Alexandrian Sentence Examples
The trace of Alexandrian influence is to be found in the pretence that his actual father was Nectanebus, a fugitive king of Egypt.
It is uncertain whether any of the names of the islands given by Ptolemy ought to be attached to the Andamans; yet it is probable that his name itself is traceable in the Alexandrian geographer.
According to Suetonius (Caesar, 56), many authorities considered Oppius to have written the histories of the Spanish, African and Alexandrian wars which are printed among the works of Caesar.
The intellectual influence of Greece, manifested in Alexandrian philosophy, tended to remove God still further from the human world of phenomena into that of an inaccessible transcendental abstraction.
In some measure we find this practice adopted by more than one of the Fathers, but it was the Alexandrian school, with its pronounced taste for symbolism, that made the most of it.Advertisement
The technical words by which the process of allegorizing is designated in the Physiologus, like 41,unveia, Occopia, ava'yc.ay, aXXrjyopia, are familiar to the students of Alexandrian exegesis.
See the Icelandic account of the elephant, also a decidedly Alexandrian fragment upon the 7.iapyos, founded upon 4 Macc. i.
Notwithstanding the difference in theology, passages of this kind could not but be welcome to the admirers of the Alexandrian allegories.
Claudius, the new emperor, restored the civic rights of the Alexandrian Jews and made Agrippa I.
The Alexandrian people now chose an illegitimate son of Soter II.Advertisement
In Philo, Alexandrian Judaism had already seized upon Plato as " the Attic Moses," and done its best to combine his speculations with the teaching of his Jewish prototype.
But, although the legend is first told in Alexandrian times, the "cry of Hylas" occurs long before as the "Mysian cry" in Aeschylus (Persae, 1054), and in Aristophanes (Plutus, 1127) "to cry Hylas" is used proverbially of seeking something in vain.
This was undoubtedly an infringement of the rights of the Alexandrian bishop; at the same time it was simply a piece of spite on the part of the latter that had kept Origen so long without any ecclesiastical consecration.
But while there are thus some grounds for supposing that the idea of transmutation grew out of the practical receipts of Alexandrian Egypt, the alchemy which embraced it as a leading principle was also strongly affected by Eastern influences such as magic and astrology.
If, then, those contents do not represent the knowledge of Jaber, and if the contents of other Latin translations which there is reason to believe are really made from the Arabic, show little, if any, advance on the knowledge of the Alexandrian Greeks, evidently the part played by the Arabs must be less, and that of the Westerns greater, than Gibbon is prepared to admit.Advertisement
But it must remain possible that contact with new scenes and persons, and especially such controversial necessities as are exemplified in Colossians, stimulated Paul to work out more fully, under the influence of Alexandrian categories, lines of thought of which the germs and origins must be admitted to have been present in earlier epistles.
The use of Alexandrian categories is wholly governed by this interest.
The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
It was the Alexandrian theology that superseded them; that is to say, NeoPlatonic mysticism triumphed over the early Christian hope of the future, first among the "cultured," and then, when the theology of the "cultured" had taken the faith of the "uncultured" under its protection, amongst the latter also.
Behind it (according to the Alexandrian treatise, known as pseudo-Callisthenes) were five native villages scattered along the strip between Lake Mareotis and the sea.Advertisement
The style shows that the book was written in Greek, though naturally it contains Hebraisms. The author of the first part was in all probability an Alexandrian Jew; nothing further is known of him; and this is true of the author of the second part, if that be a separate production.
Its exclusion from the Jewish Canon of Scripture resulted naturally from its Alexandrian thought and from the fact that it was written in Greek.
By Eusebius and Photius he is called Titus Flavius Clemens, and " c the Alexandrian " is added to his name.
He was a saint up till the time of Benedict XIV., who read Photius on Clement, believed him, and struck the Alexandrian's name out of the calendar.
The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.Advertisement
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
The first extant work which approaches to a treatise on algebra is by Diophantus, an Alexandrian mathematician, who flourished about A.D.
He produced in the end a synthesis of Plato and Aristotle with an admixture of Pythagorean or Oriental mysticism, and is closely allied to the Alexandrian school of thought.
