Algae Sentence Examples
In both Algae and Fungi the latter are primarily supporting and food-conducting, and in.
Several of the marine and many species of freshwater algae are peculiar to the island.
Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.
Among the Green Algae the differentiation of cells is comparatively slight.
The algal fungi, Phycomycetes, are obviously derived from the Green Algae, while the remaining Fungi, the Eumycetes, appear to have sprung from the same stock as the Rhodophyceae.Advertisement
Thus all existing hygrophytes (excepting the Algae) are considered to have been derived from land-plants which have adapted themselves to a watery habitat.
The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
Certain Algae have been found capable of forming nutritive carbohydrates in darkness, when supplied with a compound of this body with sodium-hydrogen-sulphite.
Palaeontological evidence conclusively proves that the surface of the earth has been successively occupied by vegetative forms of increasing complexity, rising from the simplest algae to the most highly organized flowering plant.
Similar modes of growth occur among the Siphoneous Green Algae and also among the Red Seaweeds.Advertisement
There is considerable difficulty in removing mounted specimens of algae from paper, and therefore a small portion preserved on mica should accompany each specimen, enclosed for safety in a small envelope fastened at one corner of the sheet of paper.
For the carrying on of their functions they all need to be supplied with carbohydrates or other carbon compounds which they obtain ordinarily from humus and plant residues in the soil, or possibly in some instances from carbohydrates manufactured by minute green algae with which they live in close union.
The culture of such algae may prove of economic importance; gelatine, glue and agar-agar would be valuable by-products.
Green algae can appear in several forms.
From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.Advertisement
Many of the freshwater algae which form a mere crust, such as Palmella cruenta, may be placed in a vessel of water, where after a time they float like a scum, the earthy matter settling down to the bottom, and may then be mounted by slipping a piece of mica under them and allowing it to dry.
In 1865 De Bary suggested the possibility that such lichens as Collema, Ephebe, &c., arose as a result of the attack of parasitic Ascomycetes upon the algae, Nostoc, Chroococcus, &c. In 1867 the observations of Famintzin and Baranetzky showed that the gonidia, in certain cases, were able to live outside the lichen-thallus, and in the case of Physcia, Evernia and Cladonia were able to form zoospores.
The most common type of alga that grows in swimming pools is called green algae.
The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.
It is generally admitted that life originated in water, and that the earliest plants were Algae.Advertisement
At low tide the limpet (being a strictly intertidal organism) is exposed to the air, and (according to trustworthy observers) quits its attachment and walks away in search of food (minute encrusting algae), and then once more returns to the identical spot, not an inch in diameter, which belongs, as it were, to it.
Waves and tidal currents produce their full effects in that region, and in high latitudes the effect of transport of materials by ice is very important; while in the warm water of the tropics the reefbuilding animals and plants (corals and calcareous algae) carry on their work most effectively there.
In cannel coals the prevailing constituents are the spores of cryptogamic plants, algae being rare or in many cases absent.
The fungal part of the organism nearly always consists of a number of the Discomycetes or Pyrenomycetes, while the algal portion is a member of the Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or Blue-green Algae) or of the Green Algae; only in a very few cases is the fungus a member of the Basidiomycetes.
Baranetzky therefore concluded that a certain number, if not all of the so-called algae were nothing more than free living lichen-gonidia.Advertisement
In 1869 Schwendener put forward the really illuminating view - exactly opposite to that of Baranetzkythat the gonidia in all cases were algae which had been attacked by parasitic fungi.
Although Schwendener supported this view of the " dual " nature of lichens by very strong evidence and identified the more common lichen-gonidia with known free-living algae, yet the theory was received with a storm of opposition by nearly all lichenologists.
Funf stuck gives ten free living algae which have been identified as the gonidia of lichens.
They are distinguished by possessing as gonidia algae foreign to the ordinary part of the thallus.
In the whole parts known among Green Algae.
The foreign algae are always members of the Cyanophyceae and on the same individual and even in the same cephalodium more than one type of gonidium may be found.
In many other cases, especially those algae possessing Pleurococcus as their gonidia, there are no penetrating hyphae, but merely From Strasburger's Lehrbuck der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
As is clear from the above, nearly all the lichens are produced by the association of an ascomycetous fungus with algae.
Clavaria mucida, however, h a s apparently some claims to be considered as a Basidiolichen, since the base of the fruit body and the thallus from which it arises, according to Coker, always shows a mixture of hyphae and algae.
The lichen algae are not alone in their specializa tion to the symbiotic (or parasitic) mode of life, for, as stated earlier, the fungus appear in the majority of cases to have completely lost the power of independent development since with very rare exceptions they are not found alone.
The water which trickles over the rims of the pools and basins on the upper terraces is a transparent blue, while the formation itself contains a network of fibrous algae which gives it a wonderful variety of colours.
Algae and fungi also were present, but there were no flowering plants.
