Alloys Sentence Examples
A number of iron alloys have been examined by Mme.
Alloys of copper and silicon were prepared by Deville in 1863.
Certain non-magnetizable alloys of nickel, chromium-nickel and chromium-manganese were rendered magnetizable by annealing.
Heusler 2 in 1903 that certain alloys of the non-magnetic metal manganese with other non-magnetic substances were strongly magnetizable, their susceptibility being in some cases equal to that of cast iron.
In what follows we shall confine our attention principally to metallic alloys.Advertisement
The author of these receipts is not under any delusion that he is transmuting metals; the MS. is merely a workshop manual in which are described processes in daily use for preparing metals for false jewellery, but it argues considerable knowledge of methods of making alloys and colouring metals.
Later, however, as in the Commentary on this work written by Synesius to Dioscorus, priest of Serapis at Alexandria, which probably dates from the end of the 4th century, a changed attitude becomes apparent; the more practical parts of the receipts are obscured or omitted, and the processes for preparing alloys and colouring metals, described in the older treatise, are by a mystical interpretation represented as resulting in real transmutation.
Other branches of this subject are treated in the articles Chemical Action; Energetics; Solution; Alloys; Thermochemistry.
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
Other alloys may be produced, such as bronze, or German silver, by selecting solutions (usually cyanides) from which the current is able to deposit the constituent metals simultaneously.Advertisement
They are readily withdrawn from the surface of the lead, and are worked up into antimony (arsenic) - tin-lead and antimony-lead alloys.
Iron and its alloys, including the various kinds of steel, though exhibiting magnetic phenomena in a pre-eminent degree, are not the only substances capable of magnetization.
Practically the metals iron, nickel and cobalt, and some of their alloys and compounds constitute a class by themselves and are called ferromagnetic substances.
In the case of the ferromagnetic metals and some of their alloys and compounds, the permeability has generally a much higher value.
Alloys containing different proportions of nickel were found to exhibit the phenomenon, but the two critical temperatures were less widely separated.Advertisement
They found that the hysteresis-loss, which at ordinary temperatures is very small, was increased in liquid air, the increase for the alloys containing less than 30% of nickel being enormous.
Steinmetz's formula applies only for very weak inductions when the alloys are at the ordinary temperature, but at the temperature of liquid air it becomes applicable through a wide range of inductions.
The permeability of the alloys containing from 1 to 4.7% of nickel, though less than that of good soft iron for magnetizing forces up to about 20 or 30, was greater for higher forces, the induction reached in a field of 240 being nearly 21,700.
The following table gives the exact composition of some alloys which were found to be non-magnetizable, or nearly so, in a field of 320.
A very small difference in the constitution often produces a remarkable effect upon the magnetic quality, and it unfortunately happens that those alloys which are hardest magnetically are generally also hardest mechanically and extremely difficult to work; they might however be used rolled or as castings.Advertisement
In all such magnetizable alloys the presence of manganese appears to be essential, and there can be little doubt that the magnetic quality of the mixtures is derived solely from this component.
If this view is correct, it may also be possible to prepare magnetic alloys of chromium, the only other paramagnetic metals of the iron group.
On the one hand he worked out the general theory of the magnetic circuit in the dynamo (in conjunction with his brother Edward), and the theory of alternating currents, and conducted a long series of observations on the phenomena attending magnetization in iron, nickel and the curious alloys of the two which can exist both in a magnetic and non-magnetic state at the same temperature.
The term "alloy" does not necessarily imply obedience to the laws of definite and multiple proportion or even uniformity throughout the material; but some alloys are homogeneous and some are chemical compounds.
But modern work has shown that, although alloys sometimes contain solid solutions, the solid alloy as a whole is often far more like a conglomerate rock than a uniform solution.Advertisement
For example, if vapours of the volatile metals cadmium, zinc and magnesium are allowed to act on platinum or palladium, alloys are produced.
Fromm have shown that alloys may be precipitated from dilute solutions by zinc, cadmium, tin, lead and copper.
They have also formed in this way certain alloys of definite composition, such as AuCd 3, Cu 2 Cd, and, more interesting still, Cu 3 Sn.