In one department the Alexandrian school rapidly surpassed its Greek original - namely, in the study of anatomy.
If we look at the work of the Alexandrian schools in medicine as a whole, we must admit that the progress made was great and permanent.
The doctrines of Hippocrates... were no doubt very widely accepted, but the practice of the Hippocratic school had been greatly improved in almost every department - surgery and obstetrics being probably those in which the Alexandrian practitioners could compare most favourably with those of modern times.
The whole body of medical literature belonging to the Hippocratic and Alexandrian times is ably summarized, and a knowledge of the state of medical science up to and during the times of the author is thus conveyed to us which can be obtained from no other source.
He worked enthusiastically at dissection, though, the liberty of the Alexandrian schools no longer existing, he could dissect only animals, not the human body.
In the case of Jason and the Argonauts, she plays the part of a kindly, good-natured fairy; Euripides, however, makes her a barbarous priestess of Hecate, while the Alexandrian writers depicted her in still darker colours.
Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.
The idea of the god of love in Roman poetry is due to the influence of Alexandrian poets and artists, in whose hands he degenerated into a mischievous boy with essentially human characteristics.
The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.
While the imaginative and emotional side of Roman poetry was so powerfully represented by Lucretius, attention was directed to its artistic side by a younger genera tion, who moulded themselves in a great degree on Alexandrian models.
The national love of works of large compass shows itself in the production of long epic poems, both of the historic and of the imitative Alexandrian type.
Earlier in life he had a great admiration for Origen, and translated many of his works, and this lasted after he had settled at Bethlehem, for in 389 he translated Origen's homilies on Luke; but he came to change his opinion and wrote violently against two admirers of the great Alexandrian scholar, John, bishop of Jerusalem, and his own former friend Rufinus.
To `Amr acting on Omar's command has been attributed the burning of the famous Alexandrian library.
Eratosthenes, who in the latter half of the and century B.C. was keeper of the famous Alexandrian library, not only made himself a great name by his important work on geography, but by his treatise entitled Chronographia, one of the first attempts to establish an exact scheme of general chronology, earned for himself the title of "father of chronology."
But in reducing Alexandrian dates to the common era it must be observed that Julius Africanus placed the epoch of the Incarnation three years earlier than it is placed in the usual reckoning, so that the initial day of the Christian era fell in the year 5503 of the Alexandrian era.
According to the Alexandrian computation, this was the year 5787 of the world, and 287 of the Incarnation; but on this occasion ten years were omitted, and that year was thenceforth called the year 5777 of the world, and 277 of the Incarnation.
The Alexandrian era continued to be followed by the Copts in the 15th century, and is said to be still used in Abyssinia.
Dates expressed according to this era are reduced to the common era by subtracting 5502, up to the Alexandrian year 57 86 inclusive, and after that year by subtracting 5492; but if the date belongs to one of the four last months of the Christian year, we must subtract 5503 till the year 5786, and 5493 after that year.
Under the inspiration of his friend Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian orator, statesman and philosopher, this Ptolemy laid the foundations of the great Alexandrian library and originated the keen search for all written works, which resulted in the formation of a collection such as the world has seldom seen.
The characteristic features of these divisions are very clearly marked, and their difference affords an explanation of the variety and vagueness of meaning attaching to the term "Alexandrian School."
With its character largely determined by Jewish elements, and even more by contact with the dogmas of Christianity, this second Alexandrian school resulted in the speculative philosophy of the Neo-Platonists and the religious philosophy of the Gnostics and early church fathers.
There appear, therefore, to be at least two definite significations of the title Alexandrian School; or rather, there are two Alexandrian schools, distinct both chronologically and in substance.
The one is the Alexandrian school of poetry and science, the other the Alexandrian school of philosophy.
But the most distinguished was Callimachus, undoubtedly the greatest of the Alexandrian poets.
A ruder kind of drama, the amoebaean verse, or bucolic mime, developed into the only pure stream of genial poetry found in the Alexandrian School, the Idylls of Theocritus.
The most interesting fact connected with this Alexandrian poetry is the powerful influence it exercised on Roman literature.