On the other hand, lichens, previously regarded as autonomous plants, are now known to be dual organisms - fungi symbiotic with algae.
The real difficulty of classification of the fungi lies in the polyphyletic nature of the group. There is very little doubt that the primitive fungi have been derived by degradation from the lower algae.
It is also possible in the absence of satisfactory intermediate forms that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes have also been derived from the algae independently of the Phycomycetes, and perhaps of one another.
The resemblance between this genus and Oedogonium among the algae is very striking, as is also that of Myrioblepharis and Vaucheria.
They are usually included in Oomycetes, but their simple structure, minute size, usually uniciliate zoospores, and their negative characters would justify their retention as a separate group. It contains less than 200 species, chiefly parasitic on or in algae and other water-plants or animals, of various kinds, or in other fungi, seedlings, pollen and higher plants.
Analogies have been pointed out between Chytridiaceae and unicellular algae, such as Chlorosphaeraceae, Protococcaceae, "Palmellaceae," &c., some of which are parasitic, and suggestions may be entertained as to possible origin from such algae.
In this point and in their method of fertilization theLaboulbeniineae suggest a possible relationship of Ascomycetes and the Red Algae.
Without this occasional drying of the soil the finer grasses and the leguminous plants will infallibly be lost; while a scum of confervae and other algae will collect upon the surface and choke the higher forms of vegetation.
Of the fifteen genera included by Linnaeus among algae, not more than six - viz.
The excluded genera are distributed among the liverworts, lichens and fungi; but notwithstanding the great advance in knowledge since the time of Linnaeus, the difficulty of deciding what limits to assign to the group to be designated Algae still remains.
It arises from the fact that algae, as generally understood, do not constitute a homogeneous group, suggesting a descent from a common stock.
Among them there exist, as will be seen hereafter, many well-marked but isolated natural groups, and their inclusion in the larger group is generally felt to be a matter of convenience rather than the expression of a belief in their close inter-relationship. Efforts are therefore continually being made by successive writers to exclude certain outlying sub-groups, and to reserve the term Algae for a central group reconstituted on a more natural basis within narrower limits.
It is perhaps desirable, in an article like this, to treat of algae in the widest possible sense in which the term may be used, an indication being at the same time given of the narrower senses in which it has been proposed to employ it.
Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Phanerogamia Gymnosperms Angiosperms Algae in this wide sense may be briefly described as the aggregate of those simpler forms of plant life usually devoid, like the rest of the Thallophyta, of differentiation into root, stem and leaf; but, unlike other Thallophyta, possessed of a colouring matter;.
It is true that certain Bryophyta (Marchantiaceae, Anthoceroteae) possess a thalloid structure similar to that of Thallophyta, and are at the same time possessed of the colouring matter of the Green Algae.
Such aberrant forms are to be regarded in the same light as Cuscuta and Orobanchaceae, for example, among Phanerogams. As these non-green plants do not cease to be classed with other Phanerogams, so must the forms in question be retained among algae.
It might be mentioned here that the whole group of the Fungi (q.v.),with its many thousands of species, is now generally regarded as having been derived from algae, and the system of classification of fungi devised by Brefeld is based upon this belief.
The similarity of the morphological characters of one group of fungi to those of certain algae has earned for it the name of Phycomycetes or alga -fungi.
Further discussion of the general characters of algae will be deferred in order to take a brief survey of the subdivisions of the group. For this purpose there will be adopted the classification of algae into four sub-groups, founded on the nature the.
They undoubtedly represent the lowest grade of algal life, and their distribution rivals that of the Green Algae.
In consonance with this name, its authors propose to re-name the Conjugatae; Akontae and Oedogoniaceae with a chaplet of cilia become Stephanokontae, and the algae remaining over in the three series from which the Heterokontae and Stephanokontae are withdrawn become Isokontae.
Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.
Instead of a single relatively large The Chlorophyceae excel all other groups of algae in the magnitude and variety of form of the chlorophyll-bodies.
It much more resembles the antherozoids of Bryophyta and certain Pteridophyta than any known among other algae.
Euphaeophyceae are almost exclusively marine, growing on rocks and stones on the coast, or epiphytic upon other algae.
The brightest belongs to those species which grow near low-water mark, or under the shade of larger algae at higher levels; species which grow near high-water mark are usually of so dark a hue that they are easily mistaken for brown seaweeds.
Many are epiphytic on other algae, more especially the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
Some Red Algae find a home in the gelatinous substance of Flustra, Alcyonidium and other polyzoa, only emerging for the formation of the reproductive organs.
Some are perforating algae and burrow into the substance of molluscan shells, in company with certain Green and Blue-green Algae.
In point of size the largest cannot rival the larger Brown Algae, while the majority require the aid of the microscope for their investigation.
Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.
An interesting feature of the minute anatomy of Euflorideae, as the Red Algae, exclusive of the Bangiaceae, have been termed, is the existence of the so-called Floridean pit.