But these methods of forming alloys, although they suggest questions of great interest, cannot receive further discussion here.
Our knowledge of the nature of solid alloys has been much enlarged by a careful study of the process of solidification.
All these mixtures when solidified may fairly be termed alloys.'
This general case has been discussed at length because a careful study of it will much facilitate the comprehension of the similar but more complicated cases that occur in the examination of alloys.
The two sloping lines cutting at the eutectic point are the freezing-point curves of alloys that, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and tin respectively.
If we examine alloys on the tin side we shall find large crystals of tin embedded in the same complex.
Other cases could be quoted, but enough has been said to show the importance of solid solutions and their influence on the mechanical properties of alloys.
But the occasional or indeed frequent existence of chemical compounds in alloys has now been placed beyond doubt.
Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.
There are thus two eutectic alloys B and D, and the alloys with compositions between B and D have higher melting-points.
It is probable that all the alloys of compositions between B and D, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of the compound; the lower eutectic B probably corresponds to a solid complex of mercury and the compound.
This is the case with the copper-tin alloys containing less than 9% by weight of tin; a microscopic examination reveals only one material, a copper-like substance, the tin having disappeared, being in solution in the copper.
The intermediate summits occurring in the freezing-point curves of alloys are usually rounded; this feature is believed to be due to the partial decomposition of the compound which takes place when it melts.
The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.
So far we have been considering alloys containing two metals; the phenomena they present are by no means simple.
But when three or more metals are present, as is often the case in useful alloys, the phenomena are much more complicated.
If now we wish to represent the variations in some property, such as fusibility, we determine the freezing-points of a number of alloys distributed fairly uniformly over the area of the triangle, and, at each point corresponding to an alloy, we erect an ordinate at right angles to the plane of the paper and proportional in length to the freezing temperature of that alloy.
We can then draw a continuous surface through the summits of all these ordinates, and so obtain a freezing-point surface, or liquidus; points above this surface will correspond to wholly liquid alloys.
If now we cut the freezing-point surface by planes parallel to the base ABC we get curves giving us all the alloys whose freezing-point is the same; these isothermals can be projected on to the plane of the triangle and are seen as dotted lines in fig.
Alloys represented by points on Ee, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and bismuth simultaneously; Ee is a eutectic line, as also are E'e and E"e.
It is evident that any other property can be represented by similar diagrams. For example, we can construct the curve of conductivity of alloys of two metals or the surface of conductivity of ternary alloys, and so on for any measurable property.
This is so when gold and silver are alloyed with each other, and is true in the case of alloys of copper.
Lord Rayleigh has pointed out that the difference may arise from the heterogeneity of alloys.
A group of bodies may, however, be yet discovered between alloys and electrolytes in which evidence may be found of some gradual change from wholly metallic to electrolytic conduction.
P. Laurie has determined the electromotive force of a series of copper-zinc, copper-tin and gold-tin alloys, and as the result of his experiments he points to the existence of definite compounds.
Roberts-Austen pointed out that surfusion might be easily measured in metals and in alloys by the sensitive method of recording pyrometry perfected by him.
Dahms in the case of salts, could be measured in the lead-tin alloys.
Manganese not only forms with iron several alloys of great interest, but alloyed with copper it is used for electrical purposes, as an alloy can thus be obtained with an electrical resistance that does not alter with change of temperature; this alloy, called manganin, is used in the construction of resistance-boxes.
One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.
The importance is now widely recognized of considering the mechanical properties of alloys in connexion with the freezing-point curves to which reference has already been made, but the subject is a very complicated one, and all that need be said here, is that when considered in relation to their meltingpoints the pure metals are consistently weaker than alloys.
It has also been stated that alloys of metals with similar meltingpoints have higher tenacity when the atomic volumes of the constituent metals differ than when they are nearly the same.
Alloys have formed a subject of reports to several scientific societies.
Alloys.-Gold forms alloys with most metals, and of these many are of great importance in the arts.
Gold readily alloys with silver and copper to form substances in use from remote times for money, jewelry and plate.
Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.
In France three alloys of the following standards are used for jewelry, 920, 840 and 750.
They may be said to possess a series of bronzes, in which gold and silver replace tin and zinc, all these alloys being characterized by patina having a wonderful range of tint.