That literature, especially in the Augustan age, is not to be thoroughly understood without due appreciation of the character of the Alexandrian school.
This was the task begun and carried out by the Alexandrian critics.
The sciences of mathematics, astronomy and medicine were also cultivated with assiduity and success at Alexandria, but they can scarcely be said to have their origin there, or in any strict sense to form a part of the peculiarly Alexandrian literature.
But in that city for some time past there had been various forces secretly working, and these, coming in contact with great spiritual changes in the world around, produced a second outburst of intellectual activity, which is generally known as the Alexandrian school of philosophy.
The last ten years of his life were given up to the imitation of Greek poets of the Alexandrian school.
He was admitted by the Alexandrian critics into the canon of historiographers, and his work was highly valued by Alexander the Great.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
A supernatural pride was blended with a natural anxiety, and it was at this juncture that Origen brought to light again a book written in the days of Marcus Aurelius, which but for the great Alexandrian might have been lost for ever.
Opinion at one time inclined to the view that the True Word was written in Rome, but the evidence (wholly internal) points much more decisively to an Egyptian, and in particular an Alexandrian origin.
The " Word," or " Logos," is a term derived from Heracleitus of Ephesus and the Stoics, through the Alexandrian Jew Philo, but conceived here throughout as definitely personal.
The Alexandrian Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome and Augustine only tell of the Zebedean what is traceable to stories told by Papias of others, to passages of Revelation and the Gospel, or to the assured fact of the long-lived Asian presbyter.
Matters were soon ripe for foreign intervention, and the notorious Cyril of Alexandria, in whom the antagonism between the Alexandrian and Antiochene schools of theology,' as well as the jealousy between the patriarchate of St Mark and that of Constantinople, found a determined and unscrupulous exponent, did not fail to make use of the opportunity.
As Nestorius himself said, "the Council was Cyril"; it simply registered the Alexandrian patriarch's views.
Under the rule of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), learning found a home in the Alexandrian Museum and in the great Alexandrian Library.
The poets of that age, including Callimachus and Theocritus, were subsequently expounded by Theon, who flourished under Tiberius, and has been well described as " the Didymus of the Alexandrian poets."
The position of Christian (and Jewish Alexandrian) scholars was considerably worse; for, with rare exceptions, down to the 5th century, and practically without exception between the 5th and 15th centuries, their study was exclusively based on translations.
Later in the centu r y Dionysius of Alexandria applies some acute criticism to justify the Alexandrian dislike of the Apocalypse.
This older order of the epistles is only found elsewhere in the Sahidic version of the New Testament, and it was probably therefore the old Egyptian or Alexandrian order.
So far back as it can be traced it is, therefore, an Alexandrian MS., and palaeographical arguments point in the same direction.
If it be true, it falls in with the palaeographic indications and suggests an Alexandrian provenance.
In the New Testament it has in the gospels a late text of Westcott and Hort's " Syrian " type, but in the epistles there is a strongly marked " Alexandrian " element.
The character of the text is mixed with a strong " Alexandrian " element.
The marginal readings are therefore valuable evidence for the Old Alexandrian text.
The Alexandrian was clearly a literary recension of it, and WH strove to show that the Western was merely due to the non-literary efforts of scribes in other parts to improve the narrative.
The only exception which they allowed to this general rule was in the case of certain passages, especially in the last chapters of Luke, where the " Western " authorities omit words which are found in the Neutral and Alexandrian texts.
It has been approached from two sides, according as critics have considered the Western or the Neutral and Alexandrian texts.
The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
More recent investigations have confirmed their view as to the relation of the Alexandrian to the Neutral text, but have thrown doubt on the age and widespread use of the latter.
The third stage is WH's Alexandrian, found in the quotations of Cyril of Alexandria and a few MSS.
The Alexandrian critics attributed to him the authorship of four plays previously assigned to Aristophanes.
The Alexandrian talent of Festus, 12,000 denarii, is the same talent again.
BÃ¶ckh decides that the "Alexandrian drachma" was 6/5ths of the Solonic 67, or = 80.5, and shows that it was not Ptolemaic, or Rhodian, or Aeginetan, being distinguished from these in inscriptions (2).
