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alloy

alloy

alloy Sentence Examples

  • The alloy with 12% of silicon is white, hard and brittle.

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  • The eutectic alloy itself, fig.

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  • Sometimes the whole alloy is a uniform solid solution.

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  • The term "alloy" does not necessarily imply obedience to the laws of definite and multiple proportion or even uniformity throughout the material; but some alloys are homogeneous and some are chemical compounds.

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  • From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.

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  • It is certain that the structure existing in the alloy is closely connected with the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, rigidity, and so on, that make particular alloys valuable in the arts, and many efforts have been made to trace this connexion.

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  • Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • Subsequently electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) disappeared as a specific metal, and tin was ascribed to Jupiter instead, the sign of mercury becoming common to the metal and the planet.

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  • Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.

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  • Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.

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  • According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.

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  • tin, bismuth) to give the alloy certain properties.

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  • tin, bismuth) to give the alloy certain properties.

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  • Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.

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  • Hadfield 7 have made very careful experiments on an alloy containing 22.42% of manganese, 11.65% of ' J.

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  • The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.

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  • But it is not permissible to call brass a chemical compound, for we can largely alter its percentage composition without the substance losing the properties characteristic of brass; the properties change more or less continuously, the colour, for example, becoming redder with decrease in the percentage of zinc, and a paler yellow when there is more zinc. The possibility of continuously varying the percentage composition suggests analogy between an alloy and a solution, and A.

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  • In large works the silver-lead alloy is removed when it contains 60-80 silver, and the cupellation of the rich bullion from several concentration furnaces is finished in a second furnace.

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  • In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.

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  • It was, however, found that the behaviour of this alloy was in part due to a layer of pure iron (" ferrite ") averaging o 1 mm.

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  • Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.

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  • An alloy made by addition of about 6th of arsenic has been used for making shot.

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  • successful; for example, in the case of steel, which is an alloy of iron and carbon, a microscopical examination gives valuable information concerning the suitability of a sample of steel for special purposes.

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  • If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.

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  • The Romans used it largely, as it is still used, for the making of water pipes, and soldered these with an alloy of lead and tin.

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  • Osmond, shows the structure of a silver-copper alloy containing considerably Eutectic more silver than the eutectic.

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  • Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.

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  • Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.

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  • What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon.

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  • Mixture by fusion is the general method of producing an alloy, but it is not the only method possible.

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  • Mixture by fusion is the general method of producing an alloy, but it is not the only method possible.

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  • As this complete desilverization is only possible by the use of an excess of zinc, the unsaturated zinc-silver-lead alloy is put aside to form part of the second zincking of the next following charge.

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  • Thus a strip of zinc plunged into a solution of silver sulphate, containing not more than 0.03 gramme of silver in the litre, becomes covered with a flocculent precipitate which is a true alloy of silver and zinc, and in the same way, when copper is precipitated from its sulphate by zinc, the alloy formed is brass.

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  • He weighed out a lump of gold and of silver of the same weight as the crown; and, immersing the three in succession in water, he found they spilt over measures of water in the ratio:: A or 33: 24: 44; thence it follows that the gold: silver alloy of the crown was as I I: 9 by weight.

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  • We can sometimes obtain definite compounds in a pure state by the action of appropriate solvents which dissolve the rest of the alloy and do not attack the crystals of the compound.

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  • He weighed out a lump of gold and of silver of the same weight as the crown; and, immersing the three in succession in water, he found they spilt over measures of water in the ratio:: A or 33: 24: 44; thence it follows that the gold: silver alloy of the crown was as I I: 9 by weight.

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  • An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.

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  • Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.

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  • In the case of this pair of metals, or indeed of any metallic alloy, we cannot see the crystals forming, nor can we easily filter them off and examine them apart from the liquid, although this has been done in a few cases.

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  • This alloy, if allowed to solidify completely before chilling, turns into a uniform solid solution, and at still lower temperatures the solid solution breaks up into a pearlite complex.

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  • An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.

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  • "Pewter" (q.v.) may be said to be substantially an alloy of the same two metals, but small quantities of copper, antimony and zinc are frequently added.

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  • The "tin" of the Bible (KauoLTEpos in the Septuagint) corresponds to the Hebrew bedhil, which is really a copper alloy known as early as 1600 B.C. in Egypt.

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  • Such an alloy can be cast like ordinary bronze, but excels the latter in hardness, elasticity, toughness and tensile strength.

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  • Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.

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  • The reduced aluminium alloys itself immediately with the fused globules of metal in its midst, and as the charge becomes reduced the globules of alloy unite until, in the end, they are run out of the tap-hole after the current has been diverted to another furnace.

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  • Glass stills heated by a sand bath are sometimes employed in the final distillation of sulphuric acid; platinum, and an alloy of platinum and iridium with a lining of gold rolled on (a discovery due to Heraeus), are used for the same purpose.

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  • Bronze is called by the Japanese kara-kane, a term signifying Chinese metal and showing clearly the source from which knowledge of the alloy was obtained.

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  • It consists of a stoneware tank with a thin sheet of platinum-iridium alloy at either end forming the primary electrodes, and between them a number of glass plates reaching nearly to the bottom, each having a platinum gauze sheet on either side; the two sheets belonging to each plate are in metallic connexion, but insulated from all the others, and form intermediary or bi-polar electrodes.

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  • It is almost impossible by mechanical means to detect the separate ingredients in such an alloy; we may cut or file or polish it without discovering any lack of homogeneousness.

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  • The majority of alloys, when examined thus, prove to be complexes of two or more materials, and the patterns showing the distribution of these materials throughout the alloy are of a most varied character.

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  • Much information as to the nature of an alloy can be obtained by placing several small ingots of the same alloy in a furnace which is above the melting-point of the alloy, and allowing the temperature to fall slowly and uniformly.

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  • For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.

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  • The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.

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  • 8) be an equilateral triangle, the angular points corresponding to the three pure metals A, B, C. C Then the composition of any alloy can be FIG.

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  • Such an alloy can be cast like ordinary bronze, but excels the latter in hardness, elasticity, toughness and tensile strength.

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  • Glass stills heated by a sand bath are sometimes employed in the final distillation of sulphuric acid; platinum, and an alloy of platinum and iridium with a lining of gold rolled on (a discovery due to Heraeus), are used for the same purpose.

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  • Bronze is called by the Japanese kara-kane, a term signifying Chinese metal and showing clearly the source from which knowledge of the alloy was obtained.

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  • The majority of alloys, when examined thus, prove to be complexes of two or more materials, and the patterns showing the distribution of these materials throughout the alloy are of a most varied character.

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  • 8) be an equilateral triangle, the angular points corresponding to the three pure metals A, B, C. C Then the composition of any alloy can be FIG.

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  • I live in the angle of a leaden wall, into whose composition was poured a little alloy of bell-metal.

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  • We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.

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  • An alloy containing about 3 parts of iron and I of nickel - both strongly magnetic metals - is under ordinary conditions practically non-magnetizable (1 1=1'4 for any value of H).