Matthiessen observed that the density of alloys, the composition of which varies from AuAg 6 to Au 6 Ag, is greater than that calculated from the densities of the constituent metals.
These alloys are harder, more fusible and more sonorous than pure gold.
The alloys of the formulae AuAg, AuAg 2, AuAg 4 and AuAg 2 o are perfectly homogeneous, and have been studied by Levol.
Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.
The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.
The antimony, or Guss and Fluss, method was practised up till 1846 at the Dresden mint; it is only applicable to alloys containing more than 50% of gold.
Over 10% of copper makes the parting difficult; consequently in such alloys the percentage of copper is diminished by the addition of silver free from copper, or else the copper is removed by a chemical process.
It therefore expands on solidification; and as it retains this property in a number of alloys, the metal receives extensive application in forming type-metals.
Bismuth readily forms alloys with other metals.
It alloys with iron, molybdenum and tungsten, but not with silver or mercury.
It was therefore predicted that the introduction of acetylene on a large scale would be followed by numerous accidents unless copper and its alloys were rigidly excluded from contact with the gas.
The best metals for coinage are gold, silver, platinum, copper, tin, nickel, aluminium, zinc, iron, and their alloys; certain alloys of gold, silver, copper and nickel have the best combination of the required qualities.
The two standard alloys consist respectively of gold 916.6, copper 83.3 and of silver 925, copper 75.
He succeeded in liquefying several gases; he investigated the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes.
Other pairs of alloys, showing more complicated relations, are described in Alloy.
Experiments on alloys are, in some ways, easier to make than on pairs of non-metallic substances, partly owing to the possibility of polishing sections for microscopic examination, and the investigation of alloys has done much to elucidate the general phenomena of solution, of which metallic solution constitutes a special case.
For a simple case to serve as an introduction, let 1000 us again turn to alloys.
The composition of the alloys thus produced could not be predetermined with exactitude; each batch was therefore analysed, a number of them were bulked together or mixed with copper in I.
The metal produces an enormous number of useful alloys, some of which, containing only i or 2% of other metals, combine the lightness of aluminium itself with far greater hardness and strength.
The light copper alloys, in which the proportions just given are practically reversed, are of considerably less utility, for although they are fairly strong, they lack power to resist galvanic action.
This subject is far from being exhausted, and it is not improbable that the alloy-producing capacity of aluminium may eventually prove its most valuable characteristic. In the meantime, ternary light alloys appear the most satisfactory, and tungsten and copper, or tungsten and nickel, seem to be the best substances to add.
Aluminium alloys have been studied in detail by Guillet.
As shown in Alloys, Pl., fig.
Again, as the temperature in turn falls past Ar l this hardenite mother-metal splits up into cementite and ferrite grouped together as pearlite, with the resulting recalescence, and the mass, as shown in Alloys, Pl., fig.
Looking at the matter in a broad way, in all these carbon-iron alloys, both steel and cast irons, part of the carbon may be dissolved in the iron, usually as austenite, e.g.
It is possible that, at some remote day, aluminium, or one of its alloys, may become the great structural material, and iron be used chiefly for those objects for which it is especially fitted, such as magnets, springs and cutting tools.
Pig iron (including non- malleable alloys).
Objects that do not require annealing are produced by dozens per minute, and all the movements of feeding and stamping and removal are often automatic. The ductility of metals and alloys is utilized in wire and tube-drawing through dies on long benches.
This is only possible with malleable and ductile metals and alloys.
But most rolled metals and alloys can be so treated, copper being the best for the purpose.
Casting also is complicated by the shrinkage which occurs in cooling down from the molten state, and in some alloys by the formation of eutectics, and the liquation of some constituents.
There are many metals and alloys which are malleable and ductile, and also readily fused and cast.
But in all the great modern manufacturing processes it is true that metals and alloys, though of the same name, have a different composition according as they are intended for casting on the one hand, or for forging, rolling and drawing on the other.
So also with the numerous bronzes, the phosphor, the delta, the aluminium and other alloys of copper; each is made in several grades to render it suitable for different kinds of treatment.