Then the "Alexandrian mina" of Dioscorides and Galen (2) is 20 unciae = 8250; in the "Analecta" (2) it is 150 or 158 drachmae = 8100.
We even find it attached to the famous Alexandrian MS. (Codex A) of the New Testament, but this does not imply that it ever reached canonical rank.
Strabo chiefly employed Greek authorities (the Alexandrian geographers Polybius, Posidonius and Theophanes of Mytilene, the companion of Pompey) and made comparatively little use of Roman authorities.
He also took part in the Alexandrian and Spanish wars.
The Old Testament is cited after the Alexandrian version more exclusively than by Paul, even where the Hebrew is divergent.
There is every appearance that the author was a Hellenist who lacked knowledge of the Hebrew text, and derived his metaphysic and his allegorical method from the Alexandrian rather than the Palestinian schools.
The Alexandrian theology strengthened this movement against chiliasm.
The Alexandrian tradition seems to have been that he was of Cyrenaean origin; and Severus, a writer of the Loth century, adds to this the statement that his father's name was Aristobulus, who, with his wife Mary, was driven from the Pentapolis to Jerusalem by an invasion of barbarians 1 The divergent lines of the later attempts at a literal interpretation - e.g.
Philip - or rather the compiler who made excerpts from him - says that he was at the head of an Alexandrian school (the catechetical), that he lived in the time of Hadrian and Antoninus, to whom he addressed his Apology, and that Clement of Alexandria was his pupil; but these statements are more than doubtful.
He was entrusted by Ptolemy with the task of arranging the comedies in the Alexandrian library, and as the result of his labours composed a treatise On Comedy.
His own compositions, however, chiefly consisted of tragedies (Suidas gives the titles of twenty, of which very few fragments have been preserved), which secured him a place in the Pleiad of Alexandrian tragedians.
It has none of the qualities of poetry, and was probably written as a show-piece for the Alexandrian school.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
At the same time the prevalent tone of the populace was, no doubt, Hellenistic, as is shown by the fact that the Jews who settled there acquired Greek in place of Aramaic as their mother-tongue, and in its upper circles Alexandrian society under the Ptolemies was not only Hellenistic, but notable among the Hellenes for its literary and artistic brilliance.
Augustus established an Alexandrian era with the fixed Julian.
The vague Egyptian year, however, continued in use in native documents for some centuries along with the Alexandrian lonian year.
Side by side there grew up an Alexandrian church, philosophic, disputative, ambitious, the very centre of Christian learning, and an Egyptian church, ascetic, contemplative, mystical.
See also works quoted under NE0PLATONISM and Alexandrian School.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
This method of reckoning became known as the Alexandrian era, and was adopted by almost all the eastern churches.
A remarkable glass bowl with coloured reliefs, said to be Alexandrian work, was found at Olbia in 1913.
He has been given a fictitious importance by recent commentators, who have regarded him as the forerunner of the Alexandrian School of philosophy.
A reading supported by only one recension he considered as having only one witness in its favour; those readings which were supported by all the three recensions, or even by two of them, especially if these two were the Alexandrian and the Western, he unhesitatingly accepted as genuine.
In this way the great Alexandrian school of Homeric criticism began with Zenodotus, the first chief of the museum, and was continued by Aristophanes and Aristarchus.
It is chiefly interesting as a proof of the confusion in which the text must have been before the Alexandrian times; for it is impossible to understand the readiness of Aristarchus to suspect the genuineness of verses unless the state of the copies had pointed to the existence of numerous interpolations.
Again, the Platonic dialogue Hip parchus (which though not genuine is probably earlier than the Alexandrian times) asserts that Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, first brought the poems to Athens, and obliged the rhapsodists at the Panathenaea to follow the order of the text, " as they still do," instead of reciting portions chosen at will.
Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.
The great Alexandrian grammarians had become figures in a new mythology.
In later mythology, under Alexandrian influence, the Horae become the four seasons, daughters of Helios and Selene, each represented with the conventional attributes.
