How to use Alkalis in a sentence
On boiling their solution in caustic alkalis, ammonia is liberated.
Iron, which stands so well against aqueous alkalis, is most violently attacked by the fused reagents.
The alkalis are used almost exclusively in the condition of caustic lyessolutions of their respective hydrates in water.
Alcoholic solutions of the alkalis also produce much nitrite along with some formate and acetate.
This latter compound may be chlorinated to perchloracetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid (to) is obtained by treatment with water; alkalis hydrolyse the acid to chloroform and dichlormaleic acid (I I).Advertisement
They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.
It sublimes in thin plates of a dark colour and metallic lustre, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis.
Owing to their possession of this common property, these natural fatty bodies and various artificial derivatives of glycerin, which behave in the same way when treated with alkalis, are known as glycerides.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.Advertisement
The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.
With genuine soaps, however, it suffices to calculate the fatty acids as anhydrides and add to this the amount of alkalis, and estimate the water by difference.
The complete analysis involves an examination of the fatty matter, of the various forms in which the alkalis are present - free and combined glycerin, &c.
The heptachlor compound when treated with chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6), which is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid (7), and is converted by boiling water into tetrachlor-diketo-Rpentene (8).
On fusion with caustic alkalis they decompose into their constituent aminothiophenol and acid.Advertisement
Alkalis partially convert it into d-mannose and d-fructose.
Alkalis have little effect on it under ordinary circumstances, although prolonged contact with ammonia results in a partial change.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
Its specific gravity is about 9; it is sparingly soluble in water, but readily dissolves in acids and molten alkalis.Advertisement
They are characterized by the deep red colour of their solutions in alkalis.
By the action of alkalis it is converted into iso-eugenol, which on oxidation yields vanillin, the odorous principle of vanilla.
It gives mono-metallic salts of the type NC NHM when treated with aqueous or alcoholic solutions of alkalis.
They show all the reactions of esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with ammonia to produce carhamic esters and urea.
But of the rest the majority, when treated with boiling sufficiently strong alkali, are attacked at least superficially; of ordinary metals only gold, platinum, and silver are perfectly proof against the reagents under consideration, and these accordingly are used preferably for the construction of vessels intended for analytical operations involving the use of aqueous caustic alkalis.Advertisement
There is hardly a single metal which holds out against the alkalis themselves when in the state of fiery fusion; even platinum is most violently attacked.
In chemical laboratories fusions with caustic alkalis are always effected in vessels made of gold or silver, these metals holding out fairly well even in the presence of air.
It forms crystalline needles soluble in alkalis, chloroform and Zoo parts of water.
Of the ketoses, we notice d-sorbose, found in the berries of mountain-ash, and d-tagatose, obtained by Lobry de Bruyn and van Ekenstein on treating galactose with dilute alkalis, talose and l-sorbose being formed at the same time.
The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.
A hydrated form is prepared when a solution of titanic acid in hydrochloric acid is digested with copper, or when the trichloride is precipitated with alkalis.
In common with Gay Lussac and Davy, he held subterraneous thermic disturbances to be probably due to the contact of water with metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths.
The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.
It is readily hydrolysed by hot solutions of the caustic alkalis.
It is only slightly soluble in water, but is readily soluble in acids and alkalis.
It dissolves in alkalis to form well-defined crystalline salts; potassium aurate, KAu0 2.3H 2 O, is very soluble in water, and is used in electrogilding.
The method of making these "mild" alkalis into "caustic" alkalis by treatment with lime was practised in the time of Pliny in connexion with the manufacture of soap, and it was also known that the ashes of shore-plants yielded a hard soap and those of land-plants a soft one.
Percy, the mineral matter being also changed by the removal of silica and alkalis and the substitution of substances analogous in composition to fire-clay.
In the case of liquids containing strong acids or alkalis, which the paper cannot withstand, a plug of carefully purified asbestos or glass-wool (spun glass) is often employed, contained in a bulb blown as an enlargement on a narrow "filtertube."
The monometallic salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths may be obtained in crystal form, but those of the heavy metals are only stable when in solution.
If the heating be with charcoal, the trimetallic salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths are unaltered, whilst the monoand di-salts give free phosphorus and a trimetallic salt.
Tt is a monacid base which is readily soluble in solutions of the cans' is alkalis.
It is incompatible with carbonates of the alkalis.
The gas is rapidly absorbed by solutions of the caustic alkalis, with the production of alkaline carbonates (q.v.), and it combines readily with potassium hydride to form potassium formate.