There are no materials used in manufacture of which the craftsman is able to vary the composition and physical qualities so extensively as the metals and their alloys.
Much light has been thrown on facts which have long been known in a practical way, by the labours of the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (England).
The texture of metals and alloys is related to the character of the operations which can be done upon them.
Broadly the malleable and ductile metals and alloys show a fibrous character when ruptured, the fusible ones a crystalline fracture.
The ductile metals and alloys also extend from Jo to 30 with reduction of area before they fracture, the crystalline ones snap shortly without warning.
The protection and coloration of metals and alloys includes a large number of industries.
Such alloys are used for making the fusible plugs inserted in the furnace-crowns of steam boilers, as a safeguard in the event of the water-level being allowed to fall too low.
No Doubt There Must Be Approximate Relations Between The Atomic And Molecular Heats Of Similar Elements And Compounds, But Considering The Great Variations Of Specific Heat With Temperature And Physical State, In Alloys, Mixtures Or Solutions, And In Allotropic Or Other Modifications, It Would Be Idle To Expect That The Specific Heat Of A Compound Could Be Accurately Deduced By Any Simple Additive Process From That Of Its Constituents.
Nickel is used for the manufacture of domestic utensils, for crucibles, coinage, plating, and for the preparation of various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 35.7%; steel, 64.3%), which has a negligible coefficient of thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which has a negligible thermal coefficient of its electrical resistance.
In the form of a powder, it is obtained by reducing the oxide with zinc and extracting with soda, or by dissolving out the manganese from its alloys with tungsten.
The metal may be used uncombined, but large quantities of ferrotungsten are made in the electric furnace; other alloys are prepared by acting on a mixture of the oxides with aluminium.
By the Greeks and Romans both the metal and its alloys were indifferently known as xaXxos and aes.
Alloys of Copper.-Copper unites with almost all other metals, and a large number of its alloys are of importance in the arts.
The principal alloys in which it forms a leading ingredient are brass, bronze, and German or nickel silver; under these several heads their respective applications and qualities will be found.
Antimony combines readily with many other metals to form alloys, some of which find extensive application in the arts.
For the linings of brasses, various white metals are used, these being alloys of copper, antimony and tin, and occasionally lead.
Its imports during the same year amounted to 899,201 tons, including 172,319 tons of grain and other agricultural produce, 156,620 tons of firewood, 145,255 tons of pig-iron and manufactured iron and steel, 47,201 tons of iron ore, 121,168 tons of copper, -silver, lead, tin and nickel with their ores and alloys, 63,009 tons of zinc, its ores and alloys, 41,029 tons of sulphur ore, phosphates and other raw material for the chemical trade.
In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of gold or silver in ores or alloys; in this article, however, it will be used in a wider technical signification, and will include a description of the methods for the quantitative determination of those elements in ores which affect their value in metallurgical operations.
Silver is widely diffused throughout nature, occurring in minute amount in sea-water, and in the mineral kingdom as the free metal, as an amalgam with mercury and as alloys with gold, platinum, copper and other metals.
Silver readily alloys with many metals, and the admixture generally differs in physical properties from the pure metal.
Consequently copper-silver alloys receive extensive application for coinage and jewelry.
The fusing points of all copper-silver alloys lies below that of pure copper; that of British standard silver is lower than even that of pure silver.
The bronze used for the British and French copper coinage consists of 95% copper, 4% tin and 1% zinc. Many copper-tin alloys employed for machinery-bearings contain a small proportion of zinc, which gives increased hardness.
Alloys prepared in this way, and known as phosphor bronze, may contain only about 1% of phosphorus in the ingot, reduced to a mere trace after casting, but their value is nevertheless enhanced for purposes in which a hard strong metal is required, as for pump plungers, valves, the bushes of bearings, &c. Bronze again is improved by the presence of manganese in small quantity, and various grades of manganese bronze, in some of which there is little or no tin but a considerable percentage of zinc, are extensively used in mechanical engineering.
Alloys of copper with aluminium, though often nearly or completely destitute of tin, are known as aluminium bronze, and are valuable for their strength and the resistance they offer to corrosion.
In an ammonia machine copper and copper alloys must be avoided, but for carbonic acid they are not objectionable.
