Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
Lessing' in 1773, which purports to have been sent by Archimedes to the mathematicians at Alexandria in a letter to Eratosthenes.
Philo of Alexandria should also be mentioned.
In Rome and Alexandria, and even in Jerusalem, Holy Week was included in Lent and the whole fast lasted but six weeks, Saturdays, however, not being exempt.
He is said to have been a native of Alexandria and by birth a Jew.
In consequence of the occupants of the thrones of Constantinople and Alexandria falling successively into opposite heresies, the question arose how " patriarchs " were to be judged.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
After the division of the Roman empire, Constantinople became the last refuge of learning, arts and taste; while Alexandria continued to be the emporium whence were imported the commodities of the East.
Proceeding to Alexandria as assistant to the British consul-general there, he devoted himself to Arabic and its various dialects, and made himself master of Eastern manners and usages.
him a priest of Alexandria called Dioscorus, who died a month after his election, and thus left the position open for him.
178), they were for a time very troublesome, as wreckers and pirates, to the reopened commerce between Egypt and the East, till they were chastised by the Greek sovereigns of Alexandria.
The ancient Roman city Naissus was mentioned as an important place by Ptolemy of Alexandria.
In 1832 Ferdinand de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria.
Theodoret's chief importance is as a dogmatic theologian, it having fallen to his lot to take part in the Nestorian controversy and to be the most considerable opponent of the views of Cyril and Dioscurus of Alexandria.
In that year Isaac Luria was living in Cairo and trading as a spice merchant with his headquarters in Alexandria.
Thus Athanasius writes (ad Afros vi.): "We have the testimony of fathers (the two Dionysii, bishops of Alexandria and Rome, who wrote in the previous century) for the use of the word oµoouatos."
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
But in Egypt about the same time (180-210), Clement of Alexandria in his Pedagogus (ii.
- After the death of Alexander Palestine fell in the end to Ptolemy (301 B.C.) and remained an Egyptian province until 198 B.C. For a century the Jews in Palestine and in Alexandria had no history - or none that Josephus knew.
At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
In Jerusalem and in the country, in Alexandria, Egypt and Cyprus, the Jews were prosperous (Jos.
Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
So we learn something of the Palestinian Jews and more of the Jewish community in Alexandria.
The people of Alexandria seized the opportunity for an attack upon the Jews.
Agrippa, who had hurried from Alexandria, entered Jerusalem with the governor's emissary.
The correct date of the Easter festival was to be calculated at Alexandria, the home of astronomical science, and the bishop of that see was to announce it yearly to the churches under his jurisdiction, and also to the occupant of the Roman see, by whom it was to be communicated to the Western churches.
Alexander II., entering Alexandria under Roman patronage, married, and within twenty days assassinated, his elderly cousin and stepmother.
His daughter Berenice meanwhile reigned in Alexandria, a husband being found for her in the Pontic prince Archelaus.
Early in the next century the name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in honour of Alexander's memory.
He was formerly identified with an Egyptian priest who, after the destruction of the pagan temple at Alexandria (389), fled to Constantinople, where he became the tutor of the ecclesiastical historian Socrates.
He first settled in Egypt, hearing the lectures of Didymus, the Origenistic head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, and also cultivating friendly relations with Macarius the elder and other ascetics in the desert.
At the instigation of Theophilus of Alexandria, Anastasius (pope 398-402) summoned Rufinus from Aquileia to Rome to vindicate his orthodoxy; but he excused himself from a personal attendance in a written Apologia pro fide sua.
DIOPHANTUS, of Alexandria, Greek algebraist, probably flourished about the middle of the 3rd century.
On the other hand he is quoted by Theon of Alexandria (who observed an eclipse at Alexandria in A.D.
Heath, Diophantos of Alexandria: A Study in the History of Greek Algebra (Cambridge, 1885).
When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria,Domitian escaped with difficulty from the temple of the Capitol, which had been set on fire by the Vitellians, and remained in hiding till his father's party proved victorious.
He failed to take Alexandria, where the people set up the younger brother of Philometor, Ptolemy Eurgetes, as king, but he left Philometor as his ally installed at Memphis.
Origen was born, perhaps at Alexandria, of Christian parents in the year 185 or 186.
Alexandria had been, since the days of the Ptolemies, a centre for the interchange of ideas between East and West - between Egypt, Syria, Greece and Italy; and, as it had furnished Judaism with an Hellenic philosophy, so it also brought about the alliance of Christianity with Greek philosophy.
Asia Minor and the West developed the strict ecclesiastical forms by means of which the church closed her lines against heathenism, and especially against heresy; in Alexandria Christian ideas were handled in a free and speculative fashion and worked out with the help of Greek philosophy.
In this manner he laboured at Alexandria for twenty-eight years (till 231-232).
In the year 21 6 - the time when the imperial executioners were ravaging Alexandria - we find Origen in Palestine.
In Alexandria, however, this custom had been given up, and Demetrius took occasion to express his disapproval and recall Origen to Alexandria.
In these circumstances Origen thought it best voluntarily to retire from Alexandria (231-232).
He settled in Caesarea, and very shortly he had a flourishing school there, whose reputation rivalled that of Alexandria.
This distinction was already current in the catechetical school of Alexandria, but Origen gave it its boldest expression, and justified it on the ground of the incapacity of the Christian masses to grasp the deeper sense of Scripture, or unravel the difficulties of exegesis.
Dionysius of Alexandria; compare his judicious verdict on the Apocalypse.
Eratosthenes of Alexandria >>
The publication of the Arabic text of the synaxarium of the Church of Alexandria was started simultaneously by J.
The exterior facade is enriched with marble columns brought from Alexandria and other cities of the East, and bearing in many cases incised graffiti.
In Ethiopia, too, there were Catholici with less extensive powers, subject to the patriarch of Alexandria.
one by the Red Sea, Egypt and Alexandria, the other from the Persian $Gulf through the Syro-Arabian desert.
His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.
Wahab-allath(5th year)begins to issue coins at Alexandria without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title; and Zenobia's coins bear the same.
After the conquest of Alexander the city quickly lost its supremacy to his new foundation, and although it remained the greatest native centre, its population was less than that of Alexandria.
807) it was the second city of Egypt, inferior only to Alexandria, and with a mixed population like the latter.
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS (2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.), physician and philosopher, lived at Alexandria and at Athens.
In the autumn of 1365 he sacked Alexandria; in 1367 he ravaged the coast of Syria, and inflicted serious damages on the sultan of Egypt.
After a short stay at Alexandria he took an excursion up the Nile, during which he lost his favourite Antinous.
