Alkali sentence example
This treatment with acid and alkali is usually effected by agitation with compressed air.
If an alkali is added, however, a highly dissociated salt of para-nitrophenol is formed, and the yellow colour is at once evident.
Uranous hydrate is obtained as reddish-brown flakes by precipitating a uranous solution with alkali.
This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.
Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.Advertisement
Lye still continues to be poured in till a sample tastes distinctly alkaline - a test which indicates that the whole of the fatty acids have been taken up by and combined with the alkali.
Among the analytical methods worked up by him the best known is that for the estimation of sugars by "Fehling's solution," which consists of a solution of cupric sulphate mixed with alkali and potassium-sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt).
It is remarkable that many histones are soluble in an excess of alkali.
Various hydrates have been described, but they cannot be formed by precipitating a uranyl salt with an alkali, this reagent giving rise to salts termed uranates.
Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.Advertisement
A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.
Alkali fusion of eugenol gives protocatechuic acid.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
Ammonia is also active, but not quite in the same manner as the alkali hydroxides.
Alkali sulphohydrates reduce guncotton, or other nitrated celluloses, completely to cellulose.Advertisement
The free fatty acid radicle then unites with an alkali, and becomes transformed into a soluble soap which is then readily absorbed in this fluid condition by the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane.
The actual composition, however, of a mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be directly calculated from these figures and the known composition of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, particularly of alkali, occur during melting.
Black, green, red, blue and yellow glasses are made, which contain a large proportion of alkali and are readily fusible.
It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.
On fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it undergoes oxidation to silica which dissolves on the excess of alkali yielding an alkaline silicate.Advertisement
When heated with the alkali and alkaline earth metals it yields silicon and the corresponding metallic chlorides.
Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.
The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.
All carbonates, except those of the alkali metals and of thallium, are insoluble in water; and the majority decompose when heated strongly, carbon dioxide being liberated and a residue of an oxide of the metal left.
But of the rest the majority, when treated with boiling sufficiently strong alkali, are attacked at least superficially; of ordinary metals only gold, platinum, and silver are perfectly proof against the reagents under consideration, and these accordingly are used preferably for the construction of vessels intended for analytical operations involving the use of aqueous caustic alkalis.Advertisement
Yet tons of caustic soda are fused daily in chemical works in iron pots without thereby suffering contamination, which seems to show that (clean) iron, like gold and silver, is attacked only by the joint action of fused alkali and air, the influence of the latter being of course minimized in large-scale operations.
The alkali must be free from carbonate and an excess of it must be avoided, otherwise the hydrate redissolves.
To obtain a product free of Cl or S04, there must be an excess of alkali and the zinc salt must be poured into the hot solution of the carbonate.
The precipitate, even after exhaustive washing with hot water, still contains a trace of alkali; but from the oxide, prepared from it by ignition, the alkali can be washed away.
The action was started in the cold, the alkali being slightly moistened to render it a conductor; then, as the current passed, heat was produced and the alkali fused, the metal being deposited in the liquid condition.Advertisement
This salt is decomposed by water with the formation of a solution of alkali free of titanium, and a residue of an acid titanate, which is insoluble in water but soluble in cold 'aqueous mineral acids.
The tertiary amine is then distilled off, the residual products separated by filtration and finally hydrolysed by a caustic alkali.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
Evidently the idea of the great Yokoya experts, the originators of the style, was to break away from the somewhat formal monotony of ordinary engraving, where each line performs exactly the same function, and to convert the chisel into an artists i It is first boiled in a lye obtained by lixiviating wood ashes; it is next polished with charcoal powder; then immersed in plum vinegar and salt; then washed with weak lye and placed in a, tub of water to remove all traces of alkali, the final step being to digest in a boiling solution of copper sulphate, verdigris and water.
When an aqueous solution of the salt of an alkali metal is electrolysed, the Date.Advertisement
It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
Only the salts of the alkali metals are soluble in water.
Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.Advertisement
The basic nitrate is the salt generally prepared, and, in general outline, the process consists in dissolving the metal in nitric acid, adding water to the solution, boiling the precipitated basic nitrate with an alkali to remove the arsenic and lead, dissolving the residue in nitric acid, and reprecipitating as basic nitrate with water.
In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.
But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).
The word alkali supplied the symbol for potassium, K (kalium).