It is noteworthy that although all the members of the group are aquatic no zoospores are produced, a negative character common to them and the Blue-green Algae.
In a whole series of Red Algae, the existence of a highly specialized auxiliary cell in the neighbourhood of the carpogonium is a characteristic feature.
The Bangiales are a relatively small group of Red Algae, to which much of the description now given does not apply.
To consider the Cyanophyceae excludingacteriaceae from algae altogether, notwith g g g ?
Similarly, while Diatomaceae may be excluded from among Phaeophyceae, though retained among algae, the Cryptomonadaceae and Peridiniaceae, like Euglena and other Chlorophyceae, may be excluded from Thallophyta and ranged among the flagellate Protozoa.
Finally, while Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae exhibit important affinities, the Rhodophyceae are so distinct that the term " algae " cannot be made to include them, except when used in its widest sense.
Algae are, however, so heterogeneous a class, of which the constituent groups are so inadequately known, that it is at present futile to endeavour thus to exhibit their pedigree.
Turn ing first to the Rhodophyceae, both on account of the high place which they occupy among algae and also the remarkable uniformity in their reproductive processes, it is clear that, as is the case among Archegoniatae, the product of the sexual act never germinates directly into a plant which gives rise to the sexual organs.
The area included in the thick boundary line represents algae in the widest sense in which the term is used, and the four included areas the four main subdivisions.
In comparing algae with the great archegoniate series which has doubtless sprung from them, it is natural to inquire to what extent, if any, they present evidence of the existence Peridiniaceae Diatomaceae Cryptomonadaceae - Hydruraceae - EuPHAEOPHYnEAE Protozoa Flagellata protomastigina...
The difficulty of tracing the relationships of algae is largely due to the inadequacy of our knowledge of the conditions under which they pass through the critical stages of their life-cycle.
It is, on the other hand, a danger in the opposite sense to conclude that all Chantransia species are stages in the life-cycle of other plants, and, similarly, that all irregular colonial forms, like Palmella, represent phases in the life of other Green Algae.
Longago Kiitzing went so far as to express the belief that the lower algae were all capable of transformations into higher forms, even into moss-protonemata.
Later writers have also thought that in all four groups of algae transformations of a most farreaching character occur.
Klebs has, however, recently canvassed the conclusions of both these investigators; and as the result of his own observations declares that algae, so far from being as polymorphic as they have been described, vary only within relatively narrow limits, and present on the whole as great fixity as the higher plants.
Klebs insists that the only solution of such problems is the subjection of the algae in question to a rigorous method of pure culture.
While, therefore, there is much evidence of a negative character against the existence of an extensive polymorphism among algae, some amount of metamorphosis is known to occur.
In comparison with the higher plants, algae exhibit so much simplicity of structure, while the conditions under which they grow are so much more readily controlled, that they have frequently been the subject of physiological investigation with a view chiefly to the application of the results to the study of the higher plants.
While starch occurs commonly as a cell-content in the majority of the Green Algae no trace of it occurs in Vaucheria and some of been distinguished, relatively few have been traced from spore to spore, as the flowering plants have been observed from seed to seed.
It is thus an obvious advantage to Red Algae, which flourish at considerable depths, to be able to utilize yellow light rather than the red, which is ' extinguished so much sooner.
The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.
He found that these places corresponded closely with the region of the absorption band for the algae under experiment.
Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.
With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.
Some algae, however, seem to flourish better in the presence of organic compounds.
On the other hand, it has been held by Bernhard Frank and other observers that atmo spheric nitrogen is fixed by the agency of Green Algae in the soil.
In the case of the freshwater algae, however, belonging to the Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, although they required to be immersed during the vegetative period, the reproductive cells are often capable of resisting a considerable degree of desiccation, and in this condition are dispersed through great distances by various agencies.
Again, as is well known, many species of marine algae growing in the region between the limits of high and low water are so constituted that they are exposed to the air twice a day without injury.
The occurrence of characteristic algae at different levels constituting the zones to which reference has already been made, is probably in part an expression of the fact that different species vary in the capacity to resist desiccation from exposure.
Algae of more delicate texture than either Fucaceae or Laminariaceae also occur in the region exposed by the ebb of the tide, but these secure their exemption from desiccation either by retaining water in their meshes by capillary attraction, as in the case of Pilayella, or by growing among the tangles of the larger Fucaceae, as in the case of Polysiphonia fastigiate, or by growing in dense masses on rocks, as in the case of Laurencia pinnatifida.
A few algae approach the ordinary terrestrial plants in their capacity to live in a sub-aerial habitat subject only to such occasional supplies of water as is afforded by the rainfall.
The great majority of the aquatic algae, both freshwater and marine, are attached plants.
The great majority of algae, however, grow like land-plants attached to a substratum, and to these the term benthos is now generally applied.