This establishment near Alexandria was, as it were, the Grande Chartreuse of their order.
The community at Alexandria lived in mean and scattered houses, near enough to afford protection, without depriving the members of the solitude which they prized.
When the other branches and the Alexandria canal silted up, Rosetta prospered like its sister port of Damietta on the eastern branch; the main trade of the overland route to India passed through it until Mehemet Ali cut a new canal joining Alexandria to the Nile.
A railway joins it to Alexandria.
But there is some evidence that, in accordance with the strong and constant tradition among the alchemists, the idea of transmutation did originate in Egypt with the Greeks of Alexandria.
Later, however, as in the Commentary on this work written by Synesius to Dioscorus, priest of Serapis at Alexandria, which probably dates from the end of the 4th century, a changed attitude becomes apparent; the more practical parts of the receipts are obscured or omitted, and the processes for preparing alloys and colouring metals, described in the older treatise, are by a mystical interpretation represented as resulting in real transmutation.
The descent of alchemistical doctrine can thus be traced with fair continuity for a thousand years, from the Greeks of Alexandria down to the time when Latin alchemy was firmly established in the West, and began to be written of by historical authors like Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon and Arnoldus Villanovanus in the 13th century.
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
His large estates and high social standing, together with his personal ability, gave Mason great influence among the Virginia planters, and he became identified with many enterprises, such as the organization of the Ohio Company and the founding of Alexandria (1749).
The title "To the Ephesians" is found in the Muratorian canon, in Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, as well as in all the earliest MSS.
It purports to be by Paul, and was held to be his by Marcion and in the Muratorian canon, and by Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, all writing at the end of the 2nd century.
The synod of Alexandria sent deputies to attempt an arrangement between the two anti-Arian Churches; but before they arrived Paulinus had been consecrated bishop by Lucifer of Calaris, and when Meletiusfree to return in consequence of the emperor Julian's contemptuous policy - reached the city, he found himself one of three rival bishops.
One of these routes was by sea to south-west Arabia (Yemen), and thence up the Red Sea to Alexandria.
Between Yemen and India the traffic till Roman times was mainly in the hands of Arabians or Indians; between Alexandria and Yemen it was carried by Greeks (Strabo ii.
That there might also be a waterway between Alexandria and the Red Sea, they cut a canal between the Delta and the northern Arsinoe.
It was Alexandria into which this stream of traffic poured and made it the commercial metropolis of the world.
We hear of direct diplomatic intercourse between the courts of Alexandria and Pataliputra, i.e.
As to Macedonia, whatever may have been the constitution of the court, it is implied that it offered in its externals a sober plainness in comparison with the vain display and ceremonious frivolities of Antioch and Alexandria (Polyb.
At Alexandria the state cult of him seems to have been instituted by the second Ptolemy, when his body was laid in the Sema (Otto, Priester u.
Alexandria by the second Ptolemy for his father soon after the latter's death in 283/2, in which, some time after, 279/8, he associated his mother Berenice also, the two being worshipped together as Owl QwTiIp€S (Theoc. xvii.
It was upon a map based upon such a source that Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) measured the distance between Syene and Alexandria which he required for his determination of the length of a degree.
Ptolemy, who had access to the treasures of the famous library of Alexandria was able, no doubt, to utilize these cadastral plans when compiling his geography.
It should be noted that he places Syene only two degrees to the east of Alexandria instead of three degrees, the actual meridian distance between the two places; a difference which would result from an error of only 7° is the orientation of the map used by Ptolemy.
Apollonius of Rhodes who succeeded Eratosthenes as chief librarian at Alexandria (196 B.C.) reports in his Argonautica (iv.
keeper of the famous library of Alexandria in 247 B.C., and died in that city in 195 B.C. He won fame as having been the first to determine the size of the earth by a scientific method.
Having determined the difference of latitude between Alexandria and Syene which he erroneously believed to lie on the same meridian, and obtained the distance of those places from each other from the surveys made by Egyptian geometers, he concluded that a degree of the meridan measured 700 stadia.'
Across it were drawn seven parallels, running through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria, Rhodes, Lysimachia on the Hellespont, the mouth of the Borysthenes and Thule, and these were crossed at right angles by seven meridians, drawn at irregular intervals, and passing through the Pillars of Hercules, Carthage, Alexandria, Thapsacus on the Euphrates, the Caspian gates, the mouth of the Indus and that of the Ganges.
Hero of Alexandria (284-221 B.C.), the ingenious inventor of " Hero's Fountain," is believed to have possessed a similar apparatus.
The Periegesis of Dionysius of Alexandria is a popular description of the world in hexameters, of no particular scientific value (c. A.D.
This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5° of latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy.
Dionysius of Alexandria had already referred a Messianic prediction of the Old Testament to the emperor Gallienus.
They were very conservative of ancient traditions in general, and hence chiliasm survived amongst them to a later date than in Alexandria or Constantinople.
Throughout the central part of Alexandria the streets are paved with blocks of lava and lighted by electricity.
"Pompey's Pillar," which stands on the highest spot in Alexandria, is nearly 99 ft.
r Alexandria is linked by a network of railway and telegraph lines to the other towns of Egypt, and there is a trunk telephone line to Cairo.
In its social life Alexandria is the most progressive and occidental of all the cities of North Africa, with the possible exception of Algiers.
- The Greek Alexandria was divided into three regions: (1) the Jews' quarter, forming the north-east portion of the city; (2) Rhacotis, on the west, occupied chiefly by Egyptians; (3) Brucheum, the Royal or Greek quarter, forming the most magnificent portion of the city.
Alexandria consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a mole nearly a mile long and called the Heptastadium.
In the Augustan age the population of Alexandria was estimated at 300,000 free folk, in addition to an immense number of slaves.
- Founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Greek centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Macedonia and the rich Nile Valley.
Nominally a free Greek city, Alexandria retained its senate to Roman times; and indeed the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus, after temporary abolition by Augustus.
Alexandria seems from this time to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome.
Notwithstanding this terrible disaster, Alexandria soon recovered its former splendour, and for some time longer was esteemed the first city of the world after Rome.
As native influences, however, began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt; and, losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century A.D., it declined fast in population and splendour.
It is highly improbable that many of the 700,000 volumes collected by the Ptolemies remained at the time of the Arab conquest, when the various calamities of Alexandria from the time of Caesar to that of Diocletian are considered, together with the disgraceful pillage of the library in A.D.
The story of Abulfaragius runs as follows: John the Grammarian, a famous Peripatetic philosopher, being in Alexandria at the time of its capture, and in high favour with `Amr, begged that he would give him the royal library.