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.Advertisement
An alkali is distinguished from an acid or neutral substance by its action on litmus, turmeric and other indicators.
North-west of Kilimanjaro is a sheet of water known as the Natron Lake from the mineral alkali it contains.
The dioxide, 0s0 2, is formed when potassium osmichloride is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide, or by electrolysis of a solution of the tetroxide in the presence of alkali.
It is insoluble in acids and exists in several hydrated forms. The osmiates, corresponding to the unknown trioxide 0503, are red or green coloured salts; the solutions are only stable in the presence of excess of caustic alkali; on boiling an aqueous solution of the potassium salt it decomposes readily, forming a black precipitate of osmic acid, H20s04.
The tetroxide, 0s04, is formed when osmium compounds are heated in air, or with aqua regia, or fused with caustic alkali and nitre.Advertisement
It combines with the chlorides of the alkali metals to form characteristic double salts of the type OsC1 4.2MC1 (osmichlorides).
There are also several alkali lakes or chains of alkali lakes in the coulees on the Columbia plateau.
There are throughout the state occasional tracts in which, owing to deficient drainage, an excess of alkali '507 has accumulated, and which require special treatment before they can be made again productive.
All the lakes of the state are of this character, and many are strong with salt and alkali.
By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime, when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent.
The fluorides of the alkali metals, of silver, and of most of the heavy metals are soluble in water; those of the alkaline earths are insoluble.
Sodium sulphide, Na 2 S, obtained by saturating a caustic soda solution with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding an equivalent of alkali, is employed in the manufacture of soluble soda glass.
The manufacture of sodium carbonate, commonly called soda, is treated under Alkali Manufacture.
The acid carbonate or bicarbonate of soda, NaHCO 3, is produced in the ammonia-soda process for alkali manufacture.
When heated with nitrogenous substances, in the presence of carbonated or caustic alkali, it forms cyanides.
It does not burn, and does not support ordinary combustion, but the alkali metals and magnesium, if strongly heated, will continue to burn in the gas with formation of oxides and liberation of carbon.
He was the son of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl (1749-1831), who is remembered as a most ingenious, but also most unfortunate, scientific speculator and inventor, who was before his time in suggesting and attempting new processes of alkali manufacture, and various other uses of applied science.
According to Liebig, potassium is the essential alkali of the animal body; and it may be noted that sheep excrete most of the potassium which they take from the land as sweat, one-third of the weight of raw merino consisting of potassium compounds.
The remaining mud of calcium carbonate and hydrate is washed, by decantation, with small instalments of hot water to recover at least part of the alkali diffused throughout it, but this process must not be continued too long or else some of the lime passes into solution.
Most of the carbonate which now occurs in commerce is made from the chloride of the Stassfurt beds by an adaptation of the "Leblanc process" for the conversion of common salt into soda ash (see Alkali Manufacture).
Although hypoiodous acid is not known, it is extremely probable that on adding iodine or iodine monochloride to a dilute solution of a caustic alkali, hypoiodites are formed, the solution obtained having a characteristic smell of iodoform, and being of a pale yellow colour.
The iodates of the alkali metals are, however, readily soluble in water (except potassium iodate).
The alkali and alkaline earth cyanides are soluble in water and in alcohol, and their aqueous solution, owing to hydrolytic dissociation, possesses an alkaline character.
Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions precipitate green chromium hydroxide from solutions of chromic salts; the precipitate is soluble in excess of the cold alkali, but is completely thrown down on boiling the solution.
They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol.
According to the method commonly adopted in North Italy and France the cocoons are for a few minutes immersed in water a little under the boiling point, to which a small quantity of alkali has been added.
Goldstein 7 was able to show that an increase in the current density is capable of destroying the well-known spectra of the alkali metals, replacing them by quite a new set of lines.
In the spectra of the alkali metals each line of the trunk is a doublet, and we may speak of a twin trunk springing out of the same root.
This form has the advantage that the constants of the equation when applied to the spectra of the alkali metals show marked regularities.
If we compare together the spectra of the alkali metals, we find that the doublets of the branch series separate more and more as the wave-length increases.
In the case of other metallic groups similar series have also been found, but while in the case of the alkali group nearly the whole spectrum is represented by the combined set of three series, such is not the case with other metals.
In these elements the doublets of the alkali series are therefore replaced by triplets.