While the root of land-plants serves for the double purpose of attachment and the supply of water, it is attachment only that is usually sought in the case of algae.
A white efflorescence which appears on certain Brown Algae (Saccorhiza bulbosa, Laminaria saccharina), when they are dried in the air, is found to consist of mannite.
The presence of tannin has been established in the case of a great number of freshwater algae.
By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.
The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.
The attachment organ of algae is thus more properly called a holdfast, and is found to be of very varied structure.
It is clear that where the bottom of a lake or sea consists of oozy mud or shifting sand, it is impossible for algae to secure a foothold.
The rapidity with which walls, piles and pontoons - stone, wood and iron - become covered with marine plants is well known, while the discovery of some effective means of preventing the fouling of the bottoms of ships by the growth of algae would be hailed as a boon by shipowners.
While rocks and boulders are the favoured situation for the growth of marine algae, those which readily disintegrate, like the coarser sandstones, are naturally less favoured than the hard and resistant.
In the case of marine algae, the hosts are chiefly the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
In one case described by Kuckuck the chromaphores of the infesting algae are absent, a circumstance which points to a complete parasitism.
Allusion has already been made to the peculiar habit of the shell-boring algae.
In many algae certain branches of limited growth bear a remarkable resemblance to leaves.
The Characeae among freshwater algae and the Sargassaceae among marine algae might be cited as examples.
The similarity of outline in many species to that of trees and shrubs will strike any one who examines algae mounted for the herbarium.
Cladophora and Bryopsis among monosiphonous forms, Chara, Polysiphonia, Ceramium and Cystoseira among larger algae, are illustrations of this.
Enteromorpha, Asperococcus and Adenocystis are sack-forms. Dorsi-ventral algae are rare.
From what has been already said it is evident that among algae also strikingly similar forms exist in widely different groups.
But the laws which determine the associations of various algae under one environment are as yet little understood.
The vesicles of Fucaceae and Laminariaceae prevent the sinking of the bulkier forms. But why certain Fucaceae favour certain zones in the littoral region, why certain epiphytes are confined to certain hosts, why Red and Brown Algae are not better represented in fresh water or Green Algae in salt, - these are problems to which it is difficult to find a ready answer.
Algae cannot be regarded as directly important in the industries.
On the coasts of Europe marine algae detached by the autumnal gales are commonly carted on to the land as a convenient manure.
Excepting where the thallus is impregnated with silica, as in Diatomaceae, or carbonate of lime, as in Corallinaceae,Characeae and some Siphonales, it is perhaps not surprising that algae should not have been extensively preserved in the fossil form.
Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.
It was doubtless this expectation that has led to the description of a number of Silurian and Devonian remains as algae upon what is now regarded as inadequate evidence.
It is believed, however, that the Devonian fossil, Nematophycus, is a Laminarian alga, but it is not until the late Secondary and the Tertiary formations that fossil remains of algae become frequent.
In the two last-mentioned characters and in their manner of division the bacteria resemble Schizophyceae (Cyanophyceae or blue-green algae), and the two groups of Schizophyceae and Schizomycetes are usually united in the class Schizophyta, to indicate the generally received view that most of the typical bacteria have been derived from the Cyanophyceae.
Some forms, however, such as " Sarcina," have their algal analogues in Palmellaceae among the green algae, while Thaxter's group of Myxobacteriaceae suggests a relationship with the Myxornycetes.
Such a behaviour is very similar to the production of zoospores which is so common in many filamentous algae.
One of the most remarkable phenomena in the life-history of the Schizomy cetes is the formation of this zoogloea stage, which corresponds to the " palmella " condition of the lower Algae.
The large amount of salt in the water makes both fauna and flora of the lake scanty; there are a few algae, the larvae of an Ephydra and of a Tipula fly, specimens of what seems to be Corixa decolor, and in great quantities, so as to tint the surface of the water, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (or gracilis or fertilis), notable biologically for the rarity of males, for the high degree of parthenogenesis and for apparent interchangeableness with the Branchipus.
A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.
In Actinians the epithelio-muscular cells of the endoderm are crowded with yellow spherical bodies, which are unicellular plants or Algae, living symbiotically in the tissues of the zooid.
A number of facts regarding the Algae, and also those relating to such deviations from the normal life cycle as apogamy or apospory, may be regarded as lending support to this view, which, in contrast to the theory of antithetic alternation, has been called that of homologous alternation.
Among the lower classes of plants we have scarcely any knowledge of Palaeozoic Bryophyta; Fungi were probably abundant, but their remains give us little information; while, even among the Algae, which are better represented, well characterized specimens are scanty.
With few exceptions, the remains of Palaeozoic Algae are of comparatively little botanical interest.
The investigations of Nathorst, Williamson and others have shown that a very large proportion of the casts and impressions attributed to Algae had in all probability a totally different origin.
