The decline of military alliances and the rise of economic ones.
Jellinek has suggested this classification (Die Lehre von den Staatenverbindungen, p. 58): (a) Unorganized associations, including - (1) treaties; (2) occupation of the territory of one state and administration by another, as in Bosnia and Cyprus; (3) alliances; (4) protectorates, guarantees, perpetual neutrality; (5) Der Staatenstaat, the feudal state, of which Jellinek gives the Turkish Empire and the old Holy Roman Empire as examples.
The idea of possibly running into people whose alliances she couldn't predict made her queasy.
claims a few words, though its scope is rather to show differences than affinities; but treatment of that kind is undoubtedly useful at times in indicating that alliances generally admitted are unnatural; and this is the case here, for, following Calvier's method, the author's researches prove the artificial character of some of its associations.
But his plans were traversed again and again by unforeseen complications, the failure of the most promising presumptions, the perpetual shifting of apparently stable alliances; and again and again he had to modify his means to attain his ends.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
It was chiefly in the way of matrimonial alliances that it was brought into contact with other states.
In 1747, alliances were also concluded with Denmark and the Porte.
He encouraged the princes to form alliances for its maintenance, and at the time of his death such alliances existed in all parts of the country.
The half-castes sprung from alliances with the wild tribes of Caucasic stock present every variety between that type and the Mongolian.
While thus maintaining his authority in the north-east corner of the country by alliances and expeditions, Henry was strong enough to put the laws in motion against the most powerful princes and to force them to keep the public peace.
Kings forbade their noblemen from forming alliances with other potentates.
He made many alliances to secure his position, but fearing himself isolated he sought help from Charles VIII.
Especially did he oppose alliances with France; but the French party in Glarus was strong, and it retaliated so fiercely that in 1516 Zwingli was glad to accept the post of people's priest at Einsiedeln.
The division into federations, confederations and alliances is not complete.
In the past, political alliances were sealed by marriages among monarchs or nobles.
He negotiates all treaties or alliances with foreign states, protects British subjects residing abroad, and demands satisfaction for any injuries they may sustain at the hands of foreigners.
The Clintons were most popular among the independent freeholders; the Livingstons had increased their influence by numerous marriage alliances with landed families; and the Schuylers had General Philip Schuyler and Alexander Hamilton, his son-in-law.
I must keep our alliances strong by delivering the water from the Springs!
He appears to have consolidated his power by the aid of the Church and by a series of judicious matrimonial alliances.
It is shown, moreover, in foreign alliances.
By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances.
Little by little his policy, always supported by a majority in a house of representatives elected by a corrupt and narrow franchise, became more reactionary and purely dynastic. His position in France seeming to be unassailable, he sought to strengthen it in Europe by family alliances.
So nearly complete was the independence of the states that each received the right to form alliances with any of the others, or with foreign powers, nominally on condition that their alliances should not be injurious to the emperor or to the Empire.
was occupied by the Prussian troops already stationed therein; the duke of Cumberland published a patent proclaiming his succession; the council of state, however, declared, in agreement with the Bundesrat, that the relations in which he stood to the kingdom of Prussia were inconsistent with the alliances on which the empire was based, and that therefore he could not assume the government.
During all this period Bismarcks authority was so great, that in the conduct of foreign affairs he was freed from the Foreign criticism and opposition which so often hampered sf/airs: him in his internal policy, and he was able to establish the Triple that system of alliances on which for so many years Alliance, the political system of Europe depended.
(1637-1657) was forced to yield Alsace to France, to grant territorial supremacy, including the right of making The peace alliances, to the states of the Empire, and to acknowof West- ledge the concurrent jurisdiction of the imperial phalia, chamber and the Aulic council.
Dionysius then planted mercenaries at Leontini, conquered some Sicel towns, Henna among them, and made alliances with others.
1771) to conquer Syria; and agents were sent to negotiate alliances with Venice and Russia.