All its lines arrange themselves in two families of series, in other words, the spectrum looks like that of the superposition of two spectra similar to those presented by the alkali metals.
Pringsheim, who, by a series of experiments of undoubted merit, tried to establish that the emission of the line spectra of the alkali metals was invariably associated with a reduction of the metallic oxide.
Previous to Stark's investigation P. Lenard 2 had concluded that the carriers of certain of the lines of the flame spectra of the alkali metals are positively charged.
This part he called spiritus igneo-aereus, or sometimes nitro-aereus; for he identified it with one of the constituents of the acid portion of nitre which he regarded as formed by the union of fixed alkali with a Spiritus acidus.
The metallic borates are generally obtained in the hydrated condition, and with the exception of those of the alkali metals, are insoluble in water.
The most stable basic hydroxides are those of the alkali metals, viz.
Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.
This compound possesses a heat of formation so much lower that electrically it needs but a voltage of 0.9 to decomplose it, and it is easily soluble in the fused sulphides of the alkali metals.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.
Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum's hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.
The free pararosaniline, C19H19N30, and rosaniline, C20H21N30, may be obtained by precipitating solutions of their salts with a caustic alkali, colourless precipitates being obtained, which crystallize from hot water in the form of needles or plates.
By the addition of the diazonium salts to a hot concentrated solution of a caustic alkali, C. Schraube and C. Schmidt(Ber., 18 94, 2 7, p. 520)obtained an isomer of potassium benzene diazotate.
On mixing dilute solutions of the diazonium hydroxide and the alkali together, it is found that the molecular conductivity of the mixture is much less than the sum of the two electrical conductivities of the solutions separately, from which it follows that a portion of the ions present have changed to the non-ionized condition.
Generally the skins are placed in an alkali bath, then by hand with a blunt wooden instrument the moisture of the pelt is worked out and it is drawn carefully to and fro over a straight, dull-edged knife to remove any superfluous flesh and unevenness.
Hydrogen may also be obtained by the action of zinc on ammonium salts (the nitrate excepted) (Lorin, Comptes rendus, 1865, 60, p. 745) and by heating the alkali formates or oxalates with caustic potash or soda, Na2C204+2NaOH = H 2 +2Na 2 CO 3.
Wolffenstein (Ber., 1894, 27, p. 2307) prepared practically anhydrous hydrogen peroxide (containing 99.1% H 2 0 2) by first removing all traces of dust, heavy metals and alkali from the commercial 3% solution.
On permeable soils, especially those of the terrace lands along the valleys, the soluble salts commonly known as alkali were gradually leached out and carried by the percolating waters towards the lower lands, where, reaching the surface, the alkali was left as a glistening crust or as pools of inky blackness.
Farms adjacent to the rivers were for a time increased in richness by the alkaline salts, which in diffuse form might be valuable plant foods, and then suddenly become valueless when the concentration of alkali had reached a degree beyond that which the ordinary plants would endure.
Double sulphates of beryllium and the alkali metals are known, e.g.
Tin ore of excellent quality is found in the province of Bauchi, alkali salts are abundant in Kano province, iron ore and red and yellow ochres are found in Kontagora and other provinces, kaolin (china clay) and limestone in the west central regions.
Its chemistry is discussed under Chlorine, and its manufacture under Alkali Manufacture.
But the hydroxide of thallium, in most of its properties, comes very close to the alkali metals; it is strongly basic, forms an insoluble chloroplatinate, and an alum strikingly similar to the corresponding potassium compounds.
Manganous hydroxide, Mn (OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate on adding a solution of a caustic alkali to a manganous salt.
It forms double salts with the chlorides of the alkali metals.
It combines with the sulphates of the alkali metals to form double salts.
The fused mass has a dark olive-green colour, and dissolves in a small quantity of cold water to a green solution, which is, however, only stable in the presence of an excess of alkali.
The word " alkali " denotes both soda and potash, but by "alkali manufacture" we understand merely the manufacture of sodium sulphate, carbonate and hydrate.
The term alkali is employed in a technical sense for the carbonate and hydrate (of sodium), but since in the Leblanc process the manufacture of sodium sulphate necessarily precedes that of the carbonate, we include this as well as the manufacture of hydrochloric acid which is inseparable from it.
We also treat of the utilization of hydrochloric acid for the manufacture of chlorine and its derivatives, which are usually comprised within the meaning of the term " alkali manufacture."