Shortly after its capture Alexandria again fell into the hands of the Greeks, who took advantage of 'Amr's absence with the greater portion of his army.
The Egyptians, by whom `Amr was greatly beloved, were so much dissatisfied by this act, and even showed such a tendency to revolt, that the Greek emperor determined to make an effort to reduce Alexandria.
Alexandria now rapidly declined in importance.
[Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's Egyptian expedition of 1798.
The battle of Alexandria, fought on the 21st of March of that year, between the French army under General Menou and the British expeditionary corps under Sir Ralph Abercromby, took place near the ruins of Nicopolis, on the narrow spit of land between the sea and Lake Aboukir, along which the British of troops had advanced towards Alexandria after the actions of Aboukir on the 8th and Mandora on the 13th.
The British position on the night of the 10th extended across the isthmus, the right resting upon the ruins of Nicopolis and the sea, the left on the lake of Aboukir and the Alexandria canal.
The British subsequently advanced upon Alexandria, which surrendered on the 31st of August.
A.).] During the anarchy which accompanied Ottoman rule in Egypt from first to last, Alexandria sank to a small town of about 4000 inhabitants; and it owed its modern renascence solely to Mehemet Ali, who wanted a deep port and naval station for his viceregal domain.
Alexandria was connected with Cairo by railway in 1856.
Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.
Fate, however, again brought Alexandria to the front.
As Arabi did not submit, a British military expedition landed at Alexandria on the 10th of August, the sequel being the British occupation of the whole country, the history of which is set forth under Egypt.
Since the restoration of tranquillity and the establishment of sound political and economic conditions in the Nile valley, Alexandria has greatly expanded.
- Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria.
But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria.
The wealth underground is doubtless immense; but, despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar."
Benson, Report on Prospects of Research in Alexandria (Egypt Expl.Fund Archaeological Report, 1894-1895); Bulletin de la Societe Archiologique d'Alexandrie(1898 foll.); O.
" Alexandria"; U.
Kiepert, Zur Topographie des alten Alexandria (1872).
Alexandria, Indiana >>
Next came the charta amphitheatrica, named after the principal place of its manufacture, the amphitheatre of Alexandria, of 9 digiti or 62 in.
The Taeniotica, named apparently from the place of its manufacture, a tongue of land (racvial near Alexandria, was sold by weight, and was of uncertain width, perhaps from 4s to 5 in.
Passing to Egypt, a small Christian catacomb at Alexandria is described and figured by de Rossi.'
But the most extensive catacombs at Alexandria are those of Egypto-Greek origin, from the largest of which, according to Strabo (lib.
- Plan of Catacomb at Alexandria.
- Section of a Gallery in Catacomb at Alexandria.
For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, L'Ancienne Alexandrie, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article mentioned in the text.
Siegfried, Philo von Alexandria (1875); J.
This line is now abandoned in favour of the railway which follows the canal from Suez to Ismailia, and then ascends the Wadi Tumilat to Zagazig, whence branches diverge to Cairo and Alexandria.
of the Red river around Alexandria as a centre.
But the followers of Cyril of Alexandria, and with them those of Eutyches, saw in the Chalcedon decree of two natures only another form of the "Nestorian" duality of persons in Christ, and rose everywhere in opposition.
In Alexandria an insurrection broke out over the supersession of the patriarch Dioscurus by the orthodox Proterius, who was killed during the struggle.
A law student who had been converted from paganism, he became a monophysite monk at Alexandria.
Severus laid such stress on the human infirmities of Christ as proving that His body was like ours, created and corruptible (09ap-rov) that his opponents dubbed him and his followers Phthartolatrae - worshippers of the corruptible.2 The school of Themistius of Alexandria extended the argument to Christ's human soul, which they said was, like ours, limited in knowledge.
An extreme school, the Aktistetae or Gaianists (Gaianus was bishop of Alexandria c. 550) even held that from the moment the Logos assumed the body the latter was untreated, the human being transmuted into the divine nature; and the Adiaphorites went still further; denying, like Stephen Barsudaili, an Edessan abbot, all distinction of essence not even between the manhood and the Godhead in Christ, but between the divine and the human, and asserting that "all creatures are of the same essence with the Creator."
This period lasted' from the time of Thales, c. 600 B.C., to the capture of Alexandria by the Mahommedans, A.D.
For the subsequent operations in Egypt, which ended in its evacuation by the French after the British victory at Alexandria, see Egypt: History.
sellors were sold to Russia, had sailed to Alexandria and handed over the fleet to Mehemet Ali.
(For the subsequent history of the Egyptian question see Egypt: History.) The revolt of Arabi Pasha in 1881 broke up the Anglo-French condominium in Egypt and led to outrages at Alexandria followed by a bombardment on the 11th of July 1882.
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (Clemens Alexandrinus), Greek Father of the Church.
6), and a modern writer imagined that he reconciled this discordance by the supposition that he was born at Athens, but lived at Alexandria.
He attained the position of presbyter in the church of Alexandria (Eus.
How long he continued in Alexandria, and when and where he died, are all matters of pure conjecture.
3) would render it likely that Clement left Alexandria on that occasion.
Some have conjectured that he returned to Alexandria, but there is not the shadow of evidence for such conjecture.
Admiral de Rigny left for a cruise in the Levant, and Sir Edward Codrington, hearing that an Egyptian armament was on its way from Alexandria, and believing that it was bound for Hydra, steered for that island, which he reached on the 3rd of September, but on the 12th of September found the Egyptians at anchor with a Turkish squadron at Navarino.
It was indeed only a renewal, under new conditions, of the conflict between two types of thought, the rational and the mystical, the school of Antioch and that of Alexandria.
He died at Alexandria on the 12th of May 1873.
Among the early Christians, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Synesius were eclectics in philosophy.
According to Suidas, he practised in Alexandria and subsequently in Rome.
The genuineness and inspiration of Enoch were believed in by the writer of the Ep. of Barnabas, Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria.
Thus the Gelasian Decree includes the works of Eusebius, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, under this designation.
Clement of Alexandria quotes it several times as a genuine record of Peter's teaching.
He is named an apostle and his work was reckoned as canonical by Clement of Alexandria (Strom.
Marcionites, named by Clement of Alexandria Antitactae (revolters against the Demiurge) held the Old Testament economy to be throughout tainted by its source; but they are not accused of licentiousness.
St Jerome (Ep. 1 4 6) tells us that as late as the middle of the 3rd century the presbyters of Alexandria, when the see was vacant, used to elect one of their own number and without any further ordination set him in the episcopal office.
