Alkyl sentence example

alkyl
  • If alkyl or aryl-ortho-diamines be used azonium bases are obtained.
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  • They add on alkyl iodides readily, forming alkyl azonium salts.
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  • The hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in phenol can be replaced by metals, by alkyl groups and by acid radicals.
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  • The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
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  • Alkyl compounds of germanium such as germanium tetra-ethyl, Ge(C2H5)4, a liquid boiling at C., have been obtained.
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  • It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.
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  • We may also notice that thio-ethers combine with alkyl iodides to form sulphide or sulphonium compounds, R3; SI.
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  • In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.
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  • The amines also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite impossible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of other substituents, e.g.
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  • On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.
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  • The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the introduction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect of any particular substituent.
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  • Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
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  • The N-derivatives are prepared by the action of alkyl halides and acid chlorides on potassium pyrrol.
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  • They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.
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  • The thiazoles are somewhat basic in character, and combine with the alkyl iodides to form thiazolium iodides.
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  • These salts are like those of tin; and the resemblance to this metal is clearly enhanced by the study of the alkyl compounds.
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  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
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  • The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
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  • They combine readily with the alkyl iodides to form alkyl acridinium iodides, which are readily transformed by the action of alkaline potassium ferricyanide to N-alkyl acridones.
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  • The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
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  • Taurke (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 1663) by condensing silicon halides with alkyl chlorides in the presence of sodium: SiC14-1-4R Cl+8Na= SiR 4 +8NaCI; SiHC1 3 +3R.
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  • The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic esters.
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  • By heating with phosphorus pentachloride an alkyl group is eliminated and a chlorcarbonic ester formed.
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  • The replacement of one hydrogen atom by one alkyl or aryl group gives rise to primary amines; of two hydrogen atoms by two groups, to secondary amines; of three hydrogen atoms by three groups, to tertiary amines.
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  • The tertiary amines possess the power of combining with one molecular proportion of an alkyl iodide to form quaternary ammonium salts.
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  • By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
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  • At a temperature of about 300-400° C. the alkyl chloride formed in this reaction attacks the benzene nucleus and replaces hydrogen by an alkyl group or groups, forming primary amines homologous with the original amine; thus methylaniline hydrochloride is converted into paraand ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, and trimethyl phenyl ammonium iodide is converted into mesidine hydriodide.
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  • When heated with alkyl or aryl iodides, they are converted into secondary and tertiary amines.
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  • The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
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  • The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
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  • The mixed tertiary amines are produced by the action of alkyl halides on the primary amines.
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  • On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
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  • Their alkyl derivatives readily oxidize to pyrazine carboxylic acids.
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  • This reaction shows that the alkyl or aryl group is attached to the carbon atom in the nitrile.
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  • This reaction shows that the alkyl or aryl group is linked to the nitrogen atom.
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  • Such a reaction can only take place if the addition of the alkyl group takes place on the nitrogen atom of the isonitrile, from which it follows that the nitrogen atom must be trivalent and consequently the carbon atom divalent.
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  • Grignard (Comptes rendus, 1900 et seq.) observed that magnesium and alkyl or aryl halides combined together in presence of anhydrous ether at ordinary R temperatures (with the appearance of brisk boiling) to form compounds of the type RMgX(R = an alkyl or aryl group and X = halogen).
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  • With unsaturated alkyl halides the products are only slightly soluble in ether, and two molecules of the alkyl compound are brought into the reaction.
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  • A Klages (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2633 et seq.) has shown that if one uses an excess of magnesium and of an alkyl halide with a ketone, an ethylene derivative is formed.
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  • Meyer (Ber., 18 94, 2 7, p. 510 et seq.) showed that in benzenoid compounds ortho-substituents exert a great hindering effect on the esterification of alcohols by acids in the presence of hydrochloric acid, this hindering being particularly marked when two substituents are present in the ortho positions to the carboxyl group. In such a case the ester is best prepared by the action of an alkyl halide on the silver salt of the acid, and when once prepared, can only be hydrolysed with great difficulty.
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  • They are readily hydrolysed by water, and combine with bases to form alkyl ureas, and with alcohols to form carbamic esters.
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  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.
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  • They may be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on the alcohols, alkyl sulphuric acids being first formed, which yield ethers on heating with alcohols.
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  • They may also be prepared by heating the alkyl halides with silver oxide.
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  • Phosphorus pentachloride converts them into alkyl chlorides, a similar decomposition taking place when they are heated with the haloid acids.
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  • Wislicenus found that only one hydrogen atom in the -CH 2 - group is directly replaceable by sodium, and that if the sodium be then replaced by an alkyl group, the second hydrogen atom in the group can be replaced in the same manner.
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  • These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.
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  • It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
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  • It is a tertiary base, and combines readily with the alkyl halides to form pyridinium salts.
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  • Ladenburg that the pyridinium alkyl iodides rearrange themselves when strongly heated and yield a and -y alkyl pyridines (Ber., 1883, 16, p. 1410 seq.; Ann., 1888, 247, p. I).
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  • Alkyl pyridines -CO /COare also obtained by heating aldehyde ?
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  • Just as the amines are derived from ammonia, so from phosphine are derived the primary, secondary and tertiary organic phosphines by the exchange of hydrogen for alkyl groups, and corresponding to the phosphonium salts there exists a series of organic phosphonium bases.