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  • An alloy containing about 3 parts of iron and I of nickel - both strongly magnetic metals - is under ordinary conditions practically non-magnetizable (1 1=1'4 for any value of H).

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  • But if the alloy is heated up to 580° C. it loses its susceptibility - rather suddenly when H is weak, more gradually when H is strong - and remains non-magnetizable till it is once more cooled down below the freezing-point.

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  • Various nickel-steels all expanded under magnetization, the increase being generally considerable and proportional to the field; in the case of an alloy containing 29% of nickel the change was nearly 40 times greater than in soft iron.

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  • Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.

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  • But modern work has shown that, although alloys sometimes contain solid solutions, the solid alloy as a whole is often far more like a conglomerate rock than a uniform solution.

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  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.

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  • Sometimes in the same design we see gold of three different hues, obtained by varying the alloy.

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  • It would seem, indeed, that any process by which the particles of two metals are intimately mingled and brought into close contact, so that diffusion of one metal into the other can take place, is likely to result in the formation of an alloy.

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  • When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.

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  • colour, more remarkable than that of any other metal or alloy.

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  • We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.

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  • represented by a point P, so chosen that the perpendicular Pa on to the side BC gives the percentage of A in the alloy, and the perpendiculars Pb and Pc give the percentages of B and C respectively.

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  • If now we wish to represent the variations in some property, such as fusibility, we determine the freezing-points of a number of alloys distributed fairly uniformly over the area of the triangle, and, at each point corresponding to an alloy, we erect an ordinate at right angles to the plane of the paper and proportional in length to the freezing temperature of that alloy.

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  • The alloy of the point e is the ternary eutectic; it deposits the three metals simultaneously during the whole period of its solidfication and solidifies at a constant temperature.

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  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.

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  • When a pure metal is cooled to a very low temperature its electrical conductivity is greatly increased, but this is not the case with an alloy.

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  • When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.

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  • If the alloy were a true chemical compound the counteracting electromotive force should not occur; experiments in this direction are much needed.

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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.

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  • The alloy is then insoluble in " aqua regia."

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  • Manganese not only forms with iron several alloys of great interest, but alloyed with copper it is used for electrical purposes, as an alloy can thus be obtained with an electrical resistance that does not alter with change of temperature; this alloy, called manganin, is used in the construction of resistance-boxes.

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  • Aluminium, when alloyed with a few per cent of magnesium, gains greatly in rigidity while remaining very light; this alloy, under the name of magnalium, is coming into use for small articles in which lightness and rigidity have to be combined.

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  • One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.

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  • The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.

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  • The alloy with mercury-gold amalgam-is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful agents for extracting the precious metal.

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  • Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.

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  • The relative amount of gold in an alloy is expressed in two ways: (1) as " fineness," i.e.

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  • the amount of gold in 1000 parts of alloy; (2) as " carats," i.e.

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  • the amount of gold in 24 parts of alloy.

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  • A greenish alloy used by goldsmiths contains 70% of silver and 30% of gold.

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  • The Japanese use for ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by " pickling " in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.

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  • The common alloy, Shi-ya-ku-Do, contains 70% of copper and 30% of gold; when exposed to air it becomes coated with a fine black patina, and is much used in Japan for sword ornaments.

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  • Gold and Silver.-Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver.

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  • Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.

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  • Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.

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  • The alloy of II parts gold and i part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.

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  • The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.

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  • Matthiessen and Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au 2 Sn 5, having the colour of tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.

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  • - Hatchett found that the alloy of i i parts gold and i part of iron is easily rolled without annealing.

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  • In these proportions the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent metals.

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  • These metals are stated to alloy in all proportions.

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  • According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.

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  • The alloy of 4 parts of gold and i part of palladium is white, hard and ductile.

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  • - Clarke states that the alloy of equal parts of the two metals is ductile, and has almost the colour of gold.

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  • Eleven parts of gold and i of nickel yield an alloy resembling brass.

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  • Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

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  • In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.

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  • The fusion results in the formation of a gold-antimony alloy, from which the antimony is removed by an oxidizing fusion with nitre.

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  • The sulphur and litharge, or Pfannenschmied, process was used to concentrate the gold in an alloy in order to make it amenable to " quartation," or parting with nitric acid.

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  • The first process consists essentially in heating the alloy with salt and brickdust; the latter absorbs the chloride formed, while the gold is recovered by washing.

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  • The second process depends upon the fact that, if chlorine be led into the molten alloy, the base metals and the silver are converted into chlorides.

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  • It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.

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  • It used to be called " quartation " or " inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of.silver to I of gold.

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  • It is applicable to any alloy, and is the best method for parting gold with the exception of the electrolytic method.

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  • The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution for silver.

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  • The alloy, after the preliminary refining, is granulated by being poured, while molten, in a thin stream into cold water which is kept well agitated.

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  • of alloy.

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  • They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.

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  • Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.

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  • In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.

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  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

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  • (2) For substances boiling between 260° and 420°, and which do not react on metals, use Meyer's "Wood's alloy expulsion method."

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  • The alloy used is composed of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it melts at 70°, and can be experimented with as readily as mercury.

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  • This may be accomplished by using a vessel with a somewhat wide bottom, and inserting the substance so that it may be volatilized very rapidly, as, for example, in tubes of Wood's alloy, D and by filling the tube with hydrogen.

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  • The tsien is a round disk of copper alloy, with a square hole punched through the centre for stringing.

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  • Tantalum pentafluoride, TaF5, for a long time only known in solution, may be obtained by passing fluorine over an alloy of tantalum and aluminium, and purifying by distillation in a vacuum.

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  • In the Gira river the valuable alloy osmiridium has been discovered.

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  • Its general plan is that of a Greek cross, with two great naves and three aisles, twenty side-chapels and a magnificent high altar supported by marble columns and surrounded by a tumbago balustrade with sixty-two tumbago statues carrying elaborate candelabra made from a rich alloy of gold, silver and copper.

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  • OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.

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  • It may be prepared from osmiridium by fusing the alloy with zinc, the zinc being afterwards removed by distillation.

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  • alloy of gold and silver found in a natural state.'

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  • per standard ounce troy, no deduction being made for wastage, seigniorage, the purchase of alloy metal, or the expense of manufacture.

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  • The ingots are valued by weighing and assaying, and a calculation is made as to the amount of copper required for melting with them to produce the standard alloy.

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  • Among the incidental operations are (a) the valuation of the bullion by weighing and assaying it; (b) " rating" the bullion, or calculating the amount of copper to be added to make up the standard alloy; (c) recovering the values from ground-up crucibles, ashes and floor sweepings (the Mint " sweep "); (d) assaying the melted bars; (e) " pyxing " the finished coin or selecting specimens to be weighed and assayed; (f) " telling " or counting the coin.

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  • The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.

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  • His speculum metal is composed of four atoms of copper (126.4 parts) and one of tin (58.9 parts), a brilliant alloy, which resists tarnish better than any other compound tried.

