but it often expressed several consonants by the same sign, e.g.
Others are the sibilation of consonantal i and the assibilation of -di- to some sound like that of English j (denoted by B in the local variety of Latin alphabet), as in vidadu, " viamdo," i.e.
These names, all of them foreign, were written in an alphabet of a limited number of characters, and were therefore analysed with comparative ease.
The Greek alphabet, reinforced by a few signs borrowed from demotic, rendered the spoken tongue so accurately that four distinct, though closely allied, dialects are readily distinguishable in Coptic MSS.; ample remains are found of renderings of the Scriptures into all these dialects.
The monks whose task it was to perfect the adaptation of the alphabet to the dialects of Egypt and translate the Scriptures out of the Greek, flung away all pagan traditions.
The infinite superiority of the Greek alphabet with its full notation of vowels was readily seen, but piety and custom as yet barred the way to its full adoption.
He followed him to Rome in 44, and is said to have criticized him with the utmost candour, bidding him repeat the letters of the alphabet before acting on an angry impulse.
One of the most interesting results of these recent researches has been the discovery of numerous inscriptions in the native language of the country, and written in an alphabet peculiar to Lycia.
The alphabet was derived from the Doric alphabet of Rhodes, but ten other characters were added to it to express vocalic and other sounds not found in Greek.
It is supposed that sea-going merchants, mostly Dravidians, and not Aryans, availing themselves of the monsoons, traded in the 7th century B.C. from the south-west ports of India to Babylon, and that there they became acquainted with a Semitic alphabet, which they brought back with them, and from which all the alphabets now used in India, Burma, Siam and Ceylon have been gradually evolved.
They are of the Mongol family; their language belongs to the so-called Turanian group, is polysyllabic, possesses an alphabet of 11 vowels and 14 consonants, and a script named En-mun.
The learner is to be led forward to the unknown by being made to hark back to more familiar groupings of the alphabet of nature which he is coming to recognize with some certainty.
One is the exaggeration of the possibilities of resolution into separate elements that is due to the acceptance of the postulate of an alphabet of nature.
The ideal alphabet would indicate one sound by one symbol, and not more than one sound by the same symbol.
It is clear, therefore, that the best alphabet would not long indicate very precisely the sounds which it was intended to represent.
Wherever the alphabet may have originated, there seems no doubt that its first importation in a form closely resembling that with which we are familiar in modern times was from the Phoenicians to the Greeks.
According to this view the alphabet was borrowed by the Phoenicians from the cursive (hieratic) form of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The resemblances between some Egyptian symbols and some symbols of the Phoenician alphabet are striking; in other cases the differences are no less remarkable.
The alphabet devised by the Egyptians consisted of twenty-four letters.
Egyptologists are at variance on the question whether this alphabet was the original, or had any influence upon the development of the Phoenician alphabet.
On the other hand, Professor Spiegelberg, 3 writing soon after Professor Breasted, says that investigation has not as yet furnished proof that the Phoenician alphabet is of Egyptian origin, though he admits that in some respects the development of the two alphabets, both without vowel signs, is curiously parallel.
Evans, who argues ingeniously that the alphabet was taken over from Crete by the " Cherethites and Pelethites " or Philistines, who established for themselves settlements on the coast of Palestine.
Symbols like the letters of the alphabet have been found in European soil painted upon pebbles belonging to a stratum between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic age.
Elsewhere several series of such symbols resembling inscriptions have been found scratched on bones of the same period s For the history of writing these may be important, but for the history of the alphabet, as we know it, they are not in question.
The alphabet may have originated as Dr Evans thinks, but at present the proof is not conclusive.
Though the chronology of the period is somewhat uncertain, the date must be in the first half of the 9th century B.C. It is to be remembered, however, that important as this monument is for the development of the alphabet, and because it can be dated with tolerable accuracy, the dialect and alphabet of Moab are not in themselves proof for the Phoenician forms which influenced the peoples of the Aegean, and through them Western Europe.
As already mentioned, the twenty-two symbols of the Phoenician alphabet indicate consonantal sounds only.
The Phoenician alphabet possessed many more aspirates than were required in Greek, which tended more and more to drop all its aspirates.
It therefore made the aspirates A, E, Q and the semi-vowel I into vowels, and apparently converted the semi-vowel Y = w into the vowel which it placed at the end of the alphabet and substituted for it as the sixth symbol of the alphabet the letter F with the old value of w.