Of the Greek there are three forms. One is in the Vatican and Alexandrian MSS.; another is in the Sinaitic. Both these texts are to be found in Swete's Septuagint, the former denoted by B, and the latter by B is the common text, which is followed in the English Apocrypha.
Cinna's chief work was a mythological epic poem called Smyrna, the subject of which was the incestuous love of Smyrna (or Myrrha) for her father Cinyras, treated after the manner of the Alexandrian poets.
Sometimes one Erinys is mentioned, sometimes several; Euripides first spoke of them as three in number, to whom later Alexandrian writers gave the names Alecto (unceasing in anger), Tisiphone (avenger of murder), Megaera (jealous).
It was perhaps this Philoponus who tried to save the Alexandrian library from the caliph Omar after Amu's victory in 639.
All the enemies of the great Alexandrian he regards merely as empty and vain obscurantists; for the orthodoxy of his hero he appeals to Athanasius.
Of the continuations of Caesar's Commentaries - the eighth book of the Gallic war, the history of the Alexandrian, African and Spanish wars - the first is generally allowed to be by Hirtius; the Alexandrian war is perhaps by him (or Oppius); the last two are supposed to have been written at his request, by persons who had taken part in the events described, with a view to subsequent revision and incorporation in his proposed work on military commanders.
Dionysius, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Pindar, Bacchylides, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Antiphanes, make frequent and familiar allusion to the Ke rraOos; but in the writers of the Roman and Alexandrian period such reference as occurs shows that the fashion had died out.
In the beginning he was the most influential man present, but was finally forced to yield to the Alexandrian party, and to vote for a creed which completely repudiated the position of the Arians, with whom he had himself been hitherto more in sympathy than with the Alexandrians.
Aristeas represents himself as a Gentile Greek, but was really an Alexandrian Jew who lived under one of the later Ptolemies.
The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most important chronica of antiquity.
The monster of the Odyssey has been " written up to date " after the Alexandrian manner and has become a gentle simpleton.
His treatment of this may be compared both with Homeric usage and that of other Alexandrian poets, e.g.
It was only in the Alexandrian period, as Zeller points out, that the special sciences attained to independent cultivation.
The Hebrew conception is partially associated with the Greek in the case of Aristobulus, the predecessor of Philo, and, according to the fathers, the founder of the Alexandrian school.
The pseudo-Solomonic Book of Wisdom (generally supposed to be the work of an Alexandrian flourishing somewhere between Aristobulus and Philo) deals both with the Wisdom and with the Logos.
The Alexandrian philosopher wavers between the two theories and has to accord to the Logos of Hellas a semiindependent position beside the supreme God of Judaea.
Among the influences that shaped the Fourth Gospel that of the Alexandrian philosophy must be assigned a distinct, though not an exaggerated importance.
Though the Alexandrian idea largely determines the evangelist's treatment of the history, the history similarly reacts on the idea.
Here they did not attempt to repeat their old charges, but found a more effective weapon to their hands in a new charge of a political kind - that Athanasius had threatened to stop the Alexandrian corn-ships bound for Constantinople.
Clement and Origen, at the head of the Alexandrian school, took a somewhat subtle view of the Incarnation, and Docetism pervades their controversies with the Monarchians.
The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II.
Nothing certain is known of the date or nationality of the writer, but there is some reason for believing that he was an Alexandrian, who wrote in the time of Hadrian (some put him as late as the end of the 3rd century).
The Council of Chalcedon (451) rejected the Alexandrian extreme in its turn, guided by Leo of Rome's celebrated letter, and thus put the emphasis on the duality rather than the unity in Christ's person.
Cyril of Alexandria represents the later Alexandrian theology.
In 89 he was expelled by a popular uprising and perished the following year in a sea-fight with the Alexandrian ships off Cyprus.
These were rhymed but also alliterative, in regular form, with prologue or mansong (often the prettiest part of the whole), main portion telling the tale (mostly derived in early days from the French romances of the Carlovingian, Arthurian or Alexandrian cycles, or from the mythic or skriik-segur), and epilogue.
Alexandrian criticism was chiefly occupied with poetry.
On his return to Egypt he revenged himself by curtailing the religious liberty of the Alexandrian Jews, and by depriving of their civic rights all who refused to worship Bacchus.