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  • With reference to the materials of which standards of length are made, it appears that the Matthey alloy iridio-platinum (90% platinum, 10% iridium) is probably of all substances the least affected by time or circumstance, and of this costly alloy, therefore, a new copy of the imperial yard has been made.

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  • For small standard weights platinum (Δ=21.45) and aluminium (Δ=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (Δ=11.00).

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  • For ordinary standards of length Guillaume's alloy (invar) of nickel (35.7%) and steel (64.3%) is used, as it is a metal that can be highly polished, and is capable of receiving fine graduations.

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  • Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.

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  • This frame or tube is so constructed of iron and brass (one-third iron and two-thirds brass) that its temperature coefficient of linear expansion is the same as that of the platinumsilver alloy.

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  • For this purpose it must be an alloy such as manganin or constantan.

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  • Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.

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  • Ingots of Chinese silver were sent from Lhasa with a small proportion of gold dust, and an equal weight in mohurs was returned, leaving to the Nepal rajahs, between gold dust and alloy, a good profit.

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  • The solid is then known 800 as a eutectic alloy.

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  • Other pairs of alloys, showing more complicated relations, are described in Alloy.

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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.

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  • Nevertheless, it was found impracticable to smelt alumina electrically except in presence of copper, so that the Cowles furnace yielded, not the pure metal, but an alloy.

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  • Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.

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  • About ioo lb of bronze, containing from 15 to 20 lb of aluminium, were obtained from each run, the yield of the alloy being reported at about 1 lb per 18 e.h.p.-hours.

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  • In July 1888 the Societe Metallurgique Suisse erected plant driven by a 500 h.p. turbine to carry out Heroult's alloy process, and at the end of that year the Allgemeine Elektricitais Gesellschaft united with the Swiss firm in organizing the Aluminium Industrie Actien Gesellschaft of Neuhasen, which has factories in Switzerland, Germany and Austria.

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  • The average strength of 98% metal is approximately shown by the following table: - Weight for weight, therefore, aluminium is only exceeded in tensile strength by the best cast steel, and its own alloy, aluminium bronze.

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  • If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.

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  • This explains the failure of boats built of commercially pure aluminium which have been put together with iron or copper rivets, and the decay of other boats built of a light alloy, in which the alloying metal (copper) has been injudiciously chosen.

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  • * The term " Alloy Cast Irons " is not actually in frequent use, not because of any question as to its fitness or meaning, but because the need of such a generic term rarely arises in the industry.

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  • Alloy steels and cast irons are those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of one or more elements other than carbon.

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  • If iron thus preceded copper in many places, still more must it have preceded bronze, an alloy of copper and tin much less likely than either iron or copper to be made unintentionally.

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  • Osmond showed that the wonderful changes which thermal treatment andthe presence of certain foreign elements cause were due to allotropy, and from these and like teachings have come a rapid growth of the use of the so-called " alloy steels " in which, thanks to special composition and treatment, the iron exists in one or more of its remarkable allotropic states.

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  • 1 A " eutectic " is the last-freezing part of an alloy, and corresponds to what the mother-liquor of a saline solution would become if such a solution, after the excess of saline matter had been crystallized out, were finally completely frozen.

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  • If the alloy has a composition very near that of its own eutectic, then when solidified it of course contains a large proportion of the eutectic, and only a small proportion of the excess metal.

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  • This formation of cementite through the rejection of carbon by both the primary and the eutectic austenite continues quite as in the case of 1.00% carbon steel, with impoverishment of the austenite to the hardenite or eutectoid ratio, and the splitting up of that hardenite into pearlite at Ari, so that the mass when cold finally consists of (1) 1 Note the distinction between the " eutectic " or alloy of lowest freezing-point, 1130°, B, with 4.30% of carbon, and the " eutectoid," hardenite and pearlite, or alloy of lowest transformation-point, 690° S, with 0.90% of carbon.

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  • Alloy steels have come into extensive use for important special purposes, and a very great increase of their use is to be expected.

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  • Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.

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  • Its chief, indeed almost its sole use, is for making tool steel, the best kinds of spring steel and other very excellent kinds of high-carbon and alloy steel.

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  • It is the hardest known substance (though tantalum, or an alloy of tantalum now competes with it) and is chosen as io in the mineralogist's scale of hardness; but the difference in hardness between diamond (io) and corundum (9) is really greater than that between corundum (9) and talc (1); there is a difference in the hardness of the different faces; the Borneo stones are also said to be harder than those of Australia, and the Australian harder than the African, but this is by no means certain.

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  • The system of coinage is also curious: 105 English rupees are melted down, and the alloy extracted, leaving 100 rupees' worth of silver; 295 more English rupees are then melted, and the molten metal mixed with the 100 rupees silver; and out of this 808 Kandahari rupees are coined.

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  • From the use of gold and silver as a medium of exchange, it followed that they should approximate in all nations to a common degree of fineness; and though this is not uniform even in coins, yet the proportion of alloy in silver, and of carats alloy to carats fine in gold, has been reduced to infinitesimal differences in the bullion of commerce, and is a prime element of value even in gold and silver plate, jewelry, and other articles of manufacture.

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  • The metals chiefly used in the arts have been gold, silver, copper and tin (the last two generally mixed, forming an alloy called bronze), iron and lead (see the separate articles on these metals).

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  • This special alloy does not occur in any known iron ores, but is invariably found in meteoric iron.

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  • von Herkomer, who, whether working in gold and enamel, iron, or his favourite alloy, pewter, infuses a freshness into his designs and methods which displays an unusual mastery over materials.

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  • In many localities the braziers have a special repute either for a peculiar alloy or for a particular process of ornamentation.

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  • After much experiment he selected an alloy of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his specula, and he devised means for grinding and polishing them.

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  • Many different alloys have been suggested, some including silver, nickel, zinc or arsenic; but that which has practically been found best is an alloy of four equivalents of copper to one of tin, or the following proportions by weight: copper 252, tin 117.8.

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  • BIDDERY, or Bidri (an Indian word, from Bedar or Bidar, a town in the Nizam's Dominions), an alloy of copper, lead, tin and zinc used in making various articles and ornaments which are inlaid with gold and silver.

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  • It has been known from the earliest times, being employed by the Chinese in the form of an alloy called pakfong.

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  • An alloy was formed of two parts silver, one-third copper and one-sixth lead; to this mixture, while fluid in the crucible, powdered sulphur in excess was added; and the brittle amalgam, when cold, was finely pounded, and sealed up in large quills for future use.

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  • In "autogenous soldering" two pieces of metal are united by the melting of the opposing surfaces, without the use of a separate fusible alloy or solder as a cementing material.

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  • Its alloy with tin (bronze) was the first metallic compound in common use by mankind, and so extensive and characteristic was its employment in prehistoric times that the epoch is known as the Bronze Age.

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  • Type-metal is an alloy of lead with antimony and tin, to which occasionally a small quantity of copper or zinc is added.

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  • The presence of the antimony in this alloy gives to it hardness, and the property of expanding on solidification, thus allowing a sharp cast of the letter to be taken.

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  • An alloy of tin and antimony forms.