(See Sweden and Griffenfeldt.) In April 1672 a treaty was concluded between France and Sweden, on condition that France should not include Denmark in her system of alliances without the consent of Sweden.
On the other hand mestizos who live among the whites and form new alliances with them eventually class themselves as whites wherever their social condition has been improved.
During his two years' campaign in the Punjab and Sind, Alexander captured no province, but he made alliances, founded cities and planted garrisons.
At the close of the Mahratta War, in 1804, and again in 1805, he negotiated important treaties with Sindhia and Holkar, and in 1806, besides seeing the arrangements arising out of these alliances carried out, he directed the difficult work of reducing the immense body of irregular native troops.
Theophrastus and in general the elder Peripatetics, before the rise of new schools with new lines of cleavage and new interests had led to new antagonisms and new alliances, do not break away from the Aristotelian The Peri= metaphysic. Their interests, however, lie in the sublunary patetics.
He endeavours to show that all social laws are the crystallized results of selfish aggrandizement and protective alliances among the weak.
their sparkling look; and inhabiting one of the seven beautiful worlds below the earth (and above the hells), where they are ruled over by three chiefs or kings, Sesha, Vasuki and Takshaka; their fair daughters often entering into matrimonial alliances with men, like the mermaids of western legend.
Yet - thanks to its organization, its press, and the elaborate network of alliances spun by Windhorst - the Ultramontane Centre still remains a powerful force in German politics.
The interval between this war and the Seven Years' War (1756) saw that great reversal of alliances which is sometimes called the "Diplomatic Revolution"; whereby France repudiated the alliance of Frederick the Great and joined hands with her old enemy Austria.
Both parties lapsed from the freedom-of-conscience solution to which each when unsuccessful appealed; both betook themselves to arms; and the immediate future of the little kingdom was to be decided by its external alliances.
In accordance with instructions given by the Virginia House of Burgesses, Lee introduced in Congress, on the 7th of June 1776, the following famous resolutions: (1) "that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved"; (2) "that it is expedient to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign alliances"; and (3) "that a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective colonies for their consideration and approbation."
A watchful neutrality, not venturing much beyond defensive alliances and commercial treaties with the maritime powers, was therefore Sweden's safest policy, and this the older Caps had always followed out.
The Transvaal was now in a condition bordering on anarchy, and numbers of its inhabitants were supposed to be looking to Great Britain for help. Another party in the Transvaal was seeking alliances with Germany and Portugal, and this danger of foreign interference was a further cause for action.
(1481-1495) reverted to the policy of matrimonial alliances with Castile and.
Ferdinand demanded that the Bohemians should renounce all alliances with the German Protestants, and declared that he would make his will known after his arrival in Prague.
The tyrants of Milan were aspiring to royal alliances; Gian Galeazzo Visconti had been married to Isabella of France; Violante Visconti, a few years later, was wedded to the English duke of Clarence.
Other alliances transferred it successively to the families of Donzy, Chatillon, Bourbon and Burgundy.
Without declaring war, he did all possible harm to them by alliances and diplomacy.
He concluded alliances with the Protestant princes in Germany, with the duke of Lorraine, the Swiss cantons (treaty of Soleure, 1602) and with Sweden.
Meanwhile John, leaving his barons to discuss and formulate their grievances, pushed on with a great scheme of foreign alliances, by which he hoped to crush Philip of France, even though the aid of the feudal levies of England ~ was denied him.
Occasionally his views grew yet widerhe would knit up alliances all over Christendom and dominate the West.
Nor did Edwards relations with the more remote states of the continent lead to any important results, though he had many treaties and alliances in hand.
He remained quiescent for five years, but busied himself in knitting up secret alliances with the Welsh of the South, who were resenting the introduction of English laws and customs by the strong-handed king.
He also made alliances with several of the dukes and counts of the Netherlands, and with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, obviously with the intention of raising trouble for France on her northern and eastern frontiers.
From one point of view they were little more ~ e~u~ than a great faction fight between two alliances of tending over-powerful barons.