A great many processes have been proposed for the manufacture of alkali from various materials, but none of these has become of any practical importance except those which start from sodium chloride (common salt); and among the latter again only three classes of processes are actually employed for manufacturing purposes, viz.
From that time onward the Leblanc process spread more and more, and for a considerable period nearly all the alkali of commerce was made by it.
The production of alkali in Great Britain, soon after the introduction of the Leblanc process, became the most extensive in the world, and outstripped that of all other countries put together.
With the rise of the ammonia-soda process, for which the economic conditions are nearly as favourable in other countries, the predominance of Great Britain in that domain has become less, but even now that country produces more alkali than any other single country.
Most of the British alkali works are situated in South Lancashire and the adjoining part of Cheshire, near the mouth of the Tyne and in the West of Scotland.
Although the consumption of salt-cake for the manufacture of alkali is now much less than formerly, since the Leblanc alkali process has been greatly restricted, yet it is largely made and will continue to be made for the use of glassmakers, who use it for the ordinary description of glass in the place of soda-ash.
Britain but all mankind has been immensely benefited by the labours of the British alkali inspectors, which were, of course, supplemented by the work of technical men in all the countries concerned.
The maximum escape allowed by the Alkali Acts, viz.
But this was hardly anywhere done to the fullest possible extent, and in those districts where a number of alkali works were located at no great distance from one another, their aggregate escapes of hydrochloric and other acids created an intolerable nuisance.
This was most notably the case in South Lancashire, and it led to the passing of Lord Derby's " Alkali Act," in 1863, supplemented by further legislation in 1874, 1881 and later.
This process is excellent for effecting a complete condensation of the hydrochloric acid as prescribed by the Alkali Acts, and for recovering the bulk of the acid in a tolerably strong state, but less so for recovering nearly the whole of it in the most concentrated state, although even this is occasionally attained.
Although the soda-crystals contain the alkali conbined with such a large quantity of water, they are made in large quantities, because their form, together with their complete freedom from caustic soda, makes them very suitable for domestic purposes.
The sulphur was by these converted partly into gaseous sulphuretted hydrogen, partly into soluble polysulphides, thiosulphates and other soluble compounds, and in all shapes caused a nuisance which became more and more intolerable as the number and size of alkali works increased.
It has been introduced at most large Leblanc alkali works, and has, so to say, given them a new lease of life.
The Leblanc process thus remained the sole purveyor of chlorine in its active forms, and in this way the fact is accounted for that, at least in Great Britain, the Leblanc process still furnishes nearly half of all the alkali made, though in other countries its proportional share is very much less.
The profit made upon the chlorine produced has to make up for the loss on the alkali.
Electrolitic Alkali Manufacture In theory by far the simplest process for making alkalis together with free chlorine is the electrolysis of sodium (or potassium) chloride.
As the weight of bleaching-powder consumed in the world is at most one-fifth of that of alkali, calculated as Na2C03, it follows that only about one-tenth of all the alkali required could be made by electrol y sis, even supposing the Leblanc process to be entirely abolished.
The remaining nine-tenths of alkali must be supplied from other sources, chiefly the ammonia-soda process.
The first application of this machine for the present purpose seems to have been made in 1875 and the number of patents soon rapidly increased; but although a large amount of capital was invested and many very ingenious inventions made their appearance, it took nearly another twenty years before the manufacture of alkali in this way was carried out in a continuous way on a large scale and with profitable results.
This is converted into the sodium salt by means of sodium carbonate, and on alkali fusion yields flavopurpurin.
In a similar manner anthrapurpurin is prepared by alkali fusion of anthraquinone 2.8 disulphonic acid.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
In another research dealing with the nature of alum he showed that one of the constituents of that substance, alumina, is contained in common clay, and further that the salt cannot be prepared by the action of sulphuric acid on alumina alone, the addition of an alkali being necessary.
Of these lakes some are fresh, and some - as those of the north-east counties - alkali.
Silicotungstic acid is obtained as quadratic pyramids from its mercurous salt which is prepared from mercurous nitrate and the salt formed on boiling gelatinous silicic acid with a polytungstate of an alkali metal.
The common sage brush, artemisia, is the characteristic shrub of the plains where the soil is comparatively free from alkali, and is abundant in the valleys of the arid foothills.
Where alkali is present, the plains may be nearly barren, or covered with grease wood and species of atriplex, including the so-called white sage.