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  • The compound formed, antimoniuretted hydrogen or stibine, SbH 3, may also be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on an alloy of antimony and zinc, or by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony compounds.

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  • By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.

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  • From this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • soldare, to make solidus, firm), an alloy easily melted and used for uniting as by a metallic cement two metal surfaces, joints, edges, &c.

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  • In the first the gold or silver is made to combine or alloy with metallic lead, the other constituents of the ore being separated from the lead as slag.

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  • When the lead melts and begins to oxidize, the lead oxide, or so-called litharge, combines with or dissolves the non-metallic and readily oxidizable constituents of the ore, while the gold and silver alloy with the lead.

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  • The process of cupellation is briefly as follows: - The gold alloy is fused with a quantity of lead, and a little silver if silver is already present.

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  • The resulting alloy, which is called the lead button, is then submitted to fusion on a very porous support, made of bone-ash, and called a cupel.

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  • Now, if this were the only action, little good would have been gained, for we should simply have put lead into the gold alloy, and then taken it out again; but another action goes on whilst the lead is oxidizing in the current of air.

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  • If the lead is therefore rightly proportioned to the standard of alloy, the resulting button will consist of only gold and silver, and these are separated by the operation of parting, which consists in boiling the alloy (after rolling it to a thin plate) in strong nitric acid, which dissolves the silver and leaves the gold as a coherent sponge.

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  • The operation by which the alloy is brought to this standard is termed quartation or inquartation, and consists in fusing the alloy in a cupel with lead and the quantity of fine silver or fine gold necessary to bring it to the desired composition.

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  • The beginning, the prevalence and duration of the Bronze Age in each country would have been ordered by the accessibility of the metals which form the alloy.

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  • On the other, how account for a comparatively synchronous commencement of bronze civilization when one at least of the metals needed for the alloy would have been naturally difficult of access, if not unknown to many races?

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  • The so-called "oxidized" silver is a copper-silver alloy coated superficially with a layer of the sulphides by immersion in sodium sulphide or otherwise.

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  • Alloy scrap containing chiefly copper with, say 5 or 6% of gold,.

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  • Borchers uses the alloy, granulated, in an anode chamber separated from the cathode cell by a porous partition through which the current, but not electrolyte, can pass freely.

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  • p. 81) the working of his, somewhat similar, process at Pforzheim, where about 130 lb of the alloy was being treated by it daily in 1899.

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  • The alloy is cast into anode plates about s in.

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  • The composition of the alloy is stated in terms of its "fineness," the proportion of silver in 1000 parts of alloy.

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  • Generally copper-silver alloys separate into two layers of different composition on fusion; an exception is the alloy Ag3Cu2, investigated by A.

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  • The extent to which the properties of silver are modified by addition of copper depends on the fineness of the alloy produced.

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  • Silver is obtained almost wholly in the form of alloy with gold, and in 1908 the value of the output was only $23,109.

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  • BRONZE, an alloy formed wholly or chiefly of copper and tin in variable proportions.

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  • A Greek MS. of about the 11th century in the library of St Mark's, Venice, contains the form l3povT17acov, and gives the composition of the alloy as 1 lb of copper with 2 oz.

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  • aes) of classical antiquity consisted chiefly of copper, alloyed with one or more of the metals, zinc, tin, lead and silver, in proportions that varied as times changed, or according to the purposes for which the alloy was required.

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  • From the analysis of coins it appears that for their bronze coins the Greeks adhered to an alloy of copper and tin till 400 B.C., after which time they used also lead with increasing frequency.

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  • The Romans also used lead as an alloy in their bronze coins, but gradually reduced the quantity, and under Caligula, Nero, Vespasian and Domitian, coined pure copper coins; afterwards they reverted to the mixture of lead.

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  • Brass alloy An alloy of copper and zinc, although the term is loosely used to include all copper alloys.

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  • alloy of 40% nickel and 60% copper, with a high volume resistivity and almost negligible temperature coefficient.

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  • Our Price: US$12.90 Equilibrium Candle Holder A modular design made from plated die-cast alloy that allows you to build up interesting sculptural.. .

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  • Consider now what happens during solidification of a eutectic alloy.

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  • alloy wheel rim also features a tire bead rim.

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  • alloy tubing.

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  • alloy steels.

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  • Can be made from aluminum alloy, copper or steel.

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  • Circular coin, cast in copper alloy with a square central hole.

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  • Ergo laptops are tougher magnesium alloy is many times stronger than plastic, however smart the latter may appear.

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  • Our pioneer product was the first aluminum alloy wheelchair ever made in Taiwan.

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  • Bactrian coins of King Euthydemus (220 BC) are known in a copper-nickel alloy.

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  • aluminiummade from aluminum alloy, copper or steel.

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  • aluminiumads are produced from one piece aluminum alloy extrusions which incorporate an integral non-slip surface for safety.

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  • aluminum alloy allows you to bend the support into the desired position.

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  • This noble alloy is found in the magnesium generator cover with titanium screws and dedicated sprocket cover of billet aluminum.

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  • Pewter Pewter is an alloy consisting of mainly tin and containing antimony and copper for strength and color, respectively.

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  • anvil blade: all in one forged alloy handle and anvil blade.

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  • Both carbon and alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material.

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  • It can be caused by the transformation of retained austenite to martensite or by the precipitation of alloy carbides.

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  • For silver alloy catheters, 11% of patients had bacteriuria, compared with 32% with uncoated catheters (Figure ).

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  • This set of 8 polished alloy boules is... .

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  • braze inside surface of the brake lines is coated with a copper brazing alloy.

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  • braze diagram opposite shows how the copper-zinc alloy (brazing rod) forms a joint between the two pieces of steel sheet.

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  • braze diagram opposite shows how the copper-zinc alloy (brazing rod) forms a joint between the two pieces of steel sheet.

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  • Bronze The usual alloy for fasteners is silicon bronze The usual alloy for fasteners is silicon bronze.

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  • Phosphor bronze Small additions of phosphorus in tin bronze, typically 0.4% to l %, improve the castability of the alloy.

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  • The second was a copper alloy oval brooch, found almost at the very end of the last day of the dig.

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  • brooch type or design was made from a single alloy or a limited range.

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  • At the front I will use the largest vented disks I can fit with 4 pot alloy calipers.

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  • High wing cantilever monoplane, tapering in plan form and thickness, built on a single box spar of corrugated light alloy sheet.

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  • casing material is die cast aluminum alloy with epoxy powder paint.

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  • High definition automotive LCD screen housed in a magnesium alloy casing.

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  • With Italy's entry to WWII Morini was forced to convert his factory to produce military equipment, in particular alloy castings for aircraft.

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  • The washer bottle is made from an alloy drink bottle bought cheap from an outdoor shop.

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  • This band carries six points of nickel chrome (12/8 alloy) three centimeters long, well sharpened.

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  • MR has become important in the study of bulk parameters, such as alloy compositions and doping concentrations.

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  • The use of alloy brings thoughts of benefits from being able to run higher compression ratios.

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  • Copper radiator - alloy head - cast iron block - make for a very corrosive mixture!