His pride was hurt, but for two years more there was no open breach between him and his master, though their estrangement grew more and more marked when Edward continued to heap titles and estates on his wifes numerous relatives, and to conclude for them marriage alliances with all the great Yorkist families B h who were not of the Neville connection.
Similarly on land, the post it occupied between northern Greece and the Peloponnese materially influenced its relation to other states, both in respect of its alliances, such as that with Thessaly, towards which it was drawn by mutual hostility to Boeotia, which lay between them; and also in respect of offensive combinations of other powers, as that between Thebes and Sparta, which throughout an important part of Greek history were closely associated in their politics, through mutual dread of their powerful neighbour.
He made alliances with the princes of North and South Wales.
The Assembly This demand led the Assembly to consider in what and the hands the power of concluding alliances and of making royal peace and war should be placed.
Alliances have usually been directed to specific objects carefully defined in the treaties.
Occasionally, however, attempts have been made to give alliances a more general character.
They made alliances with the strangers to aid them in their intestine wars, and the annalist writing in later years (Annals of Lough Ce) describes with pathetic brevity the change wrought in Ireland:" Earl Strongbow came into Erin with Dermod MacMurrough to avenge his expulsion by Roderick, son of Turlough O'Connor; and Dermod gave 1 The whole question is discussed by Mr J.
The family quarrels of the O'Connors at this time, and their alliances with the Burkes, or De Burghs, and the Berminghams, may be traced in great detail in the annalists - the general result being fatal to the royal tribe of Connaught, which is said to have lost ro,000 warriors in the battle of Templetogher.
He failed, however, to realize his ambition of shutting in the Capet king and isolating him from the rest of Europe by crafty alliances, notably that with the emperor Frederick Barbarossawhile watching an opportunity to supplant him upon the French throne.
Charles also had all towns and large villages fortified; and being a man of affairs he set about undoing the effect of the treaty of Brtigny by alliances with Flanders, whose heiress he married to his brother Philip, duke of Burgundy; with Henry, king of Castile, and Ferdinand of Portugal, who possessed fine navies; and, finally, with the emperor Charles IV.
The kingdom at peace and the Huguenot Richeicu party ruined, he was now able to engage upon his and policy of prudent acquisitions and apparently dis- 6ustavus interested alliances, But Gustavus Adolphus, king Adoiphus.
Weimar; by that of Rivoli he united against Spain the dukes of Modena, Parma and Mantua; he signed an open alliance with The the league of Heilbronn, the United Provinces and Frwch Sweden and after these alliances military operations Thirty began, Marshal de la Force occupying the duchy of Lor Years raine.
Whilst others were triumphing openly, Mazarin, in the shadow and silence of the interregnum, had kept watch upon the heart of the queen; and when the old party of Marie de Medici and Anne of Austria wished to come back into power, to impose a general peace, and to substitute for the Protestant alliances an understanding with Spain, the arrest of Francois de Vendme, duke of Beaufort, and the exile of other important nobles proved to the great families that their hour had gone by (September 1643).
It was he too who by renewing the traditional alliances and resuming against Bavaria, Fer- -
Both countries, ~ exhausted by twenty years of war, were incapable of bringing it to a successful termination, yet neither would be first to give in.; Mazarin, therefore, disquieted by Conds victory at Valenciennes (I656), reknit the bond of Protestant alliances, and, having nothing to expect from Holland, he deprived Spain of her alliance with Oliver Cromwell (March 23, 1657).
The death of Colbert and the revocation of the edict of Nantes brought the first to a close (166116831685); coinciding with the date when the Revolution in England definitely reversed the traditional system of alliances, and when the administration began to disorganize.
Colbertvery envious of Hollands wealthprepared the finances, le Tellier the army and de Lionne the alliances.
A prime minister in petticoats, she had her political system: reversed the timehonoured alliances of France, appointed or disgraced ministers, directed fleets and armies, concluded treaties, and failed in all her enterprises!
The marriage was one of a set of family alliances with Austria and Portugal designed to strengthen Spain against France.