The suburbs comprise the following distinct municipalities, Alexandria, with a population in 1901 of 9341; Annandale, 8 349; Ashfield, 14,329; Balmain, 30,076; Bexley, 3079; Botany, 33 8 3; North Botany, 3772; Burwood, 7521; Camperdown, 7931 Canterbury, 4226; Concord, 2818;2818; Darlington, 3784; Drummoyne, 4244; Enfield, 2 4 97;97; Erskineville, 6059; Glebe, 19,220;, Hunter's Hill, 4232; Hurstville, 4019; Kogarah, 3892; Lane Cove, 1918; Leichhardt, 17,454; Manly, 5035; Marrickville, 18, 775; Eastwood, 713; Mosman, 5691; Newtown, 22,598;22,598; North Sydney, 22,040; Paddington, 21,984; Petersham, 15,307; Randwick, 9753; Redfern, 24,2,9; Rockdale, 7857; Ryde, 3222; St Peter's, 5906; Vaucluse, 1152; Waterloo, 9609;9609; Waverley, 12,342; Willoughby, 6004; Woollahra, 12,351.
There is more than one meaning of Alexandria discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
To these may be added the rhapsody 6 on the taking of " Szabacs " (1476); the Katalin-Legenda, a metrical " Legend of St Catherine of Alexandria," extending to over 4000 lines: and the Fedddenek (Upbraiding Song), by Francis Apathi.
For many centuries algebra was confined almost entirely to the solution of equations; one of the most important steps being the enunciation by Diophantus of Alexandria of the laws governing the use of the minus sign.
at Heliopolis, were taken by Augustus to adorn the Caesareum at Alexandria: one of these, "Cleopatra's Needle," was removed in 1877 to London, the other in 1879 to New York.
In consequence of the breaking away of the lower part of "Cleopatra's Needles" when removed to Alexandria and re-erected, the Roman engineers supported the angles on bronze crabs, one of which with three reproductions now supports the angles of the obelisk on the Thames Embankment.
When his prophecy was fulfilled he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria.
It is therefore reasonable to hold that the Hebrew Psalter was completed and recognized as an authoritative collection long enough before 130 B.C. to allow of its passing to the Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria.
Western Syria, on the contrary, had partaken with Alexandria in the reaction from Nestorianism which finally crystallized in the Monophysite doctrine, that spread so widely through Egypt and Western Asia towards the end of the 5th century.
2 A Syriac account of the removal of his remains from Alexandria, where he died in 578, to his old monastery of Pesilta has been edited by Kugener in the Bibliotheque hagiographique orientale, pp. 1-26 (Paris, 1902).
c. 550-570) who translated into Syriac some of the writings of Cyril, and Peter of Callinicus, Jacobite patriarch of Antioch 578-591, who wrote a huge controversial treatise in 4 books, each of 25 chapters, against Damian, patriarch of Alexandria, as well as other less important works.
Damasus, to whom they appealed for help, was unable to be of much service to them, the more so because that episcopal group, viewed askance by St Athanasius and his successor Peter, was incessantly combated at the papal court by the inveterate hatred of Alexandria.
The fruit of Aristotle's teaching and example was seen later on in the schools of Alexandria.
Pergamum was early distinguished for its medical school; but in this as in other respects its reputation was ultimately effaced by the more brilliant fame of Alexandria.
Two eminent names stand in the first rank as leaders of the two earliest schools of medicine which arose in Alexandria, Herophilus and Erasistratus.
Little is known of his life, .except that he spent some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator at Antioch before coming to Alexandria, and that he cultivated anatomy late in life, after he had taken up his abode in the latter city.
The two schools composed of the followers of Herophilus and Erasistratus respectively long divided between them the medical world of Alexandria.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
It lived and flourished far beyond this time, when transplanted to Rome, not less than in its native Alexandria, and appears to be recognizable even up to the beginning of the middle ages.
He was a Greek of Pergamum, educated in Alexandria, and long resident in Byzantium.
Clement of Alexandria expresses this in his well-known words: "The true altar of incense is the just soul, and the perfume from it is holy prayer."
Cleopatra's Needle, an ancient Egyptian monument, was presented to the government by Mehemet Ali in 1819, brought from Alexandria in 1878, and erected on the Victoria embankment on a pedestal of grey granite.
HERO OF ALEXANDRIA, Greek geometer and writer on mechanical and physical subjects, probably flourished in the second half of the 1st century.
Alexander, after building an Alexandria at its foot (probably at Hupian near Charikar), crossed into Bactria, first reaching Drapsaca, or Adrapsa.
He arrived before Alexandria in time for the final operations.
It was Baird's misfortune that he was junior by a few days both to Moore and to Lord Cavan, under whom he had served at Alexandria, and thus never had an opportunity of a chief command in the field.
Roman technique was to be found in Byzantium and Alexandria, in Syria, in Spain, in Germany, France and Britain.
The process of embedding gold and silver leaf between two layers of glass originated as early as the 1st century, probably in Alexandria.
The craft survived and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus.
North of the road between the two last places were Sision-Flaviopolis (Sis), Anazarbus (Anazarba) and Hierapolis-Kastabala (Budrum); and on the coast were Soli-Pompeiopolis, Mallus (Kara-tash), Aegae (Ayash), Issus, Baiae (Piyas) and Alexandria ad Issum (Alexandretta).
In the Greek school at Alexandria, which flourished under the auspices of the Ptolemies, the first attempts were made at the construction of hydraulic machinery, and about 120 B.C. the fountain of compression, the siphon, and the forcing-pump were invented by Ctesibius and Hero.
I) was commented on by Clement of Alexandria.
20), Clement of Alexandria (Strom.
Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote it as Scripture, though in Africa it was not held in such high consideration, as Tertullian speaks slightingly of it.
PTOLEMAEUS, of Alexandria, surnamed Chennus, Greek grammarian during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian.
AENESIDEMUS, Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century B.C. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third sceptical school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon.
In the latter year appeared his edition of Clement of Alexandria.
Alex.), carries him, plausibly enough, to Alexandria (Clem.
It was at Alexandria that its authority was greatest.
"That Alexandria, the place of its earliest reception, was also the place of its birth, is borne out by the internal evidence of style and interpretation, which is Alexandrian throughout" (Lightfoot).
The picture, too, which it gives of the danger lest the Christianity of its readers should be unduly Judaic in feeling and practice, suits well the experiences of a writer living in Alexandria, where Judaism was immensely strong.
These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria' rather than Palestine.