The discovery of a large number of very archaic inscriptions in the island of Thera, which was made by Freiherr Hiller von Gartringen in 1896, has shown that the earliest Greek - alphabet was even more like the Phoenician than had of been heretofore believed.
The symbol for 13 in Thera is nearer than any previously known to the Semitic letter (9) though, as not infrequently happens in the transference of a symbol from one people to another, its position is inverted - a fate which in this alphabet has befallen also A (Semitic L, Thera 1), and possibly o (Semitic N, Thera M).
The Dorians apparently were without an alphabet, and consequently when Phoenician traders and pirates occupied the place left vacant by the downfall of Minos's empire, the people of the island, and of the sea coasts generally, adopted from them the Phoenician alphabet.'
That the alphabet was borrowed and adapted independently by different places not widely separated, and that the earliest Greek alphabets did not spread from one or a few centres in Greek lands, seem clear (a) from the different Greek sounds for which the Phoenician symbols were utilized; (b) from the different symbols which were employed to represent sounds which the Phoenicians did not possess, and for which, therefore, they had no symbols.
The Phoenician alphabet was an alphabet of consonants only, but all Greek alphabets as yet known agree in employing A, E, I, 0, Y as vowels.
In the Phoenician alphabet Zain was the seventh letter, occupying the same position and having the same form approximately (i) as the early Greek Z, while in pronunciation it was a voiced s-sound; Samech () followed the 'symbol for n of and was the ordinary s-sound, though, as we have seen, e it is in different Greek states at the earliest period as well as E; after the symbol for p came Zade (v), which was a strong palatal s, though in name it corresponds to the Greek Nra; while lastly Shin (W) follows the symbol for r, and was an sh-sound.
On the other hand, no doubt Athens in 403 B.C. officially adopted the Ionic alphabet and gave up the old Attic alphabet.
On the other hand, if we remember the large number of symbols belonging to the prehistoric script, it will seem at least as easy to believe that the persons who, by adding new letters to the Phoenician alphabet, attempted to bring the symbols more into accordance with the sounds of the Greek language, may have borrowed from this older script.
It is now generally admitted that the improvements of the alphabet were made by traders in the interests of commerce, and that these improvements began from the great Greek emporia of Asia Minor, above all from Miletus.
Symbols exactly like k, X, and (a), X, are found in the Carian alphabet, and transliterated by Professor Sayce 1 as v (and ii), h and kh respectively.
If the Carian alphabet goes back to the prehistoric script, why should not Miletus have borrowed them from it?
We have already seen that, in the earliest alphabets of Thera and Corinth, the ordinary symbol for E in the Ionic alphabet was used for.
Centuries passed, however, before this symbol was generally adopted, Athens using only 0 for o, w and ov, the spurious diphthong, until the adoption of the whole Ionic alphabet in 403 B.C.'
The discoveries of the last quarter of the 19th century carried back our knowledge of the Latin alphabet by at least two centuries, although the monuments of an early age which have been discovered are only three.
The inscription runs from right to left, and is in letters which show more clearly than ever that the Roman alphabet is borrowed from the alphabets of the Chalcidian Greek colonies in Italy.
The value of F in the Greek alphabet is w and not f as in Latin.
The surviving portion of the inscription contains examples of all the letters of the early alphabet, though the forms of F and B are fragmentary and doubtful.
As in the Praenestine inscription, the alphabet is still the western (Chalcidian) alphabet.
In the Chalcidian alphabet the symbol for x was placed after the symbols common to all Greek alphabets, a position which X retains in the Latin (and also in the Faliscan) alphabet.
Much more important than the scanty remains of Faliscan is the Oscan alphabet.
The history of this alphabet is different from that of Rome.
It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.
Unfortunately, the remains of that civilization are very scanty, and our knowledge of the official alphabet outside Capua, and at a later period Pompeii, is practically confined to two important inscriptions, the tabula Agnonensis, now in the British Museum, and the Cippus Abellanus, which is now kept in the Episcopal Seminary at Nola.
Of Etruscan origin also is the Umbrian alphabet, represented first and foremost in the bronze tablets from Gubbio (the ancient Iguvium).
The Etruscan alphabet, like the Latin, was of Chalcidian origin.
That it took over the whole Chalcidian alphabet is rendered probable by the survival in Umbrian and Oscan, its daughter alphabets, of forms which are not found in Etruscan itself.
As the old digamma was kept, this new sign was placed after those borrowed from the Chalcidian - alphabet.
Q is found on Etruscan inscriptions, but not in the alphabet series preserved; neither Umbrian nor Oscan has this form.