Grease wood is likewise abundant in the foothills wherever the soil contains alkali.
Chlorine is never found in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with the alkali metals it occurs widely distributed in the form of rock-salt (sodium chloride); as sylvine and carnallite, at Stassfiirt; and to a smaller extent in various other minerals such as matlockite and horn-mercury.
More recently, owing to the production of caustic soda by electrolytic methods, much chlorine has consequently been produced in the same manner (see Alkali Manufacture).
It is chiefly obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of soda-ash by the Leblanc process (see Alkali Manufacture).
All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid.
Some metallic chlorides readily form double chlorides, the most important of these double salts being the platinochlorides of the alkali metals.
Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon compounds, and the alkali metals react violently with the gas, taking fire with explosive decomposition.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
These waters are frequently impregnated with alkali or salt, and on evaporating leave upon the bed of the lake a thin encrustation of snowy whiteness.
Such beds, locally known as " alkali flats," are especially numerous in Valencia, Socorro, Dona Ana and Otero counties, and a number of them furnish all the salt needed by the cattle ranges in their vicinity.
In the plains where drainage is poor, especially in the S., the soils contain too much alkali; but in the highlands most of this has been dissolved and carried away by the rains, and the soils are well adapted for grazing grounds.
Amongst other places having a similar action are Marienbad, Franzensbad and Tarasp. The waters just mentioned contain free alkali as well as sulphates, and are employed more especially in cases of hepatic disorder, such as congestion of the liver, jaundice, gall-stone and diabetes.
Alkaline waters containing a little common salt are perhaps even more important than the pure alkaline, as the salt lessens the depressing effect of the alkali.
It combines with chlorides of the alkali metals to form double salts, and also with barium, calcium, strontium, and magnesium chlorides.
In the presence of iodine and an alkali it gives iodoform.
Chemical reagents are sometimes added - lime or sulphuric acid, to neutralize an excess of acid or alkali; copper sulphate, to form cuprous chloride with sodium chloride; and iron and zinc, to make the galvanic action more energetic and reduce the consumption of iron.
He soon made the crucial discovery - which proved the foundation of the huge industry of artificial alkali manufacture - that the desired end was to be attained by adding a proportion of chalk to the mixture of charcoal and sulphate of soda.
The basic constituents are removed by dilute sulphuric acid, the acid layer removed, and the bases liberated by alkali, separated, dried, and fractionally distilled.
Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive.
It combines directly with nitrogen, phosphorus, antimony and carbon, and with all the metals (except gold) to form selenides, of which those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are soluble in water.
Bases of the alkali metals give with it four series of salts; these are stable except in alkaline solutions, in which they absorb oxygen and turn brown.
Where there is no excess of alkali and the water supply is sufficient, good crops can be grown in this soil without the use of fertilizers.
Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.
Sulphur is also recovered in a very pure state from the "alkali waste" of the Leblanc process, but this "recovered sulphur" is too expensive to be burned for the purpose in question.
Owing to its position on two important railways, Alcazar has a flourishing transit-trade in the wines of Estremadura and Andalusia; the soda and alkali of La Mancha are used in the manufacture of soap; and gunpowder, chocolate and inlaid daggers are also made here.
It contains, as its principal constituents, ammonia, partly combined with carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen to form compounds which are decomposed on boiling, with evolution of ammonia gas, and partly combined with stronger acids to form compounds which require to be acted upon by a strong alkali before the ammonia contained in them can be liberated.
It dissolves in acids to form a mixture of a ferrous and ferric salt,' and if an alkali is added to the solution a black precipitate is obtained which dries to a dark brown mass of the composition Fe(OH)2Fe203; this substance is attracted by a magnet, and thus may be separated from the admixed ferric oxide.
It is also prepared by precipitating a ferric salt with ammonium sulphide; unless the alkali be in excess a mixture of ferrous sulphide and sulphur is obtained.
Ferrous salts give a greenish precipitate with an alkali, whilst ferric give a characteristic red one.
The hypovanadates are insoluble in water, except those of the alkali metals, which are obtained by the addition of caustic alkalis to concentrated solutions of the chloride or sulphate of the tetroxide.
These compounds are brought into solution by means of polysulphides of the alkali metals and the resultant liquor run into the cathode compartment of a bath, which is divided by diaphragms into a series of anode and cathode chambers; the anode divisions being closed and gas-tight, and containing carbon or platinum electrodes.