The mere external form of the supposed Algae is rarely so characteristic as to afford satisfactory evidence of their nature.
This is one of the somewhat doubtful Algae occurring in boghead coal or torbanite, a carbonaceous rock the nature of which has been much disputed, in the law courts as well as in scientific literature.
The boghead of Scotland, Autun and New South Wales is regarded by Renault and Bertrand as mainly composed of gelatinous Algae (Piles and Reinschia), having a hollow, saccate thallus formed of a single layer of cells.
It may appear surprising that a body containing 65% of carbon should be so largely made up of gelatinous Algae in a comparatively little altered condition, but the material is rich in bitumen, which seems to have replaced the water contained in the organisms when alive.
It has recently been stated, however, that the supposed Algae are in reality the megaspores of Vascular Cryptogams. Scarcely anything is known of Palaeozoic Florideae; Solenopora, ranging from the Ordovician to the Jurassic, resembles, in the structure of its thallus, with definite zones of growth, Corallinaceae such as Lithothamnion, and may probably be of the same nature.
Apart from the multitude of supposed fossil Algae described as " Fucoids " but usually not of Algal nature, and never presenting determinable characters, very little remains that can be referred to Palaeozoic Brown Algae.
The most striking of all fossil Algae, however, Nematophycus, may possibly be a Phaeophycean.
Radially placed gaps in the tissue (at first erroneously interpreted as medullary rays, but subsequently more aptly compared to the air-spaces of large Algae) contain very sparse hyphae, which here branch more freely than elsewhere.
The existence of these gigantic Algae in Palaeozoic times, attested by such well-preserved specimens, is a fact of great interest, though their systematic position is still an open question.
On the whole, it cannot be said that the Palaeozoic remains have as yet thrown much light on the evolution of the Algae, though we may not be prepared to maintain, with Zeiller, that plants of this class appear never to have assumed a form very different from that which they present at the present day.
From the Ordovician and Silurian, however, a certain number of authentic remains of Algae (among many more that are questionable) have been investigated; they are for the most part either verticillate Siphonae, or the large - possibly Laminariaceous - Algae named Nematophycus, with the problematical but perhaps allied Pachytheca.
Under the head of Algae there is little of primary importance to record, but it is of interest to notice the occurrence of certain forms which throw light on the antiquity of existing families of Algae.
It has been suggested that the admixture of large quantities of decomposed freshwater algae among the original mud is the origin of the paraffins.
Lower infralittoral Sparse kelp park, dominated by foliose algae except where grazed.
In the oceans around Antarctica, carbon uptake is carried out by minute single-celled algae.
Look for them in March/April in the shallow pools lined with pink encrusting stony algae.
Scientists suspect they could have eaten sea algae, which can produce acid poisoning.
Now is the time to give your patio surface a clean, removing any algae which can be slippery.
As is usual in these cases, the tremendous input of cold water probably killed the algae in the pool.
The chief diet of frog tadpoles, in the early part of their life is filamentous algae.
It is mainly composed of the tests of coralline algae indicating deposition in a shallow gulf environment.
Most anemones have symbiotic algae that live in their tissues.
These are unicellular algae characterized by the silicified cell made by two halves.
Dead, microscopic algae will clump together into particles large enough to be removed by filtration.
There are over 2,200 species of freshwater algae known to exist in the British Isles and there is nothing wrong with them as such.
Time trends highly concentrated in the summer, less so in the winter (micro algae growth in the summer months ).
Another way to help with string algae is to raise your salt level in the pond.
Suitable subjects include small arthropods, parts of the same, microfungi, some algae, some botanical preparations.
An application of ' masonry biocide ' would then retard growth of algae and lichen.
They now think she could have become intoxicated by a natural toxin found in algae blooms.
A toxic blue-green algae and botulism have been suspected as well as polluted silt in the lagoon.
Feedings should include live brine shrimp, frozen food, algae and the traditional flakes.
Most modern reefs are built by corals and algae, but sponges, bryozoans and bivalves have all formed reefs in the geological past.
The enzyme DMSP-lyase, found in algae and some bacteria, mediates the cleavage of DMSP to DMS and acrylic acid.
In addition to encouraging unwanted algae growth, phosphates slow the skeletal growth of stony corals.
This algae is very detoxifying, so start with 2 capsules a day and increase slowly to 6 or more per day.
In addition filter cleaning mechanisms had to be designed to prevent too frequent clogging by algae build up in the foams.
High levels of phosphates and/or nitrates can cause algae blooms (including blue green algae, some of which are toxic ).
Spirogyra and related algae like the Desmids are conjugating green algae.
Freshwater flounders will also eat some green algae as well.
Most lichens that contain green algae can recover from drought by absorbing water from humid air and then begin to photosynthesise.
The radio guest claimed that wild blue green algae totally transformed his life to one of optimum health, well being and vitality.
Filamentous green algae are however widespread on the clay.