Evidence in favour of such a position for the Latin alphabet is not forthcoming.
At a much later epoch it was introduced into the Latin alphabet by the emperor Claudius to represent y, and the sound which was written as i or u in maximus, maxumus, &c.
It has been argued that the runes of the Teutonic peoples have been derived from a form of the Etruscan alphabet, inscriptions in which are spread over a great part of northern Italy, but of which the most characteristic are found in the neighbourhood of Lugano, and in Tirol near Innsbruck, Botzen and Trent.
Wimmer's own view is that the runes were developed from the Latin alphabet in use at the end of the 2nd century A.D.
The strongest argument for the derivation from the Latin alphabet is undoubtedly the value of f attaching to P; for, as we have seen, the Greek value of this symbol is w, and its value as f arises only by abbreviation from FH.
It is strange, therefore, if the Roman alphabet, which formed the model for the runes, was that of two whole centuries later, and even then the formal alphabet of inscriptions.
There we are told that for purposes of divination certain signs were scratched on slips of wood from a fruit-bearing tree (including, no doubt, the beech; cp. book, German Buck, and Buchstabe, a letter of the alphabet); the slips were thrown down promiscuously on a white cloth, whence the expert picked them up at random and by them interpreted fate.
He thus fixes the date at the same period as Isaac Taylor had done in his Greeks and Goths and The Alphabet.
Taylor, however, derived the runes from the alphabet of a Greek colony on the Black Sea.
If this view (which is identical with Taylor's) be true, we have a parallel in the Armenian alphabet, which is similarly used for a new value of the sounds.
However this may be, the ogam alphabet shows some knowledge of phonetics and some attempt to classify the sounds accordingly.
This alphabet, which is much more difficult to read than the bolder Cyrillic founded on the Greek uncial, survived for ordinary purposes in Croatia and in the islands of the Quarnero till the 17th century.
The Greek alphabet, with which it was most Symbols of Ogam Alphabet.
The special forms of the alphabet - the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic - which have been adopted by certain of the Slavonic peoples are both sprung directly frc m the Greek alphabet of the ninth century A.D., with the considerable additions rendered necessary by the much greater variety of sounds in Slavonic as compared with Greek.
To a much later era belongs the Armenian alphabet, which, according to tradition, was revealed to Bishop Mesrob in a dream.
Taylor contends that the alphabet is Iranian in origin, but the circum.
While the Phoenician alphabet was thus fertile in developing daughter alphabets in the West, the progress of writing was no less great in the East, first among the Semitic peoples, and through them among other peoples still more remote.
The carrying of the alphabet to the Greeks by the Phoenicians at an early period affords no clue to the period when Semitic ingenuity constructed an alphabet out of a heterogeneous multitude of signs.
If it be possible to assign to some of the monuments discovered in Arabia by Glaser a date not later than 1500 B.C., the origin of the alphabet and its dissemination are carried back to a much earlier period than had hitherto been supposed.
The oldest records in Aramaic were found at Sindjirli, in the north of Syria, in 1890, and date to about Boo B.C. At this epoch the Aramaic. Aramaic alphabet, or at any rate the alphabet of these records, is but little different from that shown upon the Moabite stone.
In the land of the Nabataeans, a people of Arabian origin, the Aramaic alphabet was employed in a form which ultimately de- Arabic. veloped into the modern Arabic alphabet.
Another form of the Aramaic alphabet, namely, the so-called Estrangela writing which was in use amongst the Christians of northern Syria, was carried by Nestorian missionaries into Central Asia and became the ancestor of a multitude of alphabets spreading through the Turkomans as far east as Manchuria.
Semitic. Till the 19th century the earliest form known of this alphabet was the Ethiopian or Geez, in which Christian documents have been preserved from the early centuries of our era, and which is still used by the Abyssinians for liturgical purposes.
These are distinguished by differences in grammar and phraseology rather than in alphabet.
The Ethiopic system is thus rather a syllabary than an alphabet.
It is noticeable that the changes thus established were made upon the basis of the old Sabaean script, which in its oldest form is evidently closely related to the old Phoenician, though it would be premature to say that the Sabaean alphabet is derived from the Phoenician.
It is probable therefore, a priori, that from the Aramaic alphabet the later writing of Persia should be developed.
The conclusion is confirmed by the coins, the only records with Iranian script which go back so far; but the special form of Aramaic from which the Iranian alphabet is derived must at present be left undecided.
The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.