The arsenites of the alkali metals are soluble in water, those of the other metals are insoluble in water, but are readily soluble in acids.
Arsenic pentasulphide,As2S5, can be prepared by fusing the trisulphide with the requisite amount of sulphur; it is a yellow easily-fusible solid, which in absence of air can be sublimed unchanged; it is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, forming thioarsenates, which can also be obtained by the action of alkali polysulphides on orpiment.
The thioarsenites and thioarsenates of the alkali metals are easily soluble in water, and are readily decomposed by the action of mineral acids.
Its importance is due to its zinc, lead, iron, alkali and kindred works, and its collieries.
When digested for some time with a caustic alkali it is converted into a basic salt, PbCrO 4 PbO, a pigment known as "chrome red."
The bichromates are usually of a red or reddishbrown colour, those of the alkali metals being readily soluble in water.
We thus measure the alkali absorption value of all fatty acids contained in an oil or fat.
In the case of those oils which do not belong to the rape oils and yet show abnormally low saponification values, the suspicion is raised at once that a certain amount of mineral oils (which do not absorb alkali and are therefore termed "unsaponifiable") has been admixed fraudulently.
To ascertain this value the volatile acids contained in 5 grammes of an oil or fat are distilled in a minutely prescribed manner, and the distilled-off acids are measured by titration with decinormal alkali.
This separation is effected by converting the alkali soaps of the fatty acids into lead soaps and treating the latter with ether, in which the lead salts of the saturated acids are insoluble, whereas the salts of the above-named unsaturated acids are soluble.
The resulting benzoylazoimide is easily hydrolysed by boiling with alcoholic solutions of caustic alkalis, a benzoate of the alkali metal and an alkali salt of the new acid being obtained; the latter is precipitated in crystalline condition on standing.
Reverberatory furnaces play an important part in the manufacture of sodium carbonate; descriptions and illustrations are given in the article Alkali Manufacture.
Furnaces of the second kind were first used in alkali works for the conversion of sulphate into carbonate of sodium in the process known as black ash fusion, but have since been applied to other processes.
Mechanical furnaces are figured in the article Alkali Manufacture.
F F F T T All solutions of suxamethonium are destroyed by alkali, and should never be mixed with thiopentone.
The ester is heated under reflux with a dilute alkali like sodium hydroxide solution.
Pure distilled water has a pH value of 7.0 adding an alkali to the water will cause the pH value to rise.
To maintain an alkali buffer you would need to use a weak alkali with its salt.
No matter how painful, the birds cannot escape the caustic alkali.
The project for producing alkali by the decomposition of salt posed a serious threat to the industry.
It couldn't distinguish between a weak acid with a pH of 5 or a strong alkali with a pH of 14.
New concrete surfaces must be well washed before use to remove all the excess surface alkali.
With alkali, 2nd order kinetics are observed overall, and the reaction can be followed by titrating the remaining alkali with acid.
In some rocks, particularly alkali granites, the entire volume of the alkali feldspar has been recrystallized.
This may explain why alkali basalts carry mostly spinel peridotites although the magma originated at deeper depth of garnet peridotites zone.
Heating limestone to a high temperature in a limekiln produces calcium oxide (quicklime, a strong alkali ).
During the first rinsing step excess of alkali cations is removed by cleaning the matrix surface with up to a few mL of water.
Interestingly it is more common to find F [...] M alkali metal cation interactions.
Of the multiple stages that occur during biomass combustion, the char combustion is most relevant in alkali metal release.
The results obtained so far clearly indicate a synergistic effect between oxidation and alkali salt induced corrosion (the so-called hot corrosion ).
It is theoretically advantageous to administer alkali and induce diuresis as the drug is acidic and excreted in the urine.
The volume of alkali needed for neutralization is then noted, this is called the endpoint.
There are also interactive links for energy tables needed for all the alkali metal halides.
An alkali is a solution containing excess hydroxide ions OH - (aq ).
Granite is a lighter colored igneous rock containing relatively large crystals of the minerals plagioclase, quartz and alkali feldspars such as orthoclase.
They become more reactive Why are the alkali metals together in group 1?
However, there are some concerns regarding the susceptibility of RCA to alkali silica reaction (ASR ).
Further east is the HortobÃ¡gy National Park, the ' Hungarian Puszta ', the alkali plains which begin the Asian steppes.