The green plants (including both multicellular and unicellular green algae) and the red algae.
Localized freshwater influence often results in the growth of ephemeral green algae on the shore.
This is to protect the impeller from large solids, algae or fish waste, and to stop the fountain head blocking up.
Laboratory tests have developed the use of microscopic algae to remove heavy metals from water and soil leachate.
Pediastrum is a genus of green algae that is commonly found in many freshwater microhabitats because it has a cosmopolitan distribution.
Big, thick-lipped mullet can also be seen here sucking at the algae on the ironwork.
My pond is small and at times full of algae, with the water looking rather murky.
Furthermore there have been claims that the algae spirulina and the seaweed nori contain significant amounts of B12.
Without them your water will probably resemble pea soup, as algae will grow prolifically.
With their moderately soft, flexible pellicles, swimming Spirostomum often bend around bits of algae and other obstacles they encounter.
Limpets (Patella vulgata) and rough periwinkles are snails that graze on the algae and lichens.
The algae part of the lichen provides food to the fungus using photosynthesis.
For a long time they were regarded algae since they performed photosynthesis.
Now add a bit of pond water or choose an algae by using a pipette.
Plants and various groups of algae also have plastids.
Seaweed distribution, especially foliose red algae has also changed because light can no longer penetrate as far.
During calm weather, the algae can rise to the surface forming a scum.
There were small rock pools teeming with algae and fairy shrimp.
Chalk is a very pure form of limestone composed of countless millions of the minute calcareous skeletons of coccoliths, a form of algae.
During the period of rapid growth the algae scarcely seemed susceptible to viruses.
Apart from making the pond unsightly, algae can pose a threat to fish by robbing the water of oxygen at night.
The majority of these 50 species are red algae, polychaete worms, crustaceans and mollusks.
Most blue whales are blue-grey and mottled with lighter spots but some appear yellowish underneath due to algae growing on them.
The gradual disappearance of the sexual method of reproduction, as we pass upwards in the fungi from the points of their departure from the Algae, is an important fact, the last traces of sexuality apparently disappearing in the ascomycetes.
The groups of Fungi, Licheneae and Algae have completely run into one another, and, when the lowest forms of each are alone considered, even the animal and vegetable kingdoms cease to have a definite frontier.
The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.
It has however been deemed advisable to retain the older groups for purpose of treatment in this work, and articles will be found under the headings ALGAE, FUNGI, BACTERIA, and LIcHENs.
Bacteria (see BACTERIOLOGY) and Cyanophyceae (see ALGAE), which are often grouped together as Schizophyta, are from points of view of both structure and reproduction extremely simple organisms, and stand apart from the remaining groups, which are presumed to have originated directly or indirectly from the Flagellatae, a group of unicellular aquatic organisms combining animal and plant characteristics which may be regarded as the starting-point of unicellular Thallophytes on the one hand and of the Protozoa on the other.
Thus simple forms included in the Heteroconteae, Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae show an obvious connection with the Flagellatae; the Peridineae may be regarded as a further developed branch; the Conjugatae and Diatomaceae cannot be directly connected; the origin of the Rhodophyceae is also obscure; while the Characeae are an advanced and isolated group (see ALGAE).
The union of the germ nuclei has now been observed in all the main groups of Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Mosses, Algae and Fungi, and presents a striking resemblance in all.
The study of existing Algae, that is of plants that have continued to live in water, shows that under these conditions no high degree of organization has been reached, though some of them have attained gigantic dimensions.
In nonflowering plants the works usually followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's Synopsis filicum; for mosses, Muller's Synopsis muscorum frondosorum, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's Genera et species muscorum, and Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien; for algae, de Toni's Sylloge algarum; for hepaticae, Gottsche, Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's Synopsis hepaticarum, supplemented by Stephani's Species hepaticarum; for fungi, Saccardo's Sylloge fungorum, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the members of large genera, e.g.
There is evidence that the dividing wall of filamentous forms is deeply pitted, as is found to be the case in red algae.
Algae are withdrawn from each of the three series enumerated above and consolidated into an entirely new group. In these algae, the colouring matter is said to be yellowish-green, not strictly green, and contained in numerous small discoid chromatophores which are devoid of pyrenoids.
The algal fungi, Phycomycetes, are obviously derived from the Green Algae, while the remaining Fungi, the Eumycetes, appear to have sprung from the same stock as the Rhodophyceae (see FUNGI).
Thallophyta.The simplest members of both the Algae and the Fungi (q.v.) (the two divisions of the Thailophyta, which is the lowest of the four great groups into which the plant-kingdom is divided) have their bodies each composed of a single cell.
The lowest Hepaticae have an extremely simple vegetative structure, little more advanced than that found in some of the higher Green Algae and very much simpler than in the large Red and Brown Seaweeds.