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  • The countermeasures division comprises Chemring countermeasures division comprises Chemring Countermeasures in the UK, and Alloy Surfaces Company, Inc. and Kilgore Flares Company LLC in the US.

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  • BAUER uses a sturdy cast aluminum alloy crankcase on compressor frames through the 23 series.

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  • crest badge was replaced by an alloy silver colored badge, with Innocenti wording on a center blue back ground.

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  • Cast bronze cymbals with ingots of the secret Zildjian alloy, a must have for lovers of the old Zildjian sound.

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  • The remaining Alloy Surfaces operation, which manufactures special material decoys, is a core business of the Group.

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  • Alloy Surfaces ' strong growth has continued and it is now the largest supplier of expendable decoys in the world.

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  • The cylinder was made in alloy for good heat dissipation.

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  • electric furnaced alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material.

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  • eutectic alloy for mass soldering.

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  • Most of the manganese in alloy steels dissolves in the alpha ferrite.

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  • Plus the standard fitment of stylish 14 " Sao Paulo alloy wheels & the choice of Metallic or Pearl Effect paint.

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  • To ensure that the composition of the alloy is correct, samples of the molten metal are routinely checked by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

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  • Fork: Specialized Comp rigid fork: Specialized Comp rigid fork with alloy legs.

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  • fracture toughness of an alloy steel.

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  • Both carbon and alloy steels are produced in electric arc furnaces and scrap rather than molten metal is used as the base material.

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  • The black alloy handlebars had picked up a few scratches which shows poor quality anodizing in fact they may simply be painted.

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  • heat-treated aluminum alloy developed for the aircraft industry.

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  • A significant proportion of the product is cast ingot or alloy powders.

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  • lattice mismatch of the alloy.

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  • When mixed with other metals e.g. magnesium, to form an alloy it can be used in planes and trains.

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  • magnesium alloy is many times stronger than plastic, however smart the latter may appear.

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  • Thetford's little mermaid, a medieval copper alloy figure found on the outskirts of the town.

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  • The size at which this happens is strongly dependent upon the cooling rate and lattice mismatch of the alloy.

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  • The pictures of the finished alloy (which I took on my bed duvet - don't tell the missus!

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  • Grade 21 Titanium alloy including 15% molybdenum, 3% aluminum, 2.7% niobium, 0.25% silicon.

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  • monoplane built around a light alloy box spar.

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  • high wing cantilever monoplane, tapering in plan form and thickness, built on a single box spar of corrugated light alloy sheet.

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  • Firstly the choice of metal used - they appear to have been struck in nickel or a nickel based alloy.

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  • nickel chromium alloy.

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  • Nitriding The diffusion of nitrogen into alloy steel to form hard nitrides in the surface layer (typically 250?

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  • Its ' aluminum alloy body has a carabineer style clip with a handy bottle opener.

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  • One finger phalange is stained green indicating that this individual wore a copper alloy ring when placed in the grave (see Fig.

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  • Chrome iron cylinder block - split skirt aluminum alloy pistons.

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  • When the rhodium plating wears through, the color of the actual " white " alloy can be seen.

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  • The liquid sodium potassium alloy has been drained from the cooling system and is awaiting decontamination.

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  • All metal CNC machined alloy swashplate with precision radial bearing and hard chromed PTFE lined center swivel ball.

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  • The use of alloy brings thoughts of benefits from being able to run higher compression ratios.

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  • rattlee rattling around in the engine, in alloy models quickly heralded its demise.

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  • recessed downlights are made from a cast aluminum alloy unlike many of the cheap downlights on the market.

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  • Constantan An alloy of 40% nickel and 60% copper, with a high volume resistivity and almost negligible temperature coefficient.

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  • rhenium alloy that maintains a high modulus of elasticity even at high temperatures.

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  • rhodium plating wears through, the color of the actual " white " alloy can be seen.

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  • The alloy wheel rim also features a tire bead rim.

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  • The aluminum rims are assembled on light alloy hubs with straight spokes.

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  • Take for example the all alloy pedals with inset non-slip rubber which provide a perfect platform for all types of shoe.

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  • Preferred metals were copper, brass or in this case nickel silver which is an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc.

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  • sintered copper alloy material for high durability use in situations requiring long life.

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  • solder alloy is also dependent on the method of application.

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  • The Trophy has a reworked VVC engine producing 158bhp and is distinguishable by 16 alloy wheels, front bib splitter and boot spoiler.

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  • The traditionally drilled aluminum alloy spokes are anodised matt black.

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  • Measurement of the plane strain fracture toughness of an alloy steel.

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  • The ELX gains climate control, alloy wheels, twin electric sunroofs and folding door mirrors.

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  • factory sunroofs were also a popular addition, along with alloy wheels and metallic paint.

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  • titanium alloy, inclined nut seating.

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  • They even used a torque wrench to ensure my alloy wheel bolts were set correctly.

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  • All 406 models gain new wheel trims or alloy wheel designs.

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  • After performing about a zillion tests, we found a 1-inch alloy dome tweeter that has unusually smooth response along with excellent power handling.

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  • All alloy heads feature hardened seat inserts and should be capable of running unleaded, but double check with the supplier first.

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  • vexed to find the alloy of modern refinement in a lady who had so much old family spirit.

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  • Picture the slow motion mind video - sounds of alloy on tarmac, shattering plastic and breaking glass.

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  • The alloy wheel rim also features a tire bead rim.

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  • These kitchen workhorses are made from a special heavy duty rigid alloy that won't distort in the oven.

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  • They even used a torque wrench to ensure my alloy wheel bolts were set correctly.

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  • According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.

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  • This property, first recorded by Thales of Miletus, suggested the word "electricity," from the Greek, i X�KTpov, a name applied, however, not only to amber but also to an alloy of gold and silver.

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  • The old as was composed of the mixed metal aes, an alloy of copper, tin and lead, and was called as libralis, because it nominally weighed 1 lb or 12 ounces (actually io).

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  • Subsequently electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) disappeared as a specific metal, and tin was ascribed to Jupiter instead, the sign of mercury becoming common to the metal and the planet.

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  • Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.

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  • Whence the Egyptians and a little later on the Babylonians got their tin for the alloy we do not yet know.

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  • The Romans used it largely, as it is still used, for the making of water pipes, and soldered these with an alloy of lead and tin.

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  • In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.

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  • In large works the silver-lead alloy is removed when it contains 60-80 silver, and the cupellation of the rich bullion from several concentration furnaces is finished in a second furnace.

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  • As this complete desilverization is only possible by the use of an excess of zinc, the unsaturated zinc-silver-lead alloy is put aside to form part of the second zincking of the next following charge.

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  • An alloy of 83 parts of lead and 17 of antimony is used as type metal; other proportions are used, however, and other metals added besides antimony (e.g.

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  • An alloy made by addition of about 6th of arsenic has been used for making shot.

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  • An alloy consisting of 9 parts of lead, 2 of antimony and 2 of bismuth is used for stereotype plates.

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  • An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.

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  • An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.