The Pahlavi is properly the alphabet of the Sassanid kings who ruled in Persia from A.D.
The name is, however, also applied to the alphabet on the coins of the Parthian or Arsacid dynasty, which in its beginnings was clearly under Greek influence; while later, when a knowledge of Greek had disappeared, the attempts to imitate the old legends are as grotesque as those in western Europe to copy the inscriptions on Roman coins.
It was always a local alphabet, and never attained the importance of its rival.
As Buhler shows in detail, the Kharosthi alphabet is derived from the alphabet of the Aramaic inscriptions which date from the earlier part of the Achaemenid period.
The Aramaic alphabet passed into India with the staff of subordinate officials by whom Darius organized his conquests there.
The people of India already possessed their Brahmi alphabet, of these alphabets is drawn from this work and from the same author's Indische Palciographie in the Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie, to which is attached an atlas of plates (Strassburg, 1896), and in which a full bibliography is given.
The alphabet, according to Taylor, shows no resemblance to any northern Semitic script, while its stiff, straight lines and its forms seem like the Sabaean.
Buhler, on the other hand, shows from literary evidence that writing was in common use in India in the 5th, possibly in the 6th, century B.C. The oldest alphabet must have been the Brahmi lipi, which is found all over India.
But he rejects Taylor's derivation of this alphabet from the Sabaean script, and contends that it is borrowed from the North Semitic. To the pedantry of the Hindu he attributes its main characteristics, viz.
Further evidence as to the early history of this alphabet must be discovered before we can definitely decide what its origin may be.
How this alphabet was modified locally, and how it spread to other Eastern lands, must be sought in the specialist works to which reference has already been made.
The Semitic alphabet is excellently treated by Lidzbarski in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1901); his Nordsemitische Epigraphik (1898) has excellent facsimiles and tables of the alphabets, and there are many contributions to the history of the alphabet in the same writer's Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (Giessen, since 1900).
Elsewhere in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica the articles on the various languages and under the headings INSCRIPTIONS, PALAEOGRAPHY, WRITING, &c., should be consulted, while separate articles are given on each letter of the English alphabet.
Although the heathen Angles had their own runic alphabet, it is unlikely that any poetry was written down until a generation had grown up trained in the use of the Latin letters learned from Christian missionaries.
Besides streets running east and west, which are named by the letters of the alphabet, and streets running north and south, which are numbered, there are avenues named for various states, which radiate from two foci - the Capitol and the White House - or traverse the city without any fixed plan.
The oldest specimen of a distinctively Ionian alphabet is the famous inscription of the mercenaries of Psammetichus, in Upper Egypt, as to which the only doubt is whether the Psammetichus in question is the first or the second, and consequently whether the inscription is to be dated 01.40 or 01.47.
The fact that the Phoenician Vau was retained in the Greek alphabets, and the vowel v added, shows that when the alphabet was introduced the sound denoted by was still in full vigour.
It seems probable therefore that the introduction of the alphabet is not later than the composition of the Homeric poems.
But the letter was one of the original alphabet, and was retained universally as a numeral.
But between these lays and Homer we must place the cultivation of epic poetry as an art.2 The pre-Homeric lays doubtless furnished the elements of such a poetry - the alphabet, so to speak, of the art; but they must have been refined and transmuted before they formed poems like the Iliad and Odyssey.
The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.
Q the letter which immediately succeeds P in the alphabet of Latin and the modern languages of western Europe.
It represents the Koppa of the earliest Greek alphabets surviving in that form of the Ionic alphabet, which ultimately superseded all others, merely as the numerical symbol for 90.
In the Phoenician alphabet a sibilant Zade (Tzaddi) stands between q and p. Hence Q is the nineteenth letter in the Phoenician alphabet, the eighteenth in the Greek numerical alphabet, which alone contains it, the sixteenth (owing to the omission of 8 and E) in the Latin, and (from the addition of J) the seventeenth in the English alphabet.
This is also the earliest form in the Latin alphabet, but forms with the upright turned to the right as in a modern Q are found in the Republican period, while this tail becomes longer and curved in the early Empire.
It remained in regular use until the 4th century; before that time the Greek alphabet occurs in Cyprus only in a few inscriptions erected for visitors.'
In Citium and Idalium, on the other hand, a Phoenician dialect and alphabet were in use from the time of Sargon onward.'
His first subject was Aaron Baumann, a co-religionist, whom he taught to enunciate the letters of the alphabet, and to articulate certain ordinary phrases.