He therefore came to the conclusion that if Prussia was to regain the position she had lost she must be prepared for the opposition of Austria, and must strengthen herself by alliances with other powers.
As the god of oaths, he protected the sanctity of the marriage tie, the rights of hospitality, international treaties and alliances.
Trade and commerce were at a standstill, agriculture was neglected, the privileges and estates of the margrave passed into private hands, the nobles were virtually independent, and the towns sought to defend themselves by means of alliances.
Under the Wittelsbach rule, the estates of the various provinces of Brandenburg had obtained the right to coin money, to build fortresses, to execute justice, and to form alliances with foreign states.
He diminished the burden of taxation, suppressed the violence of the nobles, improved navigation on the Elbe and Oder, and encouraged commerce by alliances with the Hanse towns, and in other ways.
He deposed the governing oligarchy, changed the constitution of the town, forbade all alliances and laid the foundations of a castle.
He fought hard to build alliances the Council destroyed, and bartered, cheated, and stole for the weaponry needed to defeat the invaders, the Yirkin, a sophisticated race whose goal was to claim as many planets as they could in their empire-building.
Now that he was no longer in the slavery of the Council, he would take the last few steps needed to rebuild his alliances and bring his might to full force.
While she calls for activity and alliances to fight the TNCs, she is hopelessly vague about what kind of action is needed.
It contracts no entangling alliances with any sect of theorists, dreamers or philosophers.
The important issue in the months ahead is to build broad alliances around core Labor principles.
The old opposing power blocs have gone, but have been replaced by a dangerous and unpredictable tapestry of shifting alliances.
Labor leaders here are said to be increasingly disenchanted with their Lib Dem coalition partners and considering alternative alliances after May 2007.
Relations between these various power bases aren't always cordial - links are fluid and alliances temporary.
The shaman's domain includes dalliances, alliances, exchanges and battles with the spirits of the air, ocean, soil and cosmos.
emblazoned the arms of that family and their alliances.
entanglee: Peace, commerce and honest friendship with all nations -- entangling alliances with none.
All power lies with States and alliances between States, while ' humanity ' is left utterly impotent.
Other alliances, with organic food growers and protectionist food organizations in France and England, created a Juggernaut against GM food.
CAT has alliances with a large number of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to discover, develop and commercialize human monoclonal antibody-based products.
Alliances tend, in reality, to be a series of bilateral relationships between airlines rather than truly multilateral.
The island of Melos found itself an unwilling pawn in a vicious struggle between the Athenian and Spartan alliances.
juvenile rooks form long-term alliances, which are based on high levels of affiliative behavior (preening, food sharing) between partners.
strategic alliances work in practice.
unwilling pawn in a vicious struggle between the Athenian and Spartan alliances.
The fanaticism of the Muwahhadis did not prevent them from encouraging the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile.
A conflict between Corcyra and Corinth, the second and third naval powers of Greece, led to the simultaneous appearance in Athens of an embassy from either combatant (433) Pericles had, as it seems, resumed of late a plan of Western expansion by forming alliances with Rhegium and Leontini, and the favourable position of Corcyra on the traderoute to Sicily and Italy, as well as its powerful fleet, no doubt helped to induce him to secure an alliance with that island, and so to commit an unfriendly act towards a leading representative of the Peloponnesian League.
The imperial family were renowned for their beauty, and the princesses of this race were sought as brides by Byzantine emperors of the dynasty of the Palaeologi, by Western nobles, and by Mahommedan princes; and the connexions thus formed originated a variety of diplomatic relations and friendly or offensive alliances.
He greeted the treaty of San Stefano (3rd March 1878) with undisguised relief, and by the mouth of the king, congratulated Italy (7th March 1878) on having maintained with the powers friendly and cordial relations free from suspicious precautions, and upon having secured for herself that most precious of alliances, the alliance of the future a phrase of which the empty rhetoric was to be bitterly demonstrated by the Berlin Congress and the French occupation of Tunisia.