Trade up to an SE and there's an automatic gearbox, metallic paint, alloys, cruise, side air bags and leather.
Brass alloy An alloy of copper and zinc, although the term is loosely used to include all copper alloys.
Vacuum brazing Consultants Ltd. is a leading U.K. supplier of vacuum grades of brazing alloys.
The third CD-ROM will be released shortly covering other aspects of lead-free alloys and the changes necessary to meet the deadline of July 2006.
Modern steels and ferrous alloys have mostly been developed since the Industrial Revolution.
An electric sun roof, satellite navigation and 18-inch alloys are available as options if you desire.
Casting uses a range of casting technologies on ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.
What is the advantage of making bicycles out of titanium alloys, rather than steel or aluminum alloys?
Goodrich Aerospace technology, high strength stainless steels, cobalt chrome alloys, chrome alloys, joining methods, near net shape manufacture.
The measurement of thermal diffusivity by laser flash is an alternative way of determining the thermal conductivity of liquid alloys.
If the alloys have a chrome finish they can cost a fortune to get refurbished but look dreadful when scratched.
Many other alloys shown in Table 1 have much higher melting points than tin-lead eutectic.
The looks have been suitably beefed up too with unique 18 alloys, body kit, S3 logos and twin chrome exhausts.
An EU IST project is currently working on diffusion modeling in silicon germanium alloys.
Look more closely tho and you'll see an increased track on this car and relatively high-profile tires on those Union Alloys.
The basic principle is that certain metals alloys absorb hydrogen to form a metal hydride.
The report covers the effects of neutron irradiation on copper and copper alloys.
Yes, smart alloys, polished bodywork and a neat paint job are as popular here as elsewhere.
Solid state transformations in a range of uranium alloys and the deformation metallography of the resulting microstructures have been extensively studied.
He has also worked on the physical metallurgy of novel aluminum alloys produced by spray casting.
Learn the basic metallurgy of APC common casting alloys.
At cooling rates in excess of one million degrees per second, it is possible to produce predictable microstructure in alloys.
Our policy is to use only white gold alloys containing palladium, and which are nickel-free.
An extensive research program is directed at the understanding of grain refinement in Al alloys.
This suggests substituting alloys containing more silicon that the eutectic.
The finest pore metal foams can be made using silica micro balloons 100 or 30 microns across in aluminum silicon alloys.
The results show that the wetting of the lead-free alloys broadly follows that of tin-lead solder if allowance is made for the melting point.
The color of over 70 gold alloys was measured using a spectrophotometer, a special camera that measures the color of reflected light.
Optional extras include Hellfire missiles, chain gun, tilt and slide sunroof, alloys wheels and power assisted steering.
But if we polish the solid alloys, etch them if necessary, and examine them microscopically, we shall find that alloys on the lead side of the diagram consist of comparatively large crystals of lead embedded in a minute complex, which is due to the simultaneous crystallization of the two metals during the solidification at the eutectic temperature.
Solid solutions are probably very common in alloys, so that when an alloy of two metals shows two constituents under the microscope it is never safe to infer, without further evidence, that these are the two pure metals.
The region PbEeE' contains all the alloys that commence their solidification by the crystallization of lead; similarly, the other two regions correspond to the initial crystallization of bismuth and tin respectively; these areas are the projections of the three sheets of the freezing-point surface.
Duclaux, was extended to alloys by Alder Wright.
With mercury it forms amalgams. Bismuth is a component of many ternary alloys characterized by their low fusibility and expansion in solidification; many of them are used in the arts (see Fusible Metal).
Among the heavy alloys, the aluminium bronzes (Cu, 9 o -97.5%; Al, 10-2.5%) occupy the most important position, showing mean tensile strengths increasing from 20 to 41 tons per sq.
When a solution solidifies, alloys of metals which have a limited mutual solubility may form new phases at certain ratios.
Our films are manufactured using a state of the art sputtering process which applies metal alloys to the base film.
The tensile strength of the alloys is high, making possible the drawing of very fine wire.
Most titanium based alloys have better fatigue properties than most steels or aluminum alloys.
Magnetic ceramics The steel alloys used for transformer cores have high resistivity in order to prevent substantial eddy current losses.