He next devised a sign alphabet for the use of one hand only, and in 1749 he brought his second pupil before the Paris Academy of Sciences, the members of which were astonished at the results he had accomplished.
In later times the story of a Phoenician immigrant of that name became current, to whom was ascribed the introduction of the alphabet, the invention of agriculture and working in bronze and of civilization generally.
But the Septuagint appends the book to Jeremiah (Baruch intervening), just as it adds Ruth to Judges; thus making the number of the books of the Hebrew Canon the same as that of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, viz.
Each poem contains twenty-two stanzas, corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet; and each stanza begins with its proper letter.
There is no evidence that this artificial reckoning according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet was ever much more than a fanciful suggestion.
The metropolitan police are divided into 21 divisions, to which letters of the alphabet are assigned for purposes of distinction.
He wrote a chronicle of the monastery and several biographies - the life of Gerhard Groot, of Florentius Radewyn, of a Flemish lady St Louise, of Groot's original disciples; a number of tracts on the monastic life - The Monk's Alphabet, The Discipline of Cloisters, A Dialogue of Novices, The Life of the Good Monk, The Monk's Epitaph, Sermons to Novices, Sermons to Monks, The Solitary Life, On Silence, On Poverty, Humility and Patience; two tracts for young people - A Manual of Doctrine for the Young, and A Manual for Children; and books for edification - On True Compunction, The Garden of Roses, The Valley of Lilies, The Consolation of the Poor and the Sick, The Faithful Dispenser, The Soul's Soliloquy, The Hospital of the Poor.
Thumi Sambhota accordingly invented an alphabet for the Tibetan language on the model of the Indian alphabets then in use.
The Czech (Cech) alphabet is the same as the English, with the omission of the letters q, w and x.
It is based chiefly on the uncial Greek alphabet, from which indeed most of the letters are obviously derived, and several orthographical peculiarities, e.g.
Apart from the texts mentioned above, the only remains of the Gothic language are the proper names and occasional words which occur in Greek and Latin writings, together with some notes, including the Gothic alphabet, in a Salzburg MS. of the 10th century, and two short inscriptions on a torque and a spear-head, discovered at Buzeo (Walachia) and Kovel (Volhynia) respectively.
The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in all but one of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Little Russian, but to that of Church Slavonic. In both of these g is frequently pronounced h.
The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels é and ó are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.
So long as the Rumanians were spiritually united with the other Orthodox nations, and so long as they used the Slavonic or Cyrillic alphabet, they would practically be cut off from the Latin West.
If, however, they could be induced to discard the old Slavonic alphabet and substitute for it the Latin, and could be brought to recognize their national and ethnical unity with ancient Rome, it was hoped that then they would be more easily induced to enter into the unity of faith.
It was by this latter route that the traders brought back to India the Brahmi alphabet, the art of brickmaking and the legend of the Flood.
The zero, called " nought," is of course a different thing from the letter 0 of the alphabet, but there may be a historical connexion between them (§ 79).
The Hebrews had a notation containing separate signs (the letters of the alphabet) for numbers from t to to, then for multiplies of to up to zoo, and then for multiples of too up to 400, and later up to moo.
Those persons who possess them are also apt to make spatial arrangements of days of the week or the month, months of the year, the letters of the alphabet, &c.; and it is practically certain that only children would make such arrangements of letters of the alphabet.
You can navigate this site by subject or by alphabet.
The Croats, however, are Roman Catholics and use the Latin alphabet, while the Serbs belong to the Orthodox Church and use the Cyrillic alphabet, augmented by special signs for the special sounds of the Serb language.
Cyril and 1Vlethodius used the Greek alphabet somewhat modified and adapted to the necessities of the Slavonic language.
That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.
His thorough knowledge of the Servian language led him to reform the Cyrillic alphabet, in which several letters were redundant and certain sounds of the spoken language were unrepresented.
His efforts to make Servian writers adopt his reformed alphabet, and accept the language of the common people as a literary language, met with fierce opposition, especially on the part of the clergy and friends of the artificial Slaveno-Servian literary language.
In the same work, the current mode of star-nomenclature by the letters of the Greek alphabet made its appearance.
He mapped 324, chose out nine, which he designated by the letters of the alphabet, to be standards of measurement for the rest, and ascertained the coincidence in position between the double yellow ray derived from the flame of burning sodium and the pair of dark lines named by him " D " in the solar spectrum.
