Aliphatic Sentence Examples
They are compounds which greatly resemble the mixed ethers of the aliphatic series.
There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.
We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an epitome of their derivatives will be given.
It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.
In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.Advertisement
The introduction of hydroxyl groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generically named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their increased chemical activity and acid nature.
These observations may be summarized by saying that the benzene nucleus is more negative in character than the aliphatic residues.
In the first place we may notice a tendency of several aliphatic compounds, e.g.
Zincke; and his researches have led to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding openchain or aliphatic compounds.
Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).Advertisement
Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.
From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.
This is obviously unsymmetrical, consisting of an aliphatic and an aromatic nucleus; Claus explained the formation of the same phthalic acid from the oxidation of either nucleus by supposing that if the aromatic group be oxidized, the aliphatic residue assumes the character of a benzene nucleus.
If s-naphthylamine and 0-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro products are obtained in which the aminoor oxy-bearing half of the molecule becomes aliphatic in character.
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.Advertisement
These compounds retain their aliphatic nature, and are best classified with open-chain compounds, into which, in general, they are readily converted.
Thelfirst four substances are readily formed from, and converted into, the corresponding dihydroxy open-chain compound; these substances are truly aliphatic in character.
The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.
Reduction, however, converts it into an aliphatic compound.
This is comparable with the reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of an aliphatic character.Advertisement
As before, only true ring nuclei, and not internal anhydrides of aliphatic compounds, will be mentioned.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.
These formulae, however, only apply to aliphatic amines; the results obtained in the aromatic series are in accordance with the usual formulae.
The azo-group is particularly active, both the aliphatic and aromatic compounds being coloured.Advertisement
The simplest aliphatic compounds, such as diazo-methane, diazoethane, and azo-formic acid, are yellow; the diamide of the latter acid is orange-red.
Meyer, which are formed when nitrous acid acts on primary aliphatic nitro compounds.
We may notice that ethyl oxalosuccinonitrile is the first case of a fluorescent aliphatic compound.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
The aromatic aldehydes resemble the aliphatic aldehydes in most respects, but in certain reactions they exhibit an entirely different behaviour.
Nitrosohydrocarbons have been prepared in the aliphatic series by the oxidation of the corresponding hydroxylamino compounds.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
Aromatic Amines.-The aromatic amines in some respects resemble the aliphatic amines, since they form salts with acids, and double salts with platinum chloride, and they also distil without decomposition.
On the other hand, they are much weaker bases than the aliphatic amines, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.
It is convenient to distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic acids; the first named being derived from open-chain hydrocarbons, the second from ringed hydrocarbon nuclei.
Aliphatic monobasic acids are further divided according to the nature of the parent hydrocarbon.
An important oxidation synthesis of aromatic acids is from hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains; thus toluene, or methylbenzene, yields benzoic acid, the xylenes, or dimethyl-benzene, yield methyl-benzoic acids and phthalic acids.
When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.
Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.
The esters of the aliphatic and aromatic acids are colourless neutral liquids, which are generally insoluble in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether.
It is convenient to restrict the term to compounds in which the hydroxyl group is attached to an aliphatic residue; this excludes such compounds as the hydroxy-benzenes, naphthalenes, &c., which exhibit many differences from the compounds derived from the aliphatic alkyls.
Aliphatic conjugated and aromatic aldehydes failed to produce urticarial skin reactions with the exception of acrolein.
P. aeruginosa encodes an inducible amidase activity allowing growth on a limited range of aliphatic amides as Carbon and/or Nitrogen sources.
All aliphatic primary amines are stronger bases than ammonia.
Aliphatic any non-aromatic organic compound Aromatic any organic compound containing de-localised electrons in a ring structure - e.g. benzene, benzoic acid.
For instance, it might place an hydroxyl oxygen of glucose at a favorable energy minimum in the Grid Map for aliphatic hydroxyl.
For instance, it might place an hydroxyl oxygen of glucose at a favorable energy minimum in the Grid Map for aliphatic hydroxyl oxygen of glucose at a favorable energy minimum in the Grid Map for aliphatic hydroxyl.
We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
Many cyclic ketones are known, and in most respects they resemble the ordinary aliphatic ketones (see Polymethylenes; Terpenes).
I've seen those listed as aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon, petroleum and mineral oil.
Mixed aromatic-aliphatic amines, both secondary and tertiary, are also more strongly basic than the pure aromatic amines, and less basic than the true aliphatic compounds; e.g.