In the chromatophores of many Algae and in the Liverwort Anthoceros there are present homogeneous, highly refractive, crystal-like bodies, called pyrenoids or starch-centres, which are composed of proteid substances and surrounded by an envelope of starch-grains.
Large coarse algae, such, for instance, as the Fucaceae and Laminariae, do not readily adhere to paper, and require soaking for some time in fresh water before being pressed.
The plankton is divided into (a) the Zoo-plankton (such as the minute crustacea and the eggs and larva of fishes and many other marine animals); and (b) the Phyto-plankton, that is, the minute algae, diatoms, peridinians, some flagellate protozoa, spores of alga, etc. The investigation of the plankton from a new point of view, begun by Hansen in 1889, was continued by Lohmann at Kiel, by Cleve in Sweden, by Gran and Ostenfeldt in Norway and Denmark, and by Herdman, Allen and others in England.
Their structure is eminently that of degenerate forms. Many frequent growths of coralline Algae and hydroid polyps, upon the juices of which they feed, and in some cases a species of gall is produced in hydroids by the penetration of the larval Pantopod into the tissues of the polyp.
Some bacteria, such as those of anthrax, are seized upon in the same manner, indeed; very much as small algae and other particles are incorporated and devoured by amoeba.
Collemaceae); in these the algae are Chroococcaceae and Nostocaceae, and the fungus makes its way into the gelatinous membranes of the algal cells and ramifies there (fig.
The remarkable case of life in common first observed in lichens, where a fungus and an alga unite to form a compound organism - the lichen - totally different from either, has now been proved to be universal in these plants, and lichens are in all cases merely algae enmeshed in the interwoven hyphae of fungi (see Lichens).
With reference to the assimilation of nitrogen, it would seem that algae, like other green plants,, can best use it when it is presented to them in the form of a nitrate.
When it is sought to consider algae with a view to the correlation of the external form to the conditions of life, a subject the study of which under the name of ecology has Ecoiogy.
Limpets scrape out a living by rasping almost invisible algae off bare looking rock.
It contains almost everything required for growth by corals and the beautiful encrusting pink and red coralline algae.
The cyanobacteria and algae that make up the crusts can fix atmospheric nitrogen and sequester carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere.
Algae comes in many forms including hair algae, slime algae and spot algae.
Temporal and spatial variability was less evident for algae attached to rocks.
It's called the magic lake, because of the phosphorescent algae that cause it to glow at night.
Great for controlling algae, these hardy fish have personality and are compatible with many other fish.
This can include removing mold or algae from paving that might otherwise be a hazard, causing injury through slipping, or to remove extreme dirt from a vehicle that has been used off-road.
Warmer water also directly affects algae growth in the oceans, and as algae growth diminishes, small fish and other sea life who consume the algae die or relocate.
For stubborn algae stains, you may need to use a mixture of water and bleach in a 50/50 ratio.
It can also be plant-based, as several forms of algae and other plant life generate the hormone in smaller amounts.
This includes B vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids, commonly found in fish, but also found in the algae they eat.
Clear pots, such as votive candle holders or shot glasses are especially popular, but couples should be aware that algae may grow inside clear pots, clouding the water and making them less attractive.
They are absorbed into the ground and make their way to the rivers, watersheds and ocean causing such problems as prolific algae bloom and "red tide."
You may find products containing potassium salts for algae control.
Alternative treatment of high cholesterol may include high doses of garlic, niacin, soy protein, algae, or other fatty acids, and the Chinese medicine supplement Cholestin (a red yeast fermented with rice).
A study released in 1999 indicated that blue-green algae contains polyunsaturated fatty acids that lower cholesterol.
The algae, known as Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is available as an over-the-counter dietary supplement.
Blood agar is usually made from the cell walls of red algae (also trypticase soy, heart infusion, or Todd-Hewitt agar) and sheep's blood.
Agar-A gel made from red algae that is used to culture certain disease agents in the laboratory.
Spirulina, a nutritional supplement made from algae, is also a vegetarian source, as are fortified soy products and nutritional yeast.
Spirulina-A genus of blue-green algae that is sometimes added to food to increase its nutrient value.
With the proper care, you can prevent lucky bamboo and algae problems.
Lucky bamboo and algae problems occur for a number of reasons.
Algae spores are everywhere; there isn't anything you can do about it.
Believe it or not, the type of vase your lucky bamboo lives in makes a huge difference as to whether or not it develops an algae problem.
The light reacts with the algae spores, causing them to bloom or grow.
If you are replenishing your bamboo vase with regular tap water, this cannot only kill the plant over a period, but also be a cause of algae growth.
Algae feed on these phosphates (considered nutrients in small doses) and before you know it, the algae have completely invaded your vase.
Algae also thrive in nutrient rich water.
Aside from the phosphates mentioned above, nitrates are also a favorite food source of algae.
So, overfeeding your lucky bamboo could be the cause of your algae problem.