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  • Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.

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  • "Pewter" (q.v.) may be said to be substantially an alloy of the same two metals, but small quantities of copper, antimony and zinc are frequently added.

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  • Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.

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  • The experimental results agreed in sign though not in magnitude with those calculated from the changes produced by simple longitudinal magnetization, discrepancies being partly accounted for by the fact that the metals employed were not actually isotropic. Heusler's alloy has been tested for change of length by L.

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  • Various nickel-steels all expanded under magnetization, the increase being generally considerable and proportional to the field; in the case of an alloy containing 29% of nickel the change was nearly 40 times greater than in soft iron.

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  • But if the alloy is heated up to 580° C. it loses its susceptibility - rather suddenly when H is weak, more gradually when H is strong - and remains non-magnetizable till it is once more cooled down below the freezing-point.

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  • Guillaume' the temperature at which the magnetic susceptibility of nickel-steel is recovered is lowered by the presence of chromium; a certain alloy containing chromium was not rendered magnetic even by immersion in liquid air.

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  • It was, however, found that the behaviour of this alloy was in part due to a layer of pure iron (" ferrite ") averaging o 1 mm.

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  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.

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  • Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.

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  • Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.

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  • Hadfield 7 have made very careful experiments on an alloy containing 22.42% of manganese, 11.65% of ' J.

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  • Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.

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  • The "tin" of the Bible (KauoLTEpos in the Septuagint) corresponds to the Hebrew bedhil, which is really a copper alloy known as early as 1600 B.C. in Egypt.

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  • The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.

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  • From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.

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  • The remark just made might be said to hold for phosphorus were it not for the existence of what is called "phosphorus-bronze," an alloy of copper with phosphorus (i.e.

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  • What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon (see Iron).

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  • The alloy with 12% of silicon is white, hard and brittle.

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  • Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.

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  • The reduced aluminium alloys itself immediately with the fused globules of metal in its midst, and as the charge becomes reduced the globules of alloy unite until, in the end, they are run out of the tap-hole after the current has been diverted to another furnace.

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  • Sometimes in the same design we see gold of three different hues, obtained by varying the alloy.

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  • It consists of a stoneware tank with a thin sheet of platinum-iridium alloy at either end forming the primary electrodes, and between them a number of glass plates reaching nearly to the bottom, each having a platinum gauze sheet on either side; the two sheets belonging to each plate are in metallic connexion, but insulated from all the others, and form intermediary or bi-polar electrodes.

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  • The term "alloy" does not necessarily imply obedience to the laws of definite and multiple proportion or even uniformity throughout the material; but some alloys are homogeneous and some are chemical compounds.

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  • It is almost impossible by mechanical means to detect the separate ingredients in such an alloy; we may cut or file or polish it without discovering any lack of homogeneousness.

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  • But it is not permissible to call brass a chemical compound, for we can largely alter its percentage composition without the substance losing the properties characteristic of brass; the properties change more or less continuously, the colour, for example, becoming redder with decrease in the percentage of zinc, and a paler yellow when there is more zinc. The possibility of continuously varying the percentage composition suggests analogy between an alloy and a solution, and A.

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  • Regarded as descriptive of the genesis of an alloy from a uniform liquid containing two or more metals, the term is not incorrect, and it may have acted as a signpost towards profitable methods of research.

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  • But modern work has shown that, although alloys sometimes contain solid solutions, the solid alloy as a whole is often far more like a conglomerate rock than a uniform solution.

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  • It is certain that the structure existing in the alloy is closely connected with the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, rigidity, and so on, that make particular alloys valuable in the arts, and many efforts have been made to trace this connexion.

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  • successful; for example, in the case of steel, which is an alloy of iron and carbon, a microscopical examination gives valuable information concerning the suitability of a sample of steel for special purposes.

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  • It would seem, indeed, that any process by which the particles of two metals are intimately mingled and brought into close contact, so that diffusion of one metal into the other can take place, is likely to result in the formation of an alloy.

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  • When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.

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  • Thus a strip of zinc plunged into a solution of silver sulphate, containing not more than 0.03 gramme of silver in the litre, becomes covered with a flocculent precipitate which is a true alloy of silver and zinc, and in the same way, when copper is precipitated from its sulphate by zinc, the alloy formed is brass.

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  • Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.

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  • In the case of this pair of metals, or indeed of any metallic alloy, we cannot see the crystals forming, nor can we easily filter them off and examine them apart from the liquid, although this has been done in a few cases.

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  • The eutectic alloy itself, fig.

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  • Osmond, shows the structure of a silver-copper alloy containing considerably Eutectic more silver than the eutectic.

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  • If we melt an alloy and chill it before it has wholly solidified, we often get evidence of the crystalline character of the solid matter which first forms. Fig.

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  • This alloy, if allowed to solidify completely before chilling, turns into a uniform solid solution, and at still lower temperatures the solid solution breaks up into a pearlite complex.

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  • We can sometimes obtain definite compounds in a pure state by the action of appropriate solvents which dissolve the rest of the alloy and do not attack the crystals of the compound.

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  • Solid solutions are probably very common in alloys, so that when an alloy of two metals shows two constituents under the microscope it is never safe to infer, without further evidence, that these are the two pure metals.

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  • Sometimes the whole alloy is a uniform solid solution.

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  • Much information as to the nature of an alloy can be obtained by placing several small ingots of the same alloy in a furnace which is above the melting-point of the alloy, and allowing the temperature to fall slowly and uniformly.

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  • colour, more remarkable than that of any other metal or alloy.

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  • We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.

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  • For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.

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  • The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.

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  • represented by a point P, so chosen that the perpendicular Pa on to the side BC gives the percentage of A in the alloy, and the perpendiculars Pb and Pc give the percentages of B and C respectively.

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  • If now we wish to represent the variations in some property, such as fusibility, we determine the freezing-points of a number of alloys distributed fairly uniformly over the area of the triangle, and, at each point corresponding to an alloy, we erect an ordinate at right angles to the plane of the paper and proportional in length to the freezing temperature of that alloy.

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  • The solid alloy consists of crystals of pure tin in juxtaposition with crystals of almost pure lead and bismuth, these two metals dissolving each other in solid solution to the extent of a few per cent only.

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  • The alloy of the point e is the ternary eutectic; it deposits the three metals simultaneously during the whole period of its solidfication and solidifies at a constant temperature.

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  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.

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  • When a pure metal is cooled to a very low temperature its electrical conductivity is greatly increased, but this is not the case with an alloy.

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  • When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.

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  • If the alloy were a true chemical compound the counteracting electromotive force should not occur; experiments in this direction are much needed.

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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.

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  • The alloy is then insoluble in " aqua regia."

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  • Manganese not only forms with iron several alloys of great interest, but alloyed with copper it is used for electrical purposes, as an alloy can thus be obtained with an electrical resistance that does not alter with change of temperature; this alloy, called manganin, is used in the construction of resistance-boxes.

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  • Aluminium, when alloyed with a few per cent of magnesium, gains greatly in rigidity while remaining very light; this alloy, under the name of magnalium, is coming into use for small articles in which lightness and rigidity have to be combined.