Not all alloys are possible (some are not viscous enough).
A successful application to the EU 5th framework program will continue this work, applied to welding of dissimilar light alloys.
It is usually mixed with other metal alloys in order to make it sturdier.
This means that in every 100 grams of sterling silver, there are 92.5 grams of pure silver and the remaining 7.5 % is made up of the other metal alloys.
This is because the alloys used in the silver react with the air and create deposits that tarnish the surface of the item.
The colored gold is created by adding alloys of other metals.
When the price of gold rose over 2300% in the 1970s, Balfour responded by developing rings made from alloys in order to keep prices down for its customers.
Silver is an especially popular metal for vintage jewelry, perhaps in part because most silver alloys wear well, the subtle change in the metal over time adding interest and character to the piece.
You indicate alloys in karats to describe a recipe that blends different metals together.
The famous Black Hills gold, which uses many different colors of gold, is created with different gold alloys.
Alloys can also affect things like conductivity, making gold alloys valuable in many technical uses.
You can go on from there and learn what different alloys are made of.
There are more recipes for gold alloys for jewelry.
The value of alloys, though, is altered by the ingredients that go into them and the uses they will serve.
One of the reasons most American jewelry is made from alloys is that alloys can give a piece of jewelry longer life and protect jewelry from damage.
Using alloys in pieces that endure constant wear and strain, such as rings and chains, can allow jewelry to be worn constantly even when the owner is active and very hard on jewelry.
Durable frames are also made from nylon, wood, metal alloys, stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium.
Aluminum is such an abundant metal, that any frames made from aluminum alloys are usually very inexpensive.
These materials include stainless steel, titanium and titanium alloys, as well as advanced plastics and nylon materials.
Many people find that they are allergic to the nickel in inexpensive jewelry; some adolescents find that they are allergic to the metal alloys used in orthodontic braces.
However, some Damascus wedding rings use other types of steel alloys that may discolor skin without another metal liner in the band.
Damascus wedding rings are generally made out of at least two different steel alloys and sometimes additional metals.
Since pure gold is too soft for jewelry making, other metals are combined to create alloys, which give it strength and affect its color.
The most common allergic reaction is caused by an allergy to nickel, a metal used to strengthen the alloys used in body jewelry.
Our cradle is machined to a very precise tolerance of 0.001 inch or less out of high-strength metal alloys, for a perfect fit to the iPod nano 6G.
You also can find these hoops in copper and other metal alloys.
The cadmium molecule, as shown by determinations of the density of its vapour, is monatomic. The metal unites with the majority of the heavy metals to form alloys; some of these, the so-called fusible alloys, find a useful application from the fact that they possess a low melting-point.
Some are in Greek and demotic, and one, of peculiar interest from the chemical point of view, gives a number of receipts, in Greek, for the manipulation of base metals to form alloys which simulate gold and are intended to be used in the manufacture of imitation jewellery.
Alloys of magnesium and silicon are prepared by heating fragments of magnesium with magnesium filings and potassium silico-fluoride.
The compounds formed in the first case, which may be either definite chemical compounds or solid solutions, are discussed under Alloys; in this place only combinations with non-metals are discussed, it being premised that the free metal takes part in the reaction.
It is also a constituent of many valuable alloys; brass, Muntz-metal, pinchbeck, tombac, are examples.
The reduced aluminium alloys itself immediately with the fused globules of metal in its midst, and as the charge becomes reduced the globules of alloy unite until, in the end, they are run out of the tap-hole after the current has been diverted to another furnace.
The majority of alloys, when examined thus, prove to be complexes of two or more materials, and the patterns showing the distribution of these materials throughout the alloy are of a most varied character.
It is certain that the structure existing in the alloy is closely connected with the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, rigidity, and so on, that make particular alloys valuable in the arts, and many efforts have been made to trace this connexion.
C. Roberts-Austen's six Reports (1891 to 2904) to the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, the last report being concluded by William Gowland; the Cantor Lectures on Alloys delivered at the Society of Arts and the Contribution a l'etude des alliages (2902), published by the Societe d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale under the direction of the Commission des alliages (2896-2900), should be consulted.