This being so, the epistle was probably written, not to Alexandria, but rather by a "teacher" of the Alexandrine Church to some body of Christians in Lower Egypt among whom he had recently been visiting.
431 at the council of Ephesus, where, as a zealous adherent of Cyril of Alexandria, he vehemently opposed the doctrine of the Nestorians.
As his explanations were not considered satisfactory, the council deposed him from his priestly office and excommunicated him; but in 449, at a council held in Ephesus convened by Dioscurus of Alexandria and overawed by the presence of a large number of Egyptian monks, not only was Eutyches reinstated in his office, but Eusebius, Domnus and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, and the Alexandrine dcctrine of the "one nature" received the sanction of the church.
This trade, however, was lost during this period, as the Ptolemies established an overland route from India to Alexandria.
Tradition tells that a few years before his death he did actually send letters to the emperor Heraclius, to the negus of Abyssinia, the king of Persia, and Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, the " Mukaukis " of Egypt, summoning them to accept Islam and threatening them with punishment in case of refusal.
In 640 `Amr-ibn-el-Ass (Amr ibn al-`As) invaded Egypt and the following year took Alexandria and founded Fostat (which later became Cairo).
In 652 Abu Sari) with a fleet from Egypt won a naval battle over the Byzantine fleet near Alexandria.
The 400,000 Syrian Christians ("Christians of St Thomas," see Thomas, St) who live in Malabar no doubt owe their origin to Nestorian missionaries, the stories of the evangelization of India by the Apostles Thomas and Bartholomew having no real historical foundation, and the Indian activity of Pantaenus of Alexandria having proved fruitless, in whatever part of India it may have been exercised.
Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria about 930, included "Nubi" among the six kinds of writing which he mentions as current among the Hamitic peoples, and "Nubi" also appears among a list of six writings mentioned in an ancient manuscript now in the Berlin Museum.
Amathus still flourished and produced a distinguished patriarch of Alexandria (Johannes Eleemon), as late as 606-616, and a ruined Byzantine church marks the site; but it was already almost deserted when Richard Coeur de Lion won Cyprus by a victory there over Isaac Comnenus in 1191.
Clement of Alexandria (d.
Of two of these saints, St Catherine of Alexandria, the St Catherine par excellence, and St Catherine of Siena, something st more must be said.
The Maronite scholar, Joseph Simon virgin Assemani (1687-1768), first identified her with the royal and wealthy lady of Alexandria (Eusebius, Hist.
That St Catherine actually existed there is, indeed, no evidence to disprove; and it is possible that some of the elements in her legend are due to confusion with the story of Hypatia, the neo-platonic philosopher of Alexandria, who was done to death by a Christian mob.
Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psammetichus III., Cambyses and Darius.
8) of Clement of Alexandria probably belongs.
The first is Claudius Claudianus (c. 400), a native of Alexandria and the court poet of the emperor Honorius and his minister Stilicho.
After six months Gallus was obliged to return to Alexandria, having lost the greater part of his force.
Caesar, on his return from Alexandria, seeing the expediency of removing Dolabella from Rome, took him as one of his generals in the expedition to Africa and Spain.
Its first recorded use is by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who applied it to his predecessor Alexander as a mark of respect.
The final goal of Greek philosophy was only reached when the great thinkers of the early Christian Church, who had been trained in the schools of Alexandria and Athens, used its modes of thought in their analysis of the Christian idea of God.
Creed of Arius (Alexandria) .
It was written in 1640 in Russian, was translated into Greek, and approved by the council of Jassy and the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
From Palestine Jerome and his companions went to Egypt, remaining some time in Alexandria, and they visited the convents of the Nitrian desert.
Jerome's mind was evidently full of anxiety about his translation of the Old Testament, for we find him in his letters recording the conversations he had with learned men about disputed readings and doubtful renderings; the blind Didymus of Alexandria, whom he heard interpreting Hosea, appears to have been most useful.
According to Clement of Alexandria this was written prophetically to apply to the Carpocratians, an antinomian Gnostic sect of c. 150; but hyper-Paulinists had given occasion to similar complaints already in Rev. ii.
The history of the reception of the epistle into church canons is similar to that of James, beginning with a quotation of it as the work of Jude by Clement of Alexandria (Paed.
`Amr pursued the Greeks to Alexandria, but finding that it was impossible to take the place by storm, he contented himself with blockading it with the greater part of his army, and reducing the Delta to submission with the rest.
At the end of twelve months Alexandria sued for peace, and a treaty was signed on the 8th of November 641.
The chronological computation of Julius Africanus was adopted by the Christians of Alexandria, who accordingly reckoned 5500 years from the creation of Adam to the birth of Christ.
There are, consequently, two distinct eras of Alexandria, the one being used before and the other after the accession of Diocletian.
Hence the era of Antioch differed from the original era of Alexandria by ten years; but after the alteration of the latter at the accession of Diocletian, the two eras coincided.
In reckoning from the Incarnation, however, there is a difference of seven years, that epoch being placed, in the reformed era of Alexandria, seven years later than in the mundane era of Antioch or in the Christian era.
The Greeks of Alexandria formerly employed the era of Nabonassar, with a year of 365 days; but soon after the reformation of the calendar of Julius Caesar, they adopted, like other Roman provincials, the Julian intercalation.
The ancient Egyptian year consisted of 365 days; but after the introduction of the Julian calendar, the astronomers of Alexandria adopted an intercalary year, and added six additional days instead of five to the end of the last month of every fourth year.
At Alexandria, on the other hand, many Jews were killed.
In Carthage its currency is proven by the references of Tertullian, and the phraseology of the Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas (§§ 4, 12); in Alexandria by the citations of Clement (Paed.
Dionysius of Alexandria (A.D.
The rest of the patristic evidence from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Eusebius and Jerome will be found in Swete's Apocalypse of St John 2, xcix.
The validity of such an hypothesis was attacked as early as the 4th century by Dionysius of Alexandria in the fragment of his treatise irEpi 7ray yeAuA;v, in Eusebius, H.E.
He graduated as valedictorian in 1808 at the college of New Jersey (Princeton); studied theology under the Rev. Walter Addison of Maryland, and in Princeton; was ordained deacon in 1811 and priest in 1814; and preached both in the Stone Chapel, Millwood, and in Christ Church, Alexandria, for some time.
He became assistant bishop of Virginia in 1829; was pastor of Christ Church, Norfolk, in 1834-1836; in 1841 became bishop of Virginia; and in1842-1862was president of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia, near Alexandria, delivering an annual course of lectures on pastoral theology.