It Is Easily Soluble In Solutions Of The Caustic Alkalis, Provided They Are Not Too Concentrated, Forming Solutions Of Alkaline Carbonates And Sulphides, Cos 4Kho = K2C03 K 2 S 2H20.
Like all alkalis if given in quantities they increase metabolism.
The resins which are obtained as natural exudations are in general mixtures of different, peculiar acids, named the resin acids, which dissolve in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the resin acids are regenerated by treatment with acids.
In the ordinary laboratory the Bunsen flame has become universal, and a number of substances, such as the salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths, show characteristic spectra when suitably placed in it.
It is, however, more readily ob tained by boiling citraor meso-brompyrotartaric acids with alkalis.
The antidotes are mild alkalis, together with the use of opium to relieve pain.
Kaolin or China clay is essentially a pure disilicate (Al 2 O 3.2SiO 2.2H 2 O), occurring in large beds almost throughout the world, and containing in its anhydrous state 2 4.4% of the metal, which, however, in common clays is more or less replaced by calcium, magnesium, and the alkalis, the proportion of silica sometimes reaching 70%.
It is not magnetic. It stands near the positive end of the list of elements arranged in electromotive series, being exceeded only by the alkalis and metals of the alkaline earths; it therefore combines eagerly, under suitable conditions, with oxygen and chlorine.
To inorganic acids, except hydrochloric, it is highly resistant, ranking well with tin in this respect; but alkalis dissolve it quickly.
Liebig, Ann., 1832, r, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CC1 3 CHO + NaHO = CHC1 3 + NaHCO 2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J.
Dilute alkalis convert it into paraxyloquinone.
Diamond is insoluble in acid and alkalis, but is oxidised on heating with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
It is also soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, with evolution of hydrogen a behaviour similar to that shown by aluminium.
They were of two classes, the " Alkalis' Court," presided over by trained Mahommedan jurists, and " Judicial Councils," under the leading chiefs and natives presided over by the emir or other native ruler.
It is insoluble in water and in the alkalis, but readily dissolves in the mineral acids.
Thallic oxide, T1203, is obtained as a dark reddish powder, insoluble in water and alkalis, by plunging molten thallium into oxygen, or by electrolysing water, using a thallium anode.
It is also decomposed by warm aqueous solutions of caustic alkalis, with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide.
It crystallizes in needles and is readily hydrolysed by alkalis.
They are readily decomposed by alkalis, yielding cyanuric acid and ammonia.
It is hydrolysed by alkalis, giving carbon dioxide, ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen.
It dissolves readily in caustic alkalis on account of its phenolic character, and it forms a yellow-coloured di-acetate.
Electrolitic Alkali Manufacture In theory by far the simplest process for making alkalis together with free chlorine is the electrolysis of sodium (or potassium) chloride.
It is very heavy, its density being about 11; it inflames when heated in air and is not attacked by alkalis; it readily dissolves in nitric acid and aqua regia, but with difficulty in hydrochloric acid.
The hydroxide, Ni(OH) 2, is obtained in the form of a greenish amorphous powder when nickel salts are precipitated by the caustic alkalis.
The caustic alkalis added to solutions of nickel salts give a pale green precipitate of the hydroxide, insoluble in excess of the precipitant.
When mesitylene is used, the reaction does not proceed beyond the aldehyde stage since hydrocarbon formation is prevented by the presence of a methyl group in the ortho-position to the -CHO group. Acids and alkalis are in general without action on nickel carbonyl.
The metatungstates of the alkalis are obtained by boiling normal tungstates with tungstic acid until the addition of hydrochloric acid to the filtrate gives no precipitate.
By partial reduction of the tungstates under certain conditions products are obtained which are insoluble in acids and alkalis and present a bronze-like appearance which earned for them the name of tungsten bronzes.
It forms golden cubes which are unattacked by alkalis or by any acid except hydrofluoric. It appears to be a mixture of which the components vary with the materials and methods used in its production (Philipp, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 499).
Ammonia does not react with tungsten or the dioxide, but with trioxide at a red heat a substance of the formula W 5 H 6 N 3 0 5 is obtained, which is insoluble in acids and alkalis and on ignition decomposes, evolving nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.
In 1806 Davy communicated to the Royal Society of London a celebrated paper on some " Chemical Agencies of Electricity," and after providing himself at the Royal Institution of London with a battery of several hundred cells, he announced in 1807 his great discovery of the electrolytic decomposition of the alkalis, potash and soda, obtaining therefrom the metals potassium and sodium.