Hitherto she had confined her efforts to territorial expansion in eastern Europe and in Asia, and she had sought foreign alliances merely as temporary expedients to facilitate the attainment of that object.
The ministry of the Visconde de Olinda in 1849 entered into alliances with the governors of Montevideo, Paraguay and the states of Entre Rios and Corrientes, for the purpose of maintaining the integrity of the republics of Uruguay and Paraguay, which Rosas intended to reunite to Buenos Aires, and the troops of Rosas which besieged Montevideo were forced to capitulate.
Political, commercial and matrimonial alliances inevitably left their mark upon national religion, and the introduction of foreign cults which ensued is characteristically viewed as an apostasy from Yahweh of which he was guilty in his old age.
The extraordinary details of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see FREDERICK III., king of Denmark, and Charles X., king of Sweden); suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde (February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem; to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish [[Viii.
Quarrels soon arose, partly out of the circumstance that the Romans had sought to make alliances with certain Danubian tribes which Ruas chose to regard as properly subject to himself, partly also because some of the undoubted subjects of the Hun had found refuge on Roman territory; and Theodosius, in reply to an indignant and insulting message which he had received about this cause of dispute, was preparing to send off a special embassy when tidings arrived that Ruas was dead and that he had been succeeded in his kingdom by Attila and Bleda, the two sons of his brother Mundzuk (433).
of Armagnac, and presently formed alliances with the dukes of Berry, Bourbon and Brittany, and others who formed the party known as the Armagnacs (see Armagnac), against the Burgundians who had gained the upper hand in the royal council.
The result of some twelve years of abortive alliances and ill-kept treaties was that Henry had obtained no single one Begin- of the advantages which he had coveted, and that he nings ~ had lavished untold wealth and many English lives parlia- upon phantom schemes which crumbled between his mentary fingers.
Yet such alliances may at times break down and have then to be reconstructed on a new basis.
Juvenile rooks form long-term alliances, which are based on high levels of affiliative behavior (preening, food sharing) between partners.
To bring the theory to life, there are several case studies showing how strategic alliances work in practice.
His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances like underpants in a tumble dryer.
The company has set up a great many alliances to make this possible.
Despite the instability, members cling to these alliances because they can't imagine their lives without them.
It's a growing organization building strong alliances.
Take on the role of a nameless character and forge alliances with whomever you like -- the downtrodden humans, the conquering Orcs, or even the traitorous merchants.
Genograms help uncover intergenerational patterns of behavior, marriage choices, family alliances and conflicts, the existence of family secrets, and other information that sheds light on the family's present situation.
Some states have large scale alliances for pharmaceuticals and may have an agreement with Barr Laboratories through this alliance.
Forming temporary alliances for every hand, each of the four players is ultimately playing for himself.
In fact, the earliest rings may have been exchanged by men forming alliances with one another.
Alliances with other organization adds power to SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) in turn passed on to its members.
Whether the show pits each contestant against one another, or couples come to the ranch as their own two-person team, at some point during game play, it's almost inevitable that friendships and alliances form.
Networking can also help by forming alliances between companies that work within the same regions or areas.
These alliances can help the dissemination of information and form strong relationships that can further the insurance industry.
Networking opportunities provide opportunities for career advancement and the creation of strong alliances within the Ohio insurance industry.
Alliances are formed, enemies are made, and alcohol flows like water.
The others were eliminated by members of other alliances.
Mr. Boston, Nibblz and Midget Mac were not involved in the competition long enough to develop any strong alliances.
From instigating fights to burning Jaison's socks while he sleeps, Russell kicked off his game by creating havoc and trouble, while trying to build alliances with all of the females on his tribe.
He dominated early in the game, making strong alliances and taking control of his tribe.
He made many other alliances, but the only one he and Amber stayed loyal to was a deal with Rupert Boneham and Jenna Lewis.
He made alliances with everyone, promising them safety, and then voted them out one by one.
Often he made alliances with people within hours of arranging to have them voted out.
You might even pick up some juicy details about the alliances while you're there.