In matters of exegesis he is, like Hilary, an Alexandrian; his chief productions are homiletic commentaries on the early Old Testament narratives, e.g.
Shortly afterwards an Alexandrian synod condemned his doctrines in twelve anathemas, which only provoked counter-anathemas.
And three hundred years after Hipparchus, the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy adopted a very similar scheme in his uranometria, which appears in the seventh and eighth books of his Almagest, the catalogue being styled the "EKOfois Kavovud7 or " accepted version."
The reverence and authority which was accorded the famous compilation of the Alexandrian astronomer is well evidenced by the catalogue of the Tatar Ulugh Beg, the Arabian names thane adopted being equivalent to the Ptolemaic names in nearly every case; this is also shown in the Latin translations given below.
H represents Westcott and Hort's Neutral and Alexandrian texts between which von Soden does not distinguish.
In Alexandrian poetry Eros is at one time the powerful god who conquers all, at another the elfish god of love.
Its text is Western, with a large admixture of Alexandrian readings.
This affair brought not the least opprobrium, not only upon Cyril, but also upon the whole Alexandrian church.
The Alexandrian presbyter Arius had in 318 accused his bishop Alexander of heresy.
He applied Alexandrian trigonometry to estimate the distances and sizes of the sun and moon, and also postulated a heliocentric universe.
After the time of Ptolemy no advance in knowledge concerning the geography of south-eastern Asia was made until Cosmas Indicopleustes, a monk and an Alexandrian Greek, wrote from personal knowledge between A.D.
And yet the fact that these reappear in the Physiologus would not suffice to stamp the work as a series of extracts from Alexandrian writings, as parallels of the same kind can be adduced 1 Origen, Sel.
The idea of such transmutation probably arose among the Alexandrian Greeks in the early centuries of the Christian era; thence it passed to the Arabs, by whom it was transmitted to western Europe, and its realization was a leading aim of chemical workers down to the time of Paracelsus and even later.
The celestial globe of Hipparchus still existed in the Alexandrian library in the time of Ptolemy, who himself refers to globes in his Almagest, as also in the Geography.
During the session of the council for the union of the Greek and Latin churches at Florence in 1 439, Cosimo had made acquaintance with Gemistos Plethon, the Neo-Platonic sage of Mistra, whose discourses upon Plato and the Alexandrian mystics so fascinated the learned society of Florence that they named him the second Plato.
As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.
Thinkers chose their doctrines from many sources - from the venerated teaching of Aristotle and Plato, from that of the Pythagoreans and of the Stoics, from the old Greek mythology, and from the Jewish and other Oriental systems. Yet it must be observed that Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, and the other systems which are grouped under the name Alexandrian, were not truly eclectic, consisting, as they did, not of a mere syncretism of Greek and Oriental thought, but of a mutual modification of the two.
The doctrines of Hippocrates, though lightly thought of by the Erasistrateans, still were no doubt very widely accepted, but the practice of the Hippocratic school had been greatly improved in almost every department - surgery and obstetrics being probably those in which the Alexandrian practitioners could compare most favourably with those of modern times.
This is strong evidence for the view that the archetype of B came from Alexandria or the neighbourhood, and was older than the time of Athanasius, but it scarcely proves that B itself is Alexandrian, for the order of epistles which it gives is also that adopted by the council of Laodicea in A.D.
BÃƒ¶ckh decides that the "Alexandrian drachma" was 6/5ths of the Solonic 67, or = 80.5, and shows that it was not Ptolemaic, or Rhodian, or Aeginetan, being distinguished from these in inscriptions (2).
Under Ammonius Plotinus became imbued with the eclectic spirit of the Alexandrian school.
S. ruscifolia is 2 feet or more high, of dark lustrous green, flowers milk-white, fragrant, and vieing with the Alexandrian Laurel for its utility in the cut state.
R. racemosus (The Alexandrian Laurel) - An elegant shrub with glossy dark green leaves, its stems valuable for cutting in winter.
As to the library of Peisistratus, we have no good evidence; it may perhaps be a fiction of an Alexandrian writer.