It is soluble in water, the solution showing an acid reaction, owing to the formation of aceto-acetic acid, and with alkalis it yields acetates.
It is incompatible with mineral acids, alkalis, salts of iron, antimony, lead and silver, alkaloids and gelatin.
It prevents the precipitation of many metallic hydroxides by caustic alkalis.
In these cases lime-water, alkalis and magnesia should be used as antidotes, and opium may be required.
In cases where diarrhoea is very obstinate and lasts for weeks, sulphuric acid is sometimes more efficacious than alkalis; and in chronic colics it may be necessary to treat the mucous membrane by local application of astringent solutions.
It forms a fine dark orange powder, insoluble in water, but readily soluble in aqueous solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline carbonates.
Tannic acid, for instance, precipitates codeine as a tannate, salts of many of the heavy metals form precipitates of meconates and sulphates, whilst the various alkalis, alkaline carbonates and ammonia precipitate the important alkaloids.
As soon as he was able to work again he attempted to obtain the metals of the alkaline earths by the same methods as he had used for those of the fixed alkalis, but they eluded his efforts and he only succeeded in preparing them as amalgams with mercury, by a process due to Berzelius.
Such substances are silver nitrate (lunar caustic), the caustic alkalis (potassium and sodium hydrates), zinc chloride, an acid solution of mercuric nitrate, and pure carbolic acid.
Of more recent date (probably Tertiary) are some igneous rocks, rich in alkalis, occurring in certain localities in southern Abyssinia.
It reacts with the caustic alkalis to form selenites, and combines directly with hydrocyanic acid.
Quinine is precipitated from its solution by alkalis and their carbonates.
Wurtz); by boiling a-chlorpropionic acid with caustic alkalis, or with silver oxide and water; by the reduction of pyruvic acid with sodium amalgam; or from acetaldehyde by the cyanhydrin reaction (J.
The mineral is a non-conductor of electricity; it is unattacked by acids with the exception of hydrofluoric acid, and is only slightly dissolved by solutions of caustic alkalis.
Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid.
They are stable towards aqueous alkalis, but on digestion with moist silver oxide yield the phosphonium hydroxides, which are stronger bases than the caustic alkalis.
With dilute alkalis phosphites are slowly formed, but with concentrated solutions the decomposition follows the same course as with hot water.
It is slowly decomposed by water giving phosphoric and hydrochloric acids, with sulphuretted hydrogen; alkalis form a thiophosphate, e.g.
Boulough (Comptes rendus, 1905, 141, p. 256), who acted with dry iodine on phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulphide; with alkalis it gives P 4 (OH).
Alkalis give hydrogen and phosphine.
Thiophosphates result on dissolving the pentasulphide in alkalis.
It is a white, infusible, very stable solid, which decomposes water on heating, giving ammonia and metaphosphoric acid, whilst alkalis give an analogous reaction.
It may be obtained by brominating conine, and then removing the elements of hydrobromic acid with alkalis.
Internally, dilute sulphuric acid is used in poisoning by alkalis as a neutralizing agent.
By alkalis they are transformed into stereo-isomers, the a-acid giving 7 -truxillic acid, and the, 3-acid S-truxillic acid.
The Hydrobromide A' acid results on boiling the A 2 acid on reduction with alkalis, or on eliminating hydroHEXAHYDRO bromic acid from i-brom-cyclo-hexane carboxylic acid-I.
On fusion with alkalis it yields para-oxybenzoic acid, and nas cent hydrogen reduces it to hydro shikimic acid.
The terpenes all possess a characteristic odour and are fairly stable to alkalis, but are easily decomposed by acids or by heating to a sufficiently high temperature.
It forms red crystalline double salts with the chlorides of the metals of the alkalis and of the 1 By solution in concentrated hydrochloric acid, a yellow liquid is obtained, which on concentration over sulphuric acid gives yellow deliquescent crusts of ferroso-ferric chloride, Fe3C118H20.
Rosin consists mainly of abietic acid, and combines with caustic alkalis to form salts (rosinates or pinates) that are known as "rosin soaps."
On fusion with the caustic alkalis and alkaline carbonates it yields vanadates.
The hypovanadates are insoluble in water, except those of the alkali metals, which are obtained by the addition of caustic alkalis to concentrated solutions of the chloride or sulphate of the tetroxide.
It burns in an atmosphere of chlorine forming the trichloride; it also combines directly with bromine and sulphur on heating, while on fusion with alkalis it forms arsenites.