In the presence of anionic surfactants, 2 detected alkaline earth metal cations more effectively than alkali metal cations.
Laboratory findings included acid urine despite alkali therapy and elevated serum transaminase activities.
After studying at Marburg under Hermann Kolbe and at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen, he came to England in 1862 and obtained a position in a chemical works at Widnes, where he elaborated the practical application of a method he had devised for recovering the sulphur lost as calcium sulphide in the black ash waste of the Leblanc alkali process.
It is insoluble in water and unaffected by most reagents, but when heated in a current of steam or boiled for some time with a caustic alkali, slowly decomposes with evolution of ammonia and the formation of boron trioxide or an alkaline borate; it dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid.
Large quantities are also recovered from alkali waste (see Alkali Manufacture); another source is the spent oxide of gas manufacture (see GAs).
This corresponds to an increased alkalinity represented by about 2 c.c. of N/ 100 standard alkali, and that difference means that the carbon of about 8.8 milligrammes of carbonic acid has been built up (by photosynthesis) into carbohydrate during the period during which the change in alkalin ity proceeded.
They give the isonitrile reaction (see above) when warmed with chloroform and a caustic alkali, and form alkyl thioureas when heated with an alcoholic solution of carbon bisulphide.
It is obvious that electrolytic iodine and bromine, and oxygen compounds of these elements, may be produced by methods similar to those applied to chlorides (see Alkali Manufacture and Chlorates), and Kellner and others have patented processes with this end in view.
Among the land plants may be noted the blue anemone; the ranunculus along the road-sides, with a strong perfume of violets; the Malta heath, which flowers at all seasons; Cynomorium coccineum, the curious " Malta fungus," formerly so valued for medicinal purposes that a guard was set for its preservation under the rule of the Knights; the pheasant's-eye; three species of mallow and geranium; Oxalis cernua, a very troublesome imported weed; Lotus edulis; Scorpiurus subvillosa, wild and cultivated as forage; two species of the horseshoe-vetch; the opium poppy; the yellow and claret-coloured poppy; wild rose; Cartaegus azarolus, of which the fruit is delicious preserved; the ice-plant; squirting cucumber; many species of Umbelliferae; Labiatae, to which the spicy flavour of the honey (equal to that of Mt Hymettus) is ascribed; snapdragons; broom-rape; glass-wort; Salsola soda, which produces when burnt a considerable amount of alkali; there are fifteen species of orchids; the gladiolus and iris are also found; Urginia scilla, the medicinal squill, abounds with its large bulbous roots near the sea; seventeen species of sedges and seventy-seven grasses have been recorded.
The tellurides of the alkali metals immediately decompose on exposure to air, with liberation of tellurium.
Chloride of lime or "bleaching powder" is a calcium chlorhypochlorite or an equimolecular mixture of the chloride and hypochlorite (see Alkali Manufacture and Bleaching).
An oxysulphide, 2CaS CaO, is sometimes present in "soda - waste," and orangecoloured, acicular crystals of 4CaS CaSO 4.18H 2 O occasionally settle out on the long standing of oxidized "sodaor alkali-waste" (see Alkali Manufacture).
The hydroxide or caustic soda, NaOH, is usually manufactured from the carbonate or by electrolysis of salt solution (see Alkali Manufacture).
Sodium sulphate, Na2S04, known in the hydrated condition (with ioH 2 O) as Glauber's salt, is manufactured in large quantities for conversion into the carbonate or soda (see Alkali Manufacture).
Owing to the enormous quantities of chlorine required for various industrial purposes, many processes have been devised, either for the recovery of the manganese from the crude manganese chloride of the chlorine stills, so that it can be again utilized, or for the purpose of preparing chlorine without the necessity of using manganese in any form (see Alkali Manufacture).
Running acid into the alkali For the first part of the graph, you have an excess of sodium hydroxide.
However, no plants thrive on soil contaminated by the alkali metal cesium.
If the stain appears on unfinished wood, clean the surface with a mild alkali.
Signs that a person has swallowed one of these substances include evidence of an empty container nearby, nausea or vomiting, and burns on the lips and skin around the mouth if the substance is a strong acid or alkali.
For acid, alkali, or petroleum product poisonings, the person should not vomit.
An increasingly common form of chemical injury to the nasal membranes in toddlers is alkali burns caused by leakage from small batteries placed in the nose.