He had been prominent in the work of the Education Society, which was organized in 1818 to advance funds to needy students for the ministry of the American Episcopal Church, and in the establishment of the Theological Seminary near Alexandria, as he was afterwards in the work of the American Tract Society, and the Bible Society.
In 1799 Thomas Parker, of Alexandria, Virginia, laid out a village (which was named Alexandria) below the mouth of the Scioto, but as the ground was frequently flooded the village did not thrive, and about 1810 the inhabitants removed to Portsmouth.
The idea that some extraneous substance is essential to the process is of ancient date; Clement of Alexandria (c. 3rd century A.D.) held that some "air" was necessary, and the same view was accepted during the middle ages, when it had been also found that the products of combustion weighed more than the original combustible, a fact which pointed to the conclusion that some substance had combined with the combustible during the process.
ALEXANDRIA, a city and a port of entry of Alexandria county, Virginia, U.S.A., on the W.
Alexandria is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Southern and the Washington Southern railways; by the Washington, Alexandria & Mount Vernon electric railway; and by several lines of river and coasting steamboats.
of Alexandria is the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia, opened here in 1823 and chartered in 1854; in 1906-1907 the Seminary had a faculty of 7 and 46 students.
Alexandria is a distributing and jobbing centre for the north-east counties of Virginia.
Alexandria, first known as Belhaven, was named in honour of John Alexander, who in the last quarter of the 17th century had bought the land on which the city now stands from Robert Howison; the first settlement here was made in 1695.
Alexandria was laid out in 1749 and was incorporated in 1779.
From 1790 until 1846 Alexandria county was a part of the District of Columbia; at present the city, although within the limits of Alexandria county, is not administratively a part of it.
For some time Alexandria seemed destined to become an important commercial centre, but the rise of Washington created a rival that soon outstripped it, and since the Civil War the city's growth has been comparatively slight.
At Alexandria in 1 755 General Edward Braddock organized his fatal expedition against Fort Duquesne, and here, in April of the same year, the governors of Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met (in a house still standing) to determine upon concerted action against the French in America.
In 1814 Alexandria was threatened by a British fleet, but bought immunity from attack by paying about $10o,000.
After the erection of the state of West Virginia (1863), and until the close of the war, Alexandria was the seat of what was known as the "Alexandria Government" (see Virginia).
Under this title are generally included certain strongly marked tendencies in literature, science and art, which took their rise in the ancient Egyptian city of Alexandria.
Euergetes (247-222) largely increased the library by seizing on the original editions of the dramatists laid up in the Athenian archives, and by compelling all travellers who arrived in Alexandria to leave a copy of any work they possessed.
If we date its rise from the 4th century B.C., at the time of the fall of Greece and the foundation of the GraecoMacedonian empire, we must look for its final dissolution in the 7th century of the Christian era, at the time of the fall of Alexandria and the rise of the Mahommedan power.
642, when Alexandria was destroyed by the Arabs.
This direction of effort was particularly noticeable under the early Ptolemies, Alexandria.
The loss of active lifer consequent on this gradual dissolution, was much increased when Alexandria fell under Roman sway.
Then the influence of the school was extended over the whole known world, but men of letters began to concentrate at Rome rather than at Alexandria.
A substitute for this originality was found at Alexandria in learned research, extended and multifarious knowledge.
There are still extant three or four varying lists of the seven great dramatists who composed the Pleiad of Alexandria.
The sciences of mathematics, astronomy and medicine were also cultivated with assiduity and success at Alexandria, but they can scarcely be said to have their origin there, or in any strict sense to form a part of the peculiarly Alexandrian literature.
Alexandria continued to be celebrated as a school of mathematics and science long after the Christian era.
- Although it is not possible to divide literatures with absolute rigidity by centuries, and although the intellectual life of Alexandria, particularly as applied to science, long survived the Roman conquest, yet at that period the school, which for some time had been gradually breaking up, seems finally to have succumbed.
The later productions in the field of pure literature bear the stamp of Rome rather than of Alexandria.
The city of Alexandria had gradually become the neutral ground of Europe, Asia and Africa.
Finally this pagan theosophy was driven from Alexandria back to Athens under Plutarch and Proclus, and occupied itself largely in purely historical work based mainly on the attempt to re-organize ancient philosophy in conformity with the system of Plotinus.
Among these the most important were Clement of Alexandria and Origen.
(3 vols., 1840-1844); Simon, Histoire de l'ecole d'Alexandrie (2 vols., 18 4418 45); Vacherot, Histoire critique de l'ecole d'Alexandrie (3 vols., 1846-1851); Kingsley, Alexandria and her Schools (1854); Gfriirer, Philo and die Alexandrinische Theosophie (1835); Dahne, Geschicht.
Alexandria Troas >>
He was born of heathen parents at Tabatha near Gaza about 290; he was sent to Alexandria for his education and there became a convert to Christianity; about 306 he visited St Anthony and became his disciple, embracing the eremitical life.
Undeniably Clement of Alexandria and Origen apply the language of the Greek mysteries to Christian gnosis and life.
But we may discount most such talk in these writers as bellettristic pedantry, copied as a rule from Philo of Alexandria, their literary model.
&Xal3apxr)s, or apaf3apxris), the name of the head magistrate of the Jews in Alexandria under the Ptolemaic and Roman rules.
In 356 he went to Alexandria with Eunomius in order to advocate Arianism, but he was banished by Constantius.
While still a youth (393) he went with his brother Euoptius to Alexandria, where he became an enthusiastic Neoplatonist and disciple of Hypatia.
His marriage took place at Alexandria in 403; in the previous year he had visited Athens.
In 409 or 410 Synesius, whose Christianity had until then been by no means very pronounced, was popularly chosen to be bishop of Ptolemais, and, after long hesitation on personal and doctrinal grounds, he ultimately accepted the office thus thrust upon him, being consecrated by Theophilus at Alexandria.
In 633 he was one of the party of Sophronius of Jerusalem (the chief original opponent of the Monothelites) at the council of Alexandria; and in 645 he was again in Africa, when he held in presence of the governor and a number of bishops the disputation with Pyrrhus, the deposed and banished patriarch of Constantinople, which resulted in the (temporary) conversion of his interlocutor to the Dyothelite view.
Clement of Alexandria or Origen would not call his speculations dogmas.
19) mentions that in Alexandria in his day the bishop alone was in the custom of preaching; but this, he implies, was a very exceptional state of matters, dating only from the time of Arius.
Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air.
In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder.
77)77) describes the joy of the inhabitants in the spring when the fleet of corn vessels from Alexandria was seen approaching, and Statius tells us that the crew of the ship which arrived first made libations to Minerva 1 A mass of pottery debris found in 1875 gave important information as to the local manufacture.