Arsenic pentasulphide,As2S5, can be prepared by fusing the trisulphide with the requisite amount of sulphur; it is a yellow easily-fusible solid, which in absence of air can be sublimed unchanged; it is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, forming thioarsenates, which can also be obtained by the action of alkali polysulphides on orpiment.
Hydrolysis by means of acids or alkalis converts the asparagines into aspartic acid; whilst on heating with water in a sealed tube they are converted into ammonium aspartate.
It is decomposed by the addition of caustic alkalis, forming silver oxide and an alkaline chromate.
Similar methods are employed in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c. For refining oils and fats intended for edible purposes only the foregoing methods, which may be summarized by the name of physical methods, can be used; the only' chemicals permissible are alkalis or alkaline earths to remove free fatty acids present.
In the intestine they combine with ammonia and other alkalis present, and are absorbed into the blood as neutral salts, being excreted chiefly in the urine.
After absorption into the blood it loses this effect, as it is partly broken up into gallic acid and partly combined with alkalis, both of which changes nullify its action upon albumen.
The alkalis are very interesting; often they form 5 or io% of the whole rock; they indicate abundance of white micas or of undecomposed particles of felspar.
The felspar decomposes into kaolin and quartz; its alkalis are for the most part set free and removed in solution, but are partly retained in the white mica which is constantly found in crude china-clays.
They must contain little alkalis, lime, magnesia and iron, but some of them are comparatively rich in silica.
Either by rapid growth of vegetation, or by subsequent percolation of organic solutions, most of the alkalis and the lime have been carried away.
The resulting benzoylazoimide is easily hydrolysed by boiling with alcoholic solutions of caustic alkalis, a benzoate of the alkali metal and an alkali salt of the new acid being obtained; the latter is precipitated in crystalline condition on standing.
An improved method of preparation was found in the use of hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Conh Nh]] 2, and this substance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Co Nh N 2.0h]], which is hydrolysed by the action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic acid.
Acids and Bases Robert Boyle in the seventeenth century first identified substances as either acids or bases (he called bases alkalis )... .
It is thus obtained as an olive green precipitate which is insoluble in acids and alkalis.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body (see Acetic Acid).
During the earliest investigation of the subject it was thought that, since hydrogen and oxygen were usually evolved, the electrolysis of solutions of acids and alkalis was to be regarded as a direct decomposition of water.
Winckler, Ann., 1836, 18, 3 10), by boiling phenylchloracetic acid with alkalis (A.
Spiegel, Ber., 1881, 14, 23 9), by heating benzoylformaldehyde with alkalis (H.
It forms double salts with the sulphates of the metals of the alkalis, known as the alums (see Alum).
Papaverine on fusion with alkalis yields a dimethoxyisoquinoline, whilst hydrohydrastinine, hydrocotarnine and the salts of cotarnine may be considered as derivatives of reduced isoquinoliaes (see Opium).
These products often contain strong acids or strong bases (alkalis).
Some acids and alkalis leave burns on the mouth.
Acids and alkalis can burn the esophagus if they are vomited, and petroleum products can be inhaled into the lungs during vomiting, resulting in pneumonia.
Irritant dermatitis is essentially a direct injury to the skin, caused by such compounds as acids, alkalis, phenol, and detergents.
The powder is soluble in alcohol and strong solutions of alkalis, such as ammonia.
Alkalis decompose it into picro-podophyllic acid and picro-podophyllin, minute traces of both of which occur in a free state in the rhizome.
This precipitate is insoluble in cold dilute acids, in ammonium sulphide, and in solutions of the caustic alkalis," a behaviour which distinguishes it from the yellow sulphides of arsenic and tin.
It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.
It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.
They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.
Alkalis which form soluble carbolates are useless.
It is appreciably soluble in water, and also in solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline sulphides.
It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
In its medicinal use glycerin is an excellent solvent for such substances as iodine, alkaloids, alkalis, &c., and is therefore used for applying them to diseased surfaces, especially as it aids in their absorption.
They first invented and named the alembic for the purposes of distillation, analyzed the substances of the three kingdoms of nature, tried the distinction and affinities of alkalis and acids, and converted the poisonous minerals into soft and salutary remedies.
Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.
The metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, also magnesium, burn in sulphur vapour as they do in oxygen.
To acids and to alkalis it behaves like the oxide, but dissolves more readily.
It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, zinc, iron, copper, &c. In its chemical affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen compound analogous to arsine and stibine.