The best way to prevent algae problems in your lucky bamboo vase is prevention.
This will keep the nutrient level in the water high enough to keep the plant healthy, but low enough to where it isn't going to encourage algae growth.
Ceramic or porcelain vases are best as they don't allow light through to the water and therefore discourage algae growth.
Move the plant - If the bamboo is in a spot exposed to a lot of direct sunlight, which encourages algae growth, move the plant to an area that receives indirect sunlight.
With the proper prevention and care, algae will never be a problem and you can enjoy your lucky bamboo plant for many years to come.
Don't allow algae and scum to build up on the glass sides of the tank or on the tank fixtures.
Exceptionally dry hair benefits from the hydratherapie line, which uses aloe vera, wheat germ, and algae to replenish hair's natural moisture balance.
Algae removal should only be performed as needed and never more than once a week.
Chemicals like chlorine are designed to keep your pool algae and bacteria free.
They have special ability to control algae.
In short, the crystals easily dissolve in water and once applied to a water supply, help control the growth of algae; something no one wants in a swimming pool!
Nothing can spoil a pool party quicker than a pool with unsightly algae growth in it.
At higher concentrations, it can also kill algae.
Also known as natural minerals, these two alternatives offer low doses of chlorine while still being a very good defense against algae.
After all, the thought of eating bunches of wheatgrass or gulping down a green algae drink might seem a little daunting to those not used to experiencing nature's bounty in quite that way.
Super Green Energy Food is a tablet of green superfoods containing chlorella, Hawaiian blue-green algae, barley and wheat grass, spinach and alfalfa.
Water in a swimming pool turns green because of algae that is living in the pool.
Algae are primitive types of organisms that range from single celled varieties to types that have hundreds of cells.
Although algae organisms do contain chlorophyll, they lack leaves, stems and true root systems and are no longer considered plants.
Because of their microscopic size once an aquatic form of algae begins growing in a swimming pool, it generally goes unnoticed until there are hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of organisms.
Algae can also grow in a pool during the swim season.
If your pool has floating algae, add the necessary pool chemicals to bring the water readings into the normal range.
If your pool has clinging algae brush any areas on the sides and bottom of the pool that have visible algae growth.
The latter is an extract of red algae, and it's been proven to increase the skin's oxygen absorption rate by 20%.
The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
In the Algae, such as Fucus, Volvox, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, and in the Fungus Monoblepharis, the spermatozoid is a small oval or elongate cell containing nucleus, cytoplasm and sometimes plastids.
Conolophus subcristatus and Amblyrhynchus cristatus inhabit the Galapagos; the former feeds upon cactus and leaves, the latter is semi-marine, diving for the algae which grow below tide-marks.
Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.
In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.
Murray and Renard define globigerina ooze as containing at least 30% of calcium carbonate, in which the remains of pelagic (not benthonic) foraminifera predominate and in which remains of pelagic mollusca such as pteropods and heteropods, ostracodes and also coccoliths (minute calcareous algae) may also occur.
Fuchs and its allies, which form conspicuous members of the larger Algae, have their external cells much smaller, more closely put together, and generally much denser than the rest of their tissue.
The chloroplasts are generally distinguished by their green color, which is due to the presence of chlorophyll; but in many Algae this is masked by another coloring matterPh ycoerytlsrin in the Florideae, Phycophaein in the Phaeophyceae, and Phycocyanin in the Cyanophyceae.
The Nuclei of the Lower Plants.It is only in comparatively recent times that it has been possible to determine with any degree of certainty that the minute deeply stainable bodies described more especially by Schmitz (1879) in many Algae and Fungi could be regarded as true nuclei.
Nemertines live in the sea, some being common amongst the corals and algae, others hiding in the muddy or sandy bottom, and secreting gelatinous tubes which ensheath the body along its whole length.
Marine algae are usually mounted on tough smooth white cartridge paper in the following manner.
Filamentous diatoms may be mounted like ordinary seaweeds, and, as well as all parasitic algae, should whenever possible be allowed to remain attached to a portion of the alga on which they grow, some species being almost always found found parasitical on particular plants.
Until comparatively recent times the lichens were considered as a group of simple organisms on a level with algae and fungi.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.
Lime is, in fact, absorbed to an enormous extent by fishes, molluscs, crustacea, calcareous algae and sponges, starfishes, sea-urchins and feather stars, many polyzoa and a multitude of protozoa (mainly the foraminifera).
Pure calcareous sand and calcareous mud are formed by wave action on the shores of coral islands where the only material available is coral and the accompanying calcareous algae, crustacea, molluscs and other organisms secreting carbonate of lime.
In the Thallophytes the cytoplasm may be segmented by constriction, due to the in-growth of a new cell wall from the old one, as in Spirogyra and Cladophora, or by the formation of cleavage furrows in which the new cell-wall is secreted, as occurs in the formation of the spores in many Algae and Fungi.