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  • The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
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  • The boiling-points of some members of the series are shown in the table: The alkyl phosphinic acids are colourless crystalline compounds which are easily soluble in water and alcohol.
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  • It combines readily with the alkyl halides.
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  • Tertiary alcohols are thus seen to be characterized by the group C � OH, in which the residual valencies of the carbon atom are attached to alkyl groups.
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  • Regarding methyl alcohol, for which he proposed the name carbinol, as the simplest alcohol, he showed that by replacing one hydrogen atom of the methyl group by an alkyl residue, compounds of the general formula R�CH 2 �OH would result.
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  • The alcohol is first acted upon with phosphorus and iodine, and the resulting alkyl iodide is treated with silver nitrite, which gives the corresponding nitroalkyl.
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  • Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.
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  • By reacting with a zinc alkyl (methyl or ethyl) on an acid chloride, an addition compound is first formed, which decomposes with water to give a ketone.
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  • If, however, a second molecule of a zinc alkyl be allowed to react, a compound is formed which gives a tertiary alcohol when decomposed with water.
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  • In 1855 Adolph Wurtz had shown that when sodium acted upon alkyl iodides, the alkyl residues combined to form more complex hydrocarbons; Fittig developed this method by showing that a mixture of an aromatic and alkyl haloid, under similar treatment, yielded homologues of benzene.
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  • It forms N-metallic and alkyl salts.
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  • It is a colourless liquid having a faint smell resembling that of benzene and boiling at 84° C. In its chief properties it very much resembles benzene, being readily brominated, sulphonated, and nitrated; also, the side chains in the alkyl thiophens are readily oxidized to carboxyl groups.
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  • The mercaptans may be prepared by the action of the alkyl halides on an alcoholic solution of potassium hydrosulphide; by the reduction of the sulpho-chlorides, e.g.
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  • Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC 6 H 5) 2, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C 6 H 5 CNS, and triphenyl guanidine, C 6 H 5 N: C(NHC6H5)2.
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  • All the salts are explosive and readily interact with the alkyl iodides.
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  • If methyl benzene is reacted with chlorine in the presence of uv light, substitution takes place in the alkyl side chain.
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  • This was proved in the reduction of a series of ketone, ester and alkyl halide functionalities.
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  • Much more research is required to unravel the ecological significance (if any) of the alkyl iodides.
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  • The alkyl nitrates are a reservoir species for NO x (=NO 2 + NO ).
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  • However, as street drugs, the alkyl nitrites (usually butyl nitrite) come in small bottles with screw or plug tops.
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  • Poppers are small bottles filled with liquid chemicals called alkyl nitrites.
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  • Paints The main substances of concern likely to be found in paints are alkyl phenol ethoxylates, chlorinated paraffins and phthalates.
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  • An example of such a system is the nucleation of calcite crystals on carboxylic acid terminated alkyl thiols, which produces highly oriented crystals.
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  • The importance of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound radicals, fre q uently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist.
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  • We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
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  • It may be generally concluded that the substitution of alkyl, nitro, hydroxyl, and haloid groups for hydrogen in a molecule occasions a deformation of crystal structure in one definite direction, hence permitting inferences as to the configuration of the atoms composing the crystal; while the nature and degree of the alteration depends (1) upon the crystal structure of the unsubstituted compound; (2) on the nature of the substituting radicle; (3) on the complexity of the substituted molecule; and (4) on the orientation of the substitution derivative.
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  • At a temperature of about 300-400° C. the alkyl chloride formed in this reaction attacks the benzene nucleus and replaces hydrogen by an alkyl group or groups, forming primary amines homologous with the original amine; thus methylaniline hydrochloride is converted into paraand ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, and trimethyl phenyl ammonium iodide is converted into mesidine hydriodide.
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  • They give the isonitrile reaction (see above) when warmed with chloroform and a caustic alkali, and form alkyl thioureas when heated with an alcoholic solution of carbon bisulphide.
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  • Many derivatives of pararosaniline and rosaniline are known, in which the hydrogen atoms of the amino groups are replaced by alkyl groups; this has the effect of producing a blue or violet shade, which becomes deeper as the number of groups increases (see Dyeing).
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  • Thenard (Comptes rendus, 45, P 44; 47, 5, 892), are formed (together with the quaternary phosphonium salts) by heating alkyl iodides with phosphonium iodide to 150-180° C.: PH 4 I+3CH 3 I = P(CH3)3HI + 3HI; P(CH 3) 3 HI + CH 3 I = P(CH 3) 4 I + HI (see also Fireman, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1088).
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  • Tertiary alcohols are thus seen to be characterized by the group C � OH, in which the residual valencies of the carbon atom are attached to alkyl groups.
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  • Regarding methyl alcohol, for which he proposed the name carbinol, as the simplest alcohol, he showed that by replacing one hydrogen atom of the methyl group by an alkyl residue, compounds of the general formula R�CH 2 �OH would result.
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  • It is a colourless liquid having a faint smell resembling that of benzene and boiling at 84° C. In its chief properties it very much resembles benzene, being readily brominated, sulphonated, and nitrated; also, the side chains in the alkyl thiophens are readily oxidized to carboxyl groups.
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  • Long alkyl chain length (C n) materials such as [C 16 mim] + based salts form stable smectic liquid crystals.
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