These theorems were discovered by Pappus of Alexandria (c. A.D.
Thomas Blackwell' has collected some Homeric references: a work by Melampus of Alexandria is extant in several versions.
in Alexandria there would be fifty or sixty thousand, but their power in a community was out of all proportion to their mere numbers.
His first recorded act was, after a synod had been held at Rome, to write to Constantius, then in quarters at Arles (353-354), asking that a council might be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius; but his messenger Vincentius of Capua was compelled by the emperor at a conciliabulum held in Arles to subscribe against his will a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria.
When the doctrines of Nestorius were denounced to him, he instructed Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, to follow up the matter.
395-423) six hundred women were engaged in the hospitals of Alexandria.
Jerome vainly sought to bend his brother's will in an interview at Alexandria.
The Balance, obviously indicating the equality of day and night, is first mentioned as the sign of the Libra autumnal equinox by Geminus and Varro, and °b and tained, through Sosigenes of Alexandria, official re Scorpio.
The same day the Egyptian fleet, under Ibrahim Pasha, sailed from Alexandria.
'VALERIUS HARPOCRATION, Greek grammarian of Alexandria.
Matters were soon ripe for foreign intervention, and the notorious Cyril of Alexandria, in whom the antagonism between the Alexandrian and Antiochene schools of theology,' as well as the jealousy between the patriarchate of St Mark and that of Constantinople, found a determined and unscrupulous exponent, did not fail to make use of the opportunity.
In a synod which met in 430, he decided in favour of the epithet 1 At Alexandria the mystic and allegorical tendency prevailed, at Antioch the practical and historical, and these tendencies showed themselves in different methods of study, exegesis and presentation of doctrine.
A few days afterwards (June 26th or 27th) John of Antioch arrived, and efforts were made by both parties to gain his ear; whether inclined or not to the cause of his former co-presbyter, he was naturally excited by the precipitancy with which Cyril had acted, and at a conciliabulum of forty-three bishops held in his lodgings shortly after his arrival he was induced by Candidian, the friend of Nestorius, to depose the bishops of Alexandria and Ephesus on the spot.
There is some evidence that he was summoned to the Council of Chalcedon,' though he could not attend it, and the concluding portion of his book known as The Bazaar of Heraclides not only gives a full account of the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus 449, but knows that Theodosius is dead (July 450) and seems aware of the proceedings of Chalcedon and the flight of Dioscurus the unscrupulous successor of Cyril at Alexandria.
No successor of Chrysostom was likely to receive much good-will from the nephew and successor of Theophilus of Alexandria.
July, 1906) that in spite of notable differences of terminology and form the chronologies of Antioch and Alexandria were in essence the same.
Meanwhile the tendency which gave rise to the metropolitan system resulted in the grouping together of the churches of a number of contiguous provinces under the headship of the bishop of the most important city of the district, as, for instance, Antioch, Ephesus, Alexandria, Rome, Milan, Carthage, Arles.
In canon 6 of the council of Nicaea the jurisdiction of the bishops of Alexandria, Rome and Antioch over a number of provinces is recognized.
To the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria was added at the council of Chalcedon (session 7) the bishop of Jerusalem, the mother church of Christendom, and the bishops thus recognized as possessing supreme jurisdiction were finally known as patriarchs.
In violation of the promise that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria or St Jean d'Acre, on the faith of which he surrendered, Abd-el-Kader and his family were detained in France, first at Toulon, then at Pau, being in November 1848 transferred to the chÃ¢teau of Amboise.
330 Frumentius was made first bishop of Ethiopia by Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria.
In 1633 the Jesuits were expelled and allegiance to Alexandria resumed.
- The study of the Greek classics begins with the school of Alexandria.
He was a teacher in Alexandria (and perhaps also in Rome); and his death, about A.D.
" While the scholars of Alexandria were mainly interested in the verbal criticism of the Greek poets, a wider variety of studies was the characteristic of the school of Pergamum, the literary rival of Alexandria.
From about 168 B.C. the head of the Pergamene school was Crates of Mallus, who (like the Stoics) was an adherent of the principle of " anomaly " in grammar, and was thus opposed to Aristarchus of Alexandria, the champion of " analogy."
In the 5th century we may place Hesychius of Alexandria, the compiler of the most extensive of our ancient Greek lexicons, and Proclus, the author of a chrestomathy, to the extracts from which (as preserved by Photius) we owe almost all our knowledge of the contents of the lost epics of early Greece.
In the same century the study of Plato was represented by Synesius of Cyrene (c. 370-c. 41 3) and by the Neoplatonists of Alexandria and of Athens.
The scholars of the Byzantine age cannot be compared with the great Alexandrians, but they served to maintain the continuity of tradition by which the Greek classics selected by the critics of Alexandria were transmitted to modern Europe.
The troops of General Banks and the war vessels under Admiral Porter moved up the Red river, and on the 16th of March 1864 reached Alexandria.
This version probably arose out of the needs of the Greek speaking Jews of Alexandria in the 3rd century B.C.
Traces of his revision are to be found in the Egyptian MSS., especially the Codex Marchalianus, and in the quotations of Cyril of Alexandria.
This Syriac translation of the Septuagint column of the Hexapla was made by Paul, bishop of Tella, at Alexandria in A.D.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is an epistolary treatise of uncertain date, on the Pauline model, and by a disciple of St Paul or at least a writer strongly influenced by him, though influenced also in no small degree by the Jewish school of Alexandria represented by Philo.
185), who is more precise than Clement of Alexandria, the Gospel was not published until after the death of Peter, which would place its composition between the limits A.D.
The story which Eusebius quotes from Clement of Alexandria (H.E.
Later in the centu r y Dionysius of Alexandria applies some acute criticism to justify the Alexandrian dislike of the Apocalypse.
The two most probable places seem to be Caesarea and Alexandria.
The case for Alexandria depends partly on the orthography of B, which resembles Graeco-Coptic papyri, partly on the order of the Pauline epistles.
appears probable that Cyril Lucar had brought it with him from Alexandria, of which he had formerly been patriarch.
A note by Cyril Lucar states that it was written by Thecla, a noble lady of Egypt, but this is probably merely his interpretation of an Arabic note of the 14th century which states that the MS. was written by Thecla, the martyr, an obviously absurd legend; another Arabic note by Athanasius (probably Athanasius III., patriarch c. 1308) states that it was given to the patriarchate of Alexandria, and a Latin note of a later period dates the presenta tion in 1098.
from the library of the Enaton near Alexandria.