The literary language of the two nations is identical, but the Croats use the Latin alphabet,' while the Serbs prefer a modified form of the Cyrillic. The two nations have also been politically separated since the 7th century, if not for a longer period; but this division has produced little difference of character or physical type.
The Orthodox Serbs, moreover, use a modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet, while the Roman Catholic Croats use Latin characters, except in a few liturgical books which are written in the ancient Glagolitic script.
This is preserved for us in some 36 short inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., and is written in a peculiar alphabet derived from the Etruscan, and written from right to left, but showing some traces of the influence of the Latin alphabet.
After the partition, the invention of the Armenian alphabet, and the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, 410, drew the Armenians together, and the discontinuance of Greek in the Holy Offices relaxed the ecclesiastical dependence on Constantinople, which ceased entirely when the Patriarch, 491, refused to accept the decrees of the council of Chalcedon.
They possessed the elements of a higher civilization (gold coinage, the Greek alphabet), and, according to Caesar, were the bravest people of Gaul.
Between N and 0 the Phoenician and the Ionic Greek alphabet have a sibilant - in Greek = x.
The Western Greek alphabet had a different symbol, X, for the sound of x and placed it at the end, as did its descendant the Latin alphabet.
In many varieties of the Greek alphabet this symbol was used, as it always was in Latin, for the long as well as the short o-sound and also for the long vowel (in the Ionic alphabet written ov) which arose from contraction of two vowels or the loss of a consonant (57jXoUTE=677XOere, o'lxovs = oircovs).
As this was placed at the end of the ordinary (not the numeral) Greek alphabet, "alpha and omega" has become a proverbial phrase for first and last.
The Hebrew and probably the Phoenician name for 0 was Ain (Ayin), and in the Semitic alphabet, which does not indicate vowels, the symbol stood for a "voiced glottal stop" and also for a "voiced velar spirant" (Zimmern).
Neither bears any trace of derivation from the Sanskrit alphabet.
Has difficulty learning to sing or recite the alphabet.
All thanks to St. Cyril, who wanted to invent an alphabet that took the best from the available ones.
These monks would also have taught the alphabet to the Picts using the Gaelic names of trees to express the sound of the letters.
First they learn the alphabet which they then use to form simple words.
Once he had mastered the alphabet he went straight into the Catechism.
Russian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet dating from around the ninth century.
All the words of the phonetic alphabet have been hidden in the grid below.
Latin and the modern Roman alphabet were also adapted from the Phoenician alphabet (and then from the Greek ).
Give yourself a Viking name, learn the runic alphabet and get a certificate signed by Chief God, Odin.
Well, they're the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, arranged in order in twenty-two sections of eight lines each.
Geoffrey Driver, who was Professor of Semitic Philology at Oxford, argued for an essentially Egyptian origin for the North Semitic alphabet.
Students whose mother tongue has a non-roman alphabet are often slower learners at first.
We have cards, bookmarks and posters of the fingerspelling alphabet (sometimes called the manual alphabet ).
Sighted people can learn the Braille alphabet from its pages.
Genes are a chemical alphabet held in every cell of the body.
We were shown a huge consignment of custom made alphabet tiles that will be used in local primary schools.
The tablets from Ugarit were found to have been written in an alphabetic cuneiform that might have preceded the Phoenician alphabet.
Writing and logical thinking, the Greek alphabet being the indispensable prerequisite for Greek philosophy, drew a circle to expel the inner demons.
These are the alphabet and some sounds like sh and ee that need two letters to be written, and so are called digraphs.
Add foam or rubber alphabet letters and small fishnets to the play center.
They are visual representations, yet the form of Japanese hiragana and the Roman alphabet is quite different.
Deafblind manual interpreters spell words into a deafblind person's hand using the deafblind manual alphabet or the block alphabet.
Have these little kids running around learning the phonetic alphabet, me being a school ma'am.
Geoffrey Driver, who was Professor of Semitic philology at Oxford, argued for an essentially Egyptian origin for the North Semitic alphabet.
Here are 10 ideas for teaching pronunciation using the phonetic alphabet.
You should be familiar with the standard international phonetic alphabet as shown in Table 9-1.
Often a pithy saying or proverb has been written in the chosen script beside the alphabet.
From the alphabet soup, which satisfies my requirements best?
My group chose to buy alphabet spaghetti, pasta sauce and cans of coke.
It gives the Sanskrit text transliterated into the Roman alphabet, a translation and a detailed commentary.
In writing Albanian the Latin character is employed by the Ghegs, the Greek by the Tosks; neither alphabet suffices to represent the manifold sounds of the language, and various supplementary letters or distinguishing signs are necessary.