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  • One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.

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  • The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.

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  • The alloy with mercury-gold amalgam-is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful agents for extracting the precious metal.

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  • Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.

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  • The relative amount of gold in an alloy is expressed in two ways: (1) as " fineness," i.e.

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  • the amount of gold in 1000 parts of alloy; (2) as " carats," i.e.

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  • the amount of gold in 24 parts of alloy.

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  • A greenish alloy used by goldsmiths contains 70% of silver and 30% of gold.

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  • The Japanese use for ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by " pickling " in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.

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  • The common alloy, Shi-ya-ku-Do, contains 70% of copper and 30% of gold; when exposed to air it becomes coated with a fine black patina, and is much used in Japan for sword ornaments.

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  • Gold and Silver.-Electrum is a natural alloy of gold and silver.

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  • Molten alloys containing more than 80% of silver deposit on cooling the alloy AuAgs, little gold remaining in the mother liquor.

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  • Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.

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  • The alloy of II parts gold and i part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.

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  • The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.

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  • Matthiessen and Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au 2 Sn 5, having the colour of tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.

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  • - Hatchett found that the alloy of i i parts gold and i part of iron is easily rolled without annealing.

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  • In these proportions the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent metals.

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  • These metals are stated to alloy in all proportions.

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  • According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.

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  • The alloy of 4 parts of gold and i part of palladium is white, hard and ductile.

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  • - Clarke states that the alloy of equal parts of the two metals is ductile, and has almost the colour of gold.

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  • Eleven parts of gold and i of nickel yield an alloy resembling brass.

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  • Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

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  • In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.

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  • The fusion results in the formation of a gold-antimony alloy, from which the antimony is removed by an oxidizing fusion with nitre.

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  • The sulphur and litharge, or Pfannenschmied, process was used to concentrate the gold in an alloy in order to make it amenable to " quartation," or parting with nitric acid.

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  • The first process consists essentially in heating the alloy with salt and brickdust; the latter absorbs the chloride formed, while the gold is recovered by washing.

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  • The second process depends upon the fact that, if chlorine be led into the molten alloy, the base metals and the silver are converted into chlorides.

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  • It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.

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  • It used to be called " quartation " or " inquartation," from the fact that the alloy best suited for the operation of refining contained 3 parts of.silver to I of gold.

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  • It is applicable to any alloy, and is the best method for parting gold with the exception of the electrolytic method.

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  • The process embraces four operations: (1) the preparation of an alloy suitable for parting; (2) the treatment with sulphuric acid; (3) the treatment of the residue for gold; (4) the treatment of the solution for silver.

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  • The alloy, after the preliminary refining, is granulated by being poured, while molten, in a thin stream into cold water which is kept well agitated.

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  • of alloy.

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  • They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.

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  • Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.

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  • In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.

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  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

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  • (2) For substances boiling between 260° and 420°, and which do not react on metals, use Meyer's "Wood's alloy expulsion method."

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  • The alloy used is composed of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it melts at 70°, and can be experimented with as readily as mercury.

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  • The cylindrical vessel is replaced by a globular one, and the pressure on the vapour due to the column of alloy in the side tube is readily reduced to millimetres of mercury since the specific gravity of the alloy at the temperature of boiling sulphur, 444° (at which the apparatus is most frequently used), is two-thirds of that of mercury (see Ber.

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  • This may be accomplished by using a vessel with a somewhat wide bottom, and inserting the substance so that it may be volatilized very rapidly, as, for example, in tubes of Wood's alloy, D and by filling the tube with hydrogen.

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  • The tsien is a round disk of copper alloy, with a square hole punched through the centre for stringing.

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  • Tantalum pentafluoride, TaF5, for a long time only known in solution, may be obtained by passing fluorine over an alloy of tantalum and aluminium, and purifying by distillation in a vacuum.

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  • In the Gira river the valuable alloy osmiridium has been discovered.

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  • Its general plan is that of a Greek cross, with two great naves and three aisles, twenty side-chapels and a magnificent high altar supported by marble columns and surrounded by a tumbago balustrade with sixty-two tumbago statues carrying elaborate candelabra made from a rich alloy of gold, silver and copper.

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  • OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.

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  • It may be prepared from osmiridium by fusing the alloy with zinc, the zinc being afterwards removed by distillation.

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  • alloy of gold and silver found in a natural state.'

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  • per standard ounce troy, no deduction being made for wastage, seigniorage, the purchase of alloy metal, or the expense of manufacture.

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  • The ingots are valued by weighing and assaying, and a calculation is made as to the amount of copper required for melting with them to produce the standard alloy.

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  • Among the incidental operations are (a) the valuation of the bullion by weighing and assaying it; (b) " rating" the bullion, or calculating the amount of copper to be added to make up the standard alloy; (c) recovering the values from ground-up crucibles, ashes and floor sweepings (the Mint " sweep "); (d) assaying the melted bars; (e) " pyxing " the finished coin or selecting specimens to be weighed and assayed; (f) " telling " or counting the coin.

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  • The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.

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  • With potassium it forms a liquid alloy resembling mercury, which has been employed in high temperature thermometers (see Thermometry).

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  • His speculum metal is composed of four atoms of copper (126.4 parts) and one of tin (58.9 parts), a brilliant alloy, which resists tarnish better than any other compound tried.

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  • With reference to the materials of which standards of length are made, it appears that the Matthey alloy iridio-platinum (90% platinum, 10% iridium) is probably of all substances the least affected by time or circumstance, and of this costly alloy, therefore, a new copy of the imperial yard has been made.

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  • For small standard weights platinum (Δ=21.45) and aluminium (Δ=2.67) are used, and also an alloy of palladium (60%) and silver (40%) (Δ=11.00).

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  • For ordinary standards of length Guillaume's alloy (invar) of nickel (35.7%) and steel (64.3%) is used, as it is a metal that can be highly polished, and is capable of receiving fine graduations.

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  • Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.

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  • This frame or tube is so constructed of iron and brass (one-third iron and two-thirds brass) that its temperature coefficient of linear expansion is the same as that of the platinumsilver alloy.

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  • For this purpose it must be an alloy such as manganin or constantan.

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  • Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.

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  • Ingots of Chinese silver were sent from Lhasa with a small proportion of gold dust, and an equal weight in mohurs was returned, leaving to the Nepal rajahs, between gold dust and alloy, a good profit.

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  • The solid is then known 800 as a eutectic alloy.

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  • Other pairs of alloys, showing more complicated relations, are described in Alloy.

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  • In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.

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  • Nevertheless, it was found impracticable to smelt alumina electrically except in presence of copper, so that the Cowles furnace yielded, not the pure metal, but an alloy.

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  • Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.

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  • About ioo lb of bronze, containing from 15 to 20 lb of aluminium, were obtained from each run, the yield of the alloy being reported at about 1 lb per 18 e.h.p.-hours.