After struggling with alliances and the usual backstabbing that Big Brother is known for, she finished in fourth place.
A common theme in fantasy is that immortal or long-lived races have little in common with short-lived ones, although temporary alliances against a common enemy can be forged.
Wallie leverages his Earth-learned skills to form alliances and obligations; only Duncan's fascinating world building skills and character development keep this series from degenerating into a novelization of a dice-rolling game.
Although newspapers and social media were once in direct competition, within the past five years they have formed some interesting alliances.
The site includes a helpful search page for local programs, such as community groups and gay-straight alliances in high schools.
One of its most popular efforts for teens is the creation of gay-straight alliances in high schools.
The captain of the people, acting as head of the ascendant Guelphs or Ghibellines, undertakes the responsibility of proscriptions, decides on questions of policy, forms alliances, declares war.
He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).
She made fresh alliances with the earl of Angus and Sir George Douglas, and in 1544 she made a premature attempt to seize the regency; but a reconciliation with Arran was brought about by Cardinal Beton.
By these alliances the new Charlemagne seemed to have founded his supremacy in South Germany on sure foundations.
None of these alliances has borne close scrutiny.
When, on the 16th of January 1756, the Anglo-Prussian, and on the 2nd of May the Franco-Austrian alliances were concluded, Vorontsov advocated the accession of Russia to the latter league, whereas Bestuzhev insisted on a subsidy treaty with Great Britain.
By some authors it is referred to the eagles, by others to the buzzards, and by others again to the hawks; but possibly the first of these alliances is the most likely to be true.
The decline of the imperial power and the growing opposition between the towns and the territorial princes justified these defensive town alliances, which in South Germany took on a peculiarly political character.
At times he had the sagacity to recognize the utility of alliances, as was shown by those he concluded with the Porte and with the Protestant princes of Germany.
A careful, calculating dynastic policy, which aimed at the establishment of an equilibrium by means of prudent compromises and defensive alliances, was, he rightly judged, the best guarantee for the future safety and glory of Poland.
Among the definitions of sovereignty may be quoted these: "That which decides in questions of war and peace, and of making or dissolving alliances, and about laws and capital punishment, and exiles and fines, and audit of accounts and examinations of administrators after their term of office" (Aristotle, Politics, 4.4.
It includes also permanent alliances or organic unions.
He proposed to accomplish this by carefully nursing her resources, and in the meantime securing and enriching her by alliances, which would bring in large subsidies while imposing a minimum of obligations.
Henceforth the policy of France was directed by Richelieu, who took up in its main features the system of Protestant alliances and opposition to the power of Austria and Spain, which had been begun by Henry IV.
The Bernese often interfered with the internal affairs of Geneva (while Calvin, a Frenchman, naturally looked towards France), and refused to allow the city to conclude any alliances save with itself.
the Great (1333-1370), Poland's first great statesman in the modern sense of the word, who, by a most skilful system of matrimonial alliances, reintroduced isolated Poland Casimir III.
Skilfully taking advantage of the jealousies of Poland and Lithuania, as they were accentuated by the personal antagonism of Jagiello and Witowt (q.v.), with the latter of whom the Knights more than once contracted profitable alliances, they even contrived (Treaty of Salin, 1378) to extend their territory by getting possession of the province of Samogitia, the original seat of the Lithuanians, where paganism still persisted, and where their inhuman cruelties finally excited the horror and indignation of Christian Europe.
landed at Waterford, and came to Dublin and held his court there in a pavilion of wickerwork where the Irish chiefs were entertained with great pomp, and alliances entered into with them.
He had inherited his desire for the humiliation of the house of Austria in both its branches, his desire to push the French frontier to the Rhine and maintain a counterpoise of German states against Austria, his alliances with the Netherlands and with Sweden, and his four theatres of war - on the Rhine, in Flanders, in Italy and in Catalonia.
The electioneering alliances, which were everywhere in vogue, but particularly in Germany, between the Catholics and popular party and the Social Democrats, throw a lurid light upon the character of a movement that certainly went far beyond the intentions of the pope, but which it was now difficult to undo or to hold in check.