Marconi's system of electric wave telegraphy consists therefore in setting up at the transmitting station the devices just described for sending out groups of damped electric waves of the above kind in long or short trains corresponding to the dash or dot signals of the Morse alphabet.
Hence we should infer that the Tables in Umbrian alphabet were at all events older than 90 B.C.
An outline of the history of the Pali alphabet has been given, with illustrations and references to the authorities, in Rhys Davids's Buddhist India, pp. 107-140.
In the Phoenician alphabet the earliest forms are or more rounded The rounded form appears also in the earliest Aramaic (see ALPHABET).
We know something of the language of the Marrucini from an inscription known as the "Bronze of Rapino," which belongs to about the middle of the 3rd century B.C. It is written in Latin alphabet, but in a dialect which belongs to the North Oscan group (see Paeligni).
Thence the difficulty of substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic writing partly borrowed by the Annamese from the letters of the celestial empire.
The Greek names of the letters, their forms, and the order of the symbols show that the Greek alphabet as we know it must have been imported by or from a Semitic people, and there is no evidence to contradict ancient tradition that this people was the Phoenicians.
The Greeks who migrated to Cyprus, possibly as the result of the Dorian invasion, adopted a syllabary, not an alphabet (see Plate; also Writing).
In this case the borrowing of the Greek alphabet must long precede any Phoenician record we possess.
That Wimmer postdates the introduction of the runic alphabet seems clear from the archaic forms and method of writing.
It delighted me inexpressibly to find that they knew the manual alphabet.
Mr. Gilman read all the papers to me by means of the manual alphabet.
Just think, she cannot use the manual alphabet!
When Miss Keller puts her work in typewritten form, she cannot refer to it again unless some one reads it to her by means of the manual alphabet.
Miss Keller talks to herself absent-mindedly in the manual alphabet.
You will be relieved to know that I have limited this to the first three letters rather than the complete alphabet.
It has an extended roman alphabet to accurately and consistently represent the Thai alphabet.
Some of the runes are cryptic tree runes which are easily deciphered by a numeric code based on the futhark - the runic alphabet.
The second of the three systems was the sexagesimal system, with numerals denoted by letters of the Arabic alphabet.
Alphabet biscuits letter shaped biscuits sweetened only with grape juice.
Learn how to use a version of sign language called British two-handed finger spelling alphabet.
Chinese orthography can be difficult for those who are beginners to using logograms instead of an alphabet.
As they get older, move on to chunky wooden puzzles in the shapes of animals like Barnyard Fun, vehicles or the alphabet.
Popular themes include favorite television and movie characters, alphabet and number invites, and colorful pictures of boys and girls.
Why not use alphabet blocks as cake toppers instead?
For example, you could hand out letters of the alphabet and ask guests to create a name based on that letter.
Ladybugs, vehicles, baby animals, the alphabet and ducks are popular shower themes.
Moms Who Think has several lists of baby girls names, including the most popular names for each letter of the alphabet.
You can do a lot with stuffed animals and small figurines, not to mention things that your child can actually use, such as Beatrix Potter books, puzzles, and letter figurines to learn the alphabet.
The ABC's Zoo Learning Game - By combining colorful animals and the alphabet, children won't even know they are learning as they have fun.
From simple alphabet books to biographies of historical figures, there is something available for nearly every young reader.
The titles are very educational, covering topics such as the alphabet, body parts, holidays, and seasons.
Older toddlers who may be entering preschool might also enjoy books that have a learning element, such as alphabet books or counting books.
Don't be intimidated by this alphabet soup of chemical names.
It can provide spellings in both English and the Yiddish alphabet, and can also provide pronunciations.
Omniglot provides a brief history of the Yiddish language, and also includes the alphabet with pronunciation.
The Hebrew "alephbet" comes from the first two letters of the Hebrew alphabet - "aleph" and "bet."
For example, a set of alphabet stamps can be used an unlimited number of times.
You can find alphabet stickers in script or block letters, caps and lower case.
You'll never need to worry about purchasing a whole sheet of expensive alphabet stickers to make one layout title.
This large set includes no less than eight backgrounds, as well as a full alphabet and number set.
Stamp the quote onto a strip of ribbon using your favorite alphabet stamps.
If you're going to use a quote as your page title, combine sticker letters, alphabet brads, and chipboard to create a fun mixed media effect.