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  • In July 1888 the Societe Metallurgique Suisse erected plant driven by a 500 h.p. turbine to carry out Heroult's alloy process, and at the end of that year the Allgemeine Elektricitais Gesellschaft united with the Swiss firm in organizing the Aluminium Industrie Actien Gesellschaft of Neuhasen, which has factories in Switzerland, Germany and Austria.

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  • The average strength of 98% metal is approximately shown by the following table: - Weight for weight, therefore, aluminium is only exceeded in tensile strength by the best cast steel, and its own alloy, aluminium bronze.

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  • If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.

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  • This explains the failure of boats built of commercially pure aluminium which have been put together with iron or copper rivets, and the decay of other boats built of a light alloy, in which the alloying metal (copper) has been injudiciously chosen.

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  • * The term " Alloy Cast Irons " is not actually in frequent use, not because of any question as to its fitness or meaning, but because the need of such a generic term rarely arises in the industry.

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  • Alloy steels and cast irons are those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of one or more elements other than carbon.

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  • If iron thus preceded copper in many places, still more must it have preceded bronze, an alloy of copper and tin much less likely than either iron or copper to be made unintentionally.

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  • Osmond showed that the wonderful changes which thermal treatment andthe presence of certain foreign elements cause were due to allotropy, and from these and like teachings have come a rapid growth of the use of the so-called " alloy steels " in which, thanks to special composition and treatment, the iron exists in one or more of its remarkable allotropic states.

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  • 1 A " eutectic " is the last-freezing part of an alloy, and corresponds to what the mother-liquor of a saline solution would become if such a solution, after the excess of saline matter had been crystallized out, were finally completely frozen.

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  • If the alloy has a composition very near that of its own eutectic, then when solidified it of course contains a large proportion of the eutectic, and only a small proportion of the excess metal.

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  • This formation of cementite through the rejection of carbon by both the primary and the eutectic austenite continues quite as in the case of 1.00% carbon steel, with impoverishment of the austenite to the hardenite or eutectoid ratio, and the splitting up of that hardenite into pearlite at Ari, so that the mass when cold finally consists of (1) 1 Note the distinction between the " eutectic " or alloy of lowest freezing-point, 1130°, B, with 4.30% of carbon, and the " eutectoid," hardenite and pearlite, or alloy of lowest transformation-point, 690° S, with 0.90% of carbon.

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  • Alloy steels have come into extensive use for important special purposes, and a very great increase of their use is to be expected.

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  • Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.

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  • Its chief, indeed almost its sole use, is for making tool steel, the best kinds of spring steel and other very excellent kinds of high-carbon and alloy steel.

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  • It is the hardest known substance (though tantalum, or an alloy of tantalum now competes with it) and is chosen as io in the mineralogist's scale of hardness; but the difference in hardness between diamond (io) and corundum (9) is really greater than that between corundum (9) and talc (1); there is a difference in the hardness of the different faces; the Borneo stones are also said to be harder than those of Australia, and the Australian harder than the African, but this is by no means certain.

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  • The system of coinage is also curious: 105 English rupees are melted down, and the alloy extracted, leaving 100 rupees' worth of silver; 295 more English rupees are then melted, and the molten metal mixed with the 100 rupees silver; and out of this 808 Kandahari rupees are coined.

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  • From the use of gold and silver as a medium of exchange, it followed that they should approximate in all nations to a common degree of fineness; and though this is not uniform even in coins, yet the proportion of alloy in silver, and of carats alloy to carats fine in gold, has been reduced to infinitesimal differences in the bullion of commerce, and is a prime element of value even in gold and silver plate, jewelry, and other articles of manufacture.

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  • The metals chiefly used in the arts have been gold, silver, copper and tin (the last two generally mixed, forming an alloy called bronze), iron and lead (see the separate articles on these metals).

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  • This special alloy does not occur in any known iron ores, but is invariably found in meteoric iron.

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  • von Herkomer, who, whether working in gold and enamel, iron, or his favourite alloy, pewter, infuses a freshness into his designs and methods which displays an unusual mastery over materials.

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  • In many localities the braziers have a special repute either for a peculiar alloy or for a particular process of ornamentation.

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  • After much experiment he selected an alloy of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his specula, and he devised means for grinding and polishing them.

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  • Many different alloys have been suggested, some including silver, nickel, zinc or arsenic; but that which has practically been found best is an alloy of four equivalents of copper to one of tin, or the following proportions by weight: copper 252, tin 117.8.

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  • BIDDERY, or Bidri (an Indian word, from Bedar or Bidar, a town in the Nizam's Dominions), an alloy of copper, lead, tin and zinc used in making various articles and ornaments which are inlaid with gold and silver.

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  • It has been known from the earliest times, being employed by the Chinese in the form of an alloy called pakfong.

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  • An alloy was formed of two parts silver, one-third copper and one-sixth lead; to this mixture, while fluid in the crucible, powdered sulphur in excess was added; and the brittle amalgam, when cold, was finely pounded, and sealed up in large quills for future use.

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  • In "autogenous soldering" two pieces of metal are united by the melting of the opposing surfaces, without the use of a separate fusible alloy or solder as a cementing material.

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  • Its alloy with tin (bronze) was the first metallic compound in common use by mankind, and so extensive and characteristic was its employment in prehistoric times that the epoch is known as the Bronze Age.

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  • Type-metal is an alloy of lead with antimony and tin, to which occasionally a small quantity of copper or zinc is added.

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  • The presence of the antimony in this alloy gives to it hardness, and the property of expanding on solidification, thus allowing a sharp cast of the letter to be taken.

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  • An alloy of tin and antimony forms.

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  • The compound formed, antimoniuretted hydrogen or stibine, SbH 3, may also be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on an alloy of antimony and zinc, or by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony compounds.

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  • By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.

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  • From this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • soldare, to make solidus, firm), an alloy easily melted and used for uniting as by a metallic cement two metal surfaces, joints, edges, &c.

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  • In the Alps and the Danube valley some of the Celts had dwelt from the Stone Age; there they had developed the working of copper, discovered bronze (an alloy of copper and tin), and the art of smelting iron (see Hallstatt).

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  • In the first the gold or silver is made to combine or alloy with metallic lead, the other constituents of the ore being separated from the lead as slag.

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  • When the lead melts and begins to oxidize, the lead oxide, or so-called litharge, combines with or dissolves the non-metallic and readily oxidizable constituents of the ore, while the gold and silver alloy with the lead.

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  • The process of cupellation is briefly as follows: - The gold alloy is fused with a quantity of lead, and a little silver if silver is already present.

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  • The resulting alloy, which is called the lead button, is then submitted to fusion on a very porous support, made of bone-ash, and called a cupel.

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  • Now, if this were the only action, little good would have been gained, for we should simply have put lead into the gold alloy, and then taken it out again; but another action goes on whilst the lead is oxidizing in the current of air.

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  • If the lead is therefore rightly proportioned to the standard of alloy, the resulting button will consist of only gold and silver, and these are separated by the operation of parting, which consists in boiling the alloy (after rolling it to a thin plate) in strong nitric acid, which dissolves the silver and leaves the gold as a coherent sponge.

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