326-375), one of the greatest of Indian kings, who conquered nearly the whole of India, and whose alliances extended from the Oxus to Ceylon; but his name was at one time entirely lost to history, and has only been recovered of recent years from coins and inscriptions.
He also married a Greek princess named Ladice, the daughter of Battus, king of Cyrene, and he made alliances with Polycrates of Samos and Croesus of Lydia.
The origin of this kingdom, famous alike in the political and religious history of India, is lost in the mists of antiquity; and though the Brahmanical Puranas give lists of its rulers extending back to remote ages before the Christian era, the first authentic dynasty is that of the Saisunaga, founded by Sisunaga (c. 600 B.C.), whose capital was at Rajagaha (Rajgir) in the hills near Gaya; and the first king of this dynasty of whom anything is known was Bimbisara (c. 528 B.C.), who by conquests and matrimonial alliances laid the foundations of the greatness of the kingdom.
Wynn's alliances and motivations were mysterious, but there was one thing they had in common: Deidre.
Matthias consolidated his position by alliances with the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, with the Swiss Confederation, and the archbishop of Salzburg, and was henceforth the greatest potentate in central Europe.
Their career of conquest, and their new policy of forming Italian alliances and entering into the management of Italian affairs were confirmed by the long dogeship of Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), who must rank with Alfonso, Cosimo de Medici, Francesco Sforza and Nicholas V., as a joint-founder of confederated Italy.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
The alliances, counter-alliances and far-reaching political combinations which spring up at every advance of the greater powers are often perplexing in the absence of records of the states concerned.
Both Charles and Louis were diplomatists as well as soldiers, and their foreign policy, largely based on family alliances, was almost invariably successful.
Poland was restrained by his alliances with the Teutonic Knights and the tsardom of Muscovy, and his envoys appeared in Persia and in Egypt to combat the diplomacy of the Porte.
Throughout the middle ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes.
He encouraged the cities, and not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees.
A lion's share of the Mowbray estates, swollen by the great alliances of the house, heir of Breouse and Segrave, and, through Segrave, of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I., fell to Howard, who, by a patent of June 28, 1483, was created duke of Norfolk and earl marshal of England with a remainder to the heirs male of his body.
When the Athenian fleet under Nicias, Alcibiades and Lamachus was at Rhegium in Italy, after the discovery of the trick that had been played by the Segestans, the question for the commanders was whether they should seek to strengthen themselves by fresh alliances on the spot or strike the blow at once.
Alliances with various land powers, and an inability to understand the true relations which alone could unite the league, combined to alienate the allies, who could discover no reason for the expenditure of their contributions on protecting Sparta or Corinth against Thebes.
The Copenhagen post gave him, as well as some other diplomats, an exceptional opportunity of watching the principal moving powers of European politics from a point of vantage, as the matrimonial alliances of the Danish royal family occasionally brought together in a friendly family circle the widow of Alexander III, Nicholas II and the Prince of Wales who was to become King Edward VII.
Machiavelli therefore was justified in feeling that here was an opportunity for putting his cherished schemes in practice, and that a prince with such alliances might even advance to the grand end of the unification of Italy.
In the development of distinct antheridial and oogonial cells the allied Ancylistineae show close alliances to Pythium and the Oomycetes.
In military alliances, however, it is much likelier that when nations choose their friends, they create enemies where there were none before.
We could go on here and talk about other military powers and alliances, but the simple fact is that large countries are less willing to risk war in defense of small ones.
This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.
To him belong the ultimate direction of foreign affairs, the power to declare war and peace, to make treaties and alliances, and to dissolve one or both chambers of parliament, the supreme command of the army and navy, the supreme administration of the state finances and of the colonies and other possessions of the kingdom, and the prerogative of mercy.
The Burmese court, in contravention of the express terms of the treaty of 1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay, representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if possible, close alliances with sundry European powers.
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