Snowbiz is a decorative font featuring snowmen holding each letter of the alphabet.
Alphabet--From simple to fancy, you can find many alphabet postmarks.
Use leftover alphabet stickers to make a random collage of letters along a frame that will be used on a page about reading, writing, or going to school.
The Cricut makes it easy to create a number of projects for kids, including a simple alphabet scrapbook.
Use your Cricut to cut out capital letters of the entire alphabet in the font of your choice, using various patterned paper scraps.
The Life's a Beach font cartridge has many great shapes for summer and beach themed layouts as well as an alphabet you could easily use throughout the year.
The cartridge contains the legendary Walt Disney alphabet that is seen throughout the parks and on all licensed apparel.
Similar to other font cartridges offered by Provo Craft, the Disney alphabet font can be cut in silhouette, shadow, charm, tag, and normal shapes which make this a versatile font to use on Disney vacation scrapbooks.
Purchasing alphabet stickers can be a pain as well, since there are always certain letters you seem to run out of first.
With printable alphabet stickers, it doesn't matter if everyone's name in your family starts with the letter "M."
Get several cans of alphabet Spaghettios, open them and place the contents into a bowl.
The more people you have, the more alphabet Spaghettios you'll need.
The team or person who finishes the alphabet first, wins.
Use large alphabet cutters in capital letters to cut out the words "High School Musical" in yellow fondant.
Mother and daughter bracelets are often personalized with names that are spelled out in alphabet letter beads.
Jewelry designer Mackenzie Miller handcrafts a beautiful mother daughter bracelet set using striking peachy pink colored freshwater pearls and round silver alphabet beads to spell out the chosen names.
Fig Newmans - Along with their Alphabet Cookies and Champion Chips, you'll love these Fig "Newmans."
This saying is very simple and uses something that we are all familiar with...the alphabet.
An "A" ticket would be used for something basic such as the actual park admission, while the other letters at the beginning of the alphabet were used as a sort of climbing scale to determine the value of a ride.
Words are very important and that's why one of the first things that children learn in preschool (or at least they try to learn) is the alphabet.
The code letters use the Greek Alphabet.
In fact, video games for kids are designed to be educational, making the process of learning the alphabet, mathematics, logic, reasoning, puzzle solving, and strategizing... fun!
That is to say that the mobile devices were equipped with keyboards containing individual buttons for each of the 26 letters of the alphabet, as well as necessary additional buttons like the shift key and space bar.
Many use familiar characters to teach basic things such as shape matching, the alphabet, and counting.
Children may be taught the alphabet and numbers and to recognize colors and shapes.
The basic characters are called radicals (Bu Shou) and are the Chinese alphabet.
For example, when learning how to write, a child must learn and memorize the alphabet first.
This is especially good for boys learning their alphabet.
It is best if your child can both say the alphabet and write his letters.
However, if your child knows her alphabet and seems eager to learn more, it is fine to go ahead and begin teaching letter sounds.
Simple flash cards, alphabet songs, counting games and a pencil and paper will help your child learn nearly everything needed.
As long as time is spent consistently teaching a child skills such as the alphabet, reading readiness, writing and numbers, there really is no one choice that is best.
Deciding how to teach the alphabet is easier said than done.
There are numerous ways to teach your child the alphabet.
The more you can get your child to sing the song, the better he or she will get at reciting the alphabet.
If you have a child trying to learn the alphabet, a set of brightly colored alphabet magnets is a must.
As soon as possible, start reading alphabet books with your child.
If you want to teach your child to write the letters of the alphabet, sidewalk chalk can be your best friend.
Using flash cards to teach the alphabet doesn't have to be boring.
In today's technologically advanced world, there are many games that can help teach your child the alphabet.
When thinking about how to teach the alphabet, try to look for opportunities to work on the ABCs with your child during everyday activities.
Ask family and friends to buy your child toys for his birthday or other holidays that will help him learn his alphabet.
Carry printable alphabet letters that your child can color while you wait at the doctor's office.
When cooking, make alphabet shaped cookies for dessert or gelatin molds in the shape of letters.
Kindergartners can trace or write the alphabet and spell their names.
Most of these students can match colors and shapes, recite the alphabet and name the numbers from one to 10.
Once the child has mastered the letters of the alphabet and what sounds they make, he can move on to the Learn to Read area.
You can search for occupations, browse by field, or browse by alphabet.
While it's probably not advisable to pick a career based solely on where it falls in the alphabet, it can be helpful to see a full list of careers from A to Z when you're considering the available options.