Acidosis-A disturbance of the balance of acid to base in the body causing an accumulation of acid or loss of alkali (base).
When such is the case the beds are called " alkali flats."
As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.
The lye from the strengthening boil contains much alkali and is used in connexion with other boilings.
Shaving soaps, which must obviously be free from alkali or any substance which irritates the skin, are characterized by readily forming a permanent lather.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
The total alkali is determined by incinerating a weighed sample in a platinum dish, dissolving the residue in water, filtering and titrating the filtrate with standard acid.
An alkali or base is a substance which neutralizes an acid with the production of salts but with no evolution of hydrogen.
Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.
In all these cases the chlorine, or the products made from it, really play a greater part than the alkali.
The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
But in this case the fatty acid unites with the alkali into its potash or soda salt, forming a soap C3H5(C16H3102)3+3NaOH =3NaC16H3102+C,H5(OH) 3 Palmitin.
Then without further addition of alkali the boiling is continued for a few minutes, when the soap is ready for salting out or " graining."
The contents of the pan are once more allowed to cool and settle, and the soap as now formed constitutes a pure curd coap, carrying with it some proportion of uncombined alkali, but containing the minimum amount of water.
It generally contains a large amount of uncombined alkali, and that, with its unpleasant odour of coco-nut oil, makes it a most undesirable soap for personal use.
The most important points in soap analysis are (1) determination of the fatty matter, (2) of the total alkali, (3) of the substances insoluble in water, (4) of the water.
Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.
Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.
The acid salts are obtained by the addition of one molecule of alkali to two molecules of the acid in concentrated alcoholic solution at a low temperature.
The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.
Widnes is one of the principal seats of the alkali and soap manufacture, and has also grease-works for locomotives and waggons, copper works, iron-foundries, oil and paint works and sail-cloth manufactories.
They began to make alkali by the ammonia-soda process, under licence from the Belgian chemist, Ernest Solvay, but at first the venture threatened to prove a failure.
It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.
Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.
Most of the small closed basins, however, contain "playas," or alkali mud flats, that are overflowed when the tributary streams are supplied with storm water.
With the exception of the alkali flats, no portion of the desert is devoid of vegetation, even in the driest seasons.
Chevreul found that a neutral salt soap hydrolysed to an acid salt, free alkali, and a small amount of fatty acid.
The soap solution which results from the combination forms soap-size and is a mixture of soap with water, the excess alkali, and the glycerin liberated from the oil.
The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
Soaps made by this process contain the glycerin originally present in the oil, but, in view of their liability to contain free alkali and unsaponified oil, the process has been largely given up.
From the conditions of the manufacture care must be taken to regulate the amount and strength of the alkali in proportion to the oil used, and the degree of concentration to which the boiling ought to be continued has to be determined with close observation.
It is of consequence that they should, as far as possible, be free from excess of alkali and all other salts and foreign ingredients which may have an injurious effect on the skin.
The manufacturer of toilet soap generally takes care to present his wares in convenient form and of agreeable appearance and smell; the more weighty duty of having them free from uncombined alkali is in many cases entirely overlooked.
The a-oxime, on long continued boiling with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali, is partially decomposed with formation of some acetone and acetoxime (C. Harries, Ber., 1898, 31, pp. 1381, 1808; 18 99, 32, p. 1 33 1).
If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
The efficacy of heat or of an acid, an alkali or other agent in promoting coagulation depends on the character of the latex, and varies with that obtained from different plants.
It dissolves in an excess of alkali to form plumbites of the general formula Pb(OM) 2.
They exhibit an intense blue colour when in the liquid condition or dissolved in alkali and possess a very sharp smell.
There are broad plains covered with salt and alkali, and others supporting only scattered bunch grass, sage bush, cactus and other arid land plants.
Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.
In curd soaps, however, which form the basis of most household soap, the uncombined alkali and the glycerin are separated by " salting out, " and the soap in this condition contains about 30% of water.
In 1806 Sir Humphry Davy proved that the formation of acid and alkali when water was electrolysed was due to saline impurities in the water.
If the latex is warmed or an acid, an alkali or astringent plant juice is added to it, " coagulation " usually takes place more or less readily, the caoutchouc separating in solid flakes or curds.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
Many salts of the acid are known and, with the exception of those of the alkali metals, they are difficultly soluble in water.