Horner's researches tend to show that the Greek text on which it was based was different from that represented by the Bohairic, and probably was akin to the " Western " text, perhaps of the type used by Clement of Alexandria.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
Barnard's " Clement of Alexandria's Biblical Text " (Texts and Studies, v.
Bezae and in Syr C; (2) the Alexandrine text used by Cyril of Alexandria and found especially in CL 33; and (3) a text which differs from both the above mentioned and is therefore called by WH the Neutral text, found especially in rt B and the quotations of Origen.
WH made it plain that the Alexandrian text was a literary development of the Neutral, but they always maintained that the latter text was not confined to, though chiefly used in Alexandria.
Moreover, Barnard's researches into the Biblical text of Clement of Alexandria show that there is reason to doubt whether even in Alexandria the Neutral text was used in the earliest times.
It would seem as though we could roughly divide the history of the text in Alexandria into three periods.
The earliest is that which is represented by the quotations in Clement, and must have been in use in Alexandria at the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century.
The third stage is WH's Alexandrian, found in the quotations of Cyril of Alexandria and a few MSS.
It thus seems probable that WH's theory must be modified, both as regards the " Western " text, which is seen not to be a single text at all, and as regards the " Neutral " text, which seems to be nothing more than the second stage of the development of the text in Alexandria.
It is also possible to argue, as WH did, on the same side, that the purest form of text was preserved in Alexandria, from which the oldest uncials are directly or indirectly derived, but this argument has been weakened if not finally disposed of by the evidence of Clement of Alexandria.
2]; Clement of Alexandria, Strom.
The traditional Western day for the Christmas festival, 25th December, goes back as far as Hippolytus, loc. cit.; the traditional Eastern day, 6th January, as far as the Basilidian Gnostics (but in their case only as a celebration of the Baptism), mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, loc. cit.
4: Cyril of Alexandria, in so far as his evidence is adverse to the words, appears to be incorporating a passage from the Commentary of Origen, not extant in loc.; and the only writer who perhaps really did omit the words - with the view, no doubt, of reconciling the witness of the fourth Gospel with the then widely spread tradition of the single-year ministry - is Origen himself.
20; Quartodecimans of Asia Minor, who observed the Christian Pascha on the " 14th," no matter on what day of the week it fell; Claudius Apollinaris, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, all three quoted in the Paschal Chronicle; Irenaeus (apparently) Iv.
But in all probability these dates were only one development of those speculations in the region of numbers to which Gnosticism was so prone; and in any case to look for genuine traditions among Egyptian Gnostics, or even in the church of Alexandria, would be to misread the history of Christianity in the 2nd century.
This is not the place to notice the course of Jewish literary activity in Palestine or Alexandria, whether along the more rigid lines of Pharisaic legalism (the development of the canonical " priestly " law), or the popular and less scholastic phases, which recall the earlier apocalyptical tendencies of the Old Testament and were cultivated alike by early Jewish and Christian writers.
Charles (Assumption of Moses, pp. 105 seq.), and it appears that the incident was familiar to Clement of Alexandria, Origen and other early writers.
3 It was believed that the Written Word had an infinite fulness; according to the Midr. Bemidbar Rabbah every word of the Law had seventy different aspects, and Philo of Alexandria held that there are no superfluous words in Scripture.
This probably facilitated the adoption of the term by the Hellenists of Alexandria, for, when Philo distinguishes the prophet from the spurious diviner by saying that the latter applies his own inferences to omens and the like while the true prophet, rapt in ecstasy, speaks nothing of his own, but simply repeatg what is given to him by a revelation in which his reason has no part (ed.
NEOPLATONISM, the name given specially to the last school of pagan philosophy, which grew up mainly among the Greeks of Alexandria from the 3rd century onwards.
Since Neoplatonism originated in Alexandria, where Oriental modes of worship were accessible to every one, and since the Jewish philosophy had also taken its place in the literary circles of Alexandria, we may safely assume that even the earliest of the Neoplatonists possessed 1 The resemblance would probably be still more apparent if we thoroughly understood the development of Christianity at Alexandria in the 2nd century; but unfortunately we have only very meagre fragments to guide us here.
The founder of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria is supposed to have been Ammonius Saccas.
At Alexandria the noble Hypatia taught, to whose memory her impassioned disciple Synesius, afterwards a bishop, reared a splendid monument.
The murder of Hypatia was the death of philosophy in Alexandria, although the school there maintained a lingering existence till the middle of the 6th century.
It was only by identifying itself with the whole history of Greek philosophy, or by figuring as pure Platonism restored, that Neoplatonism could stigmatize the church theology of Alexandria as a plagiarism from itself.
Kritiken (1832); Jean Reville, La Religion a Rome sous les Severes (1886); C. Bigg, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria (1886) and Neoplatonism (1895); Rufus M.
was able to effect a junction with this force and descended into the plain of Thessaly, where at the battle of Pharsalus he was decisively defeated and fled to Egypt, pursued by Caesar, who learnt of his rival's murder on landing at Alexandria.
Very noteworthy references to Gnosticism are also to be found scattered up and down the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria.
A part was also played in this movement by a free theology which arose within the Church, itself a kind of Gnosticism which aimed at holding fast whatever was good in the Gnostic movement, and obtaining its recognition within the limits of the Church (Clement of Alexandria, Origen).
Antiochus lectured also in Rome and Alexandria.
GEORGE OF LAODICEA in Syria, often called "the Cappadocian," from 356 to 361 Arian archbishop of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the 4th century.
After many wanderings, in the course of which he seems to have amassed a considerable fortune, first as an army-contractor and then as a receiver of taxes, he ultimately reached Alexandria.
Clement of Alexandria (c. 180) regards the rite as an initiation in divine knowledge and immortality.
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and by him shipped to Alexandria.
Meanwhile about 150,000 acres had been sold to prospective settlers in France, and in October 1790 the French immigrants, who had been detained for two months at Alexandria, Virginia, arrived on the site of Gallipolis, where rude huts had been built for them.
The date of his birth cannot be exactly determined, but from various indications in his work it seems to have been about 63 B.C. He studied at Nysa under the grammarian Aristodemus, under Tyrannio the grammarian at Rome, under the philosopher Xenarchus either at Rome or at Alexandria, and he had studied Aristotle along with Boethus (possibly at Rome under Tyrannio, who had access to the Aristotelian writings in Sulla's library).
He had seen Cyrene from the sea, probably on his voyage from Puteoli to Alexandria, where he remained a long time, probably amassing materials, and studying astronomy and mathematics.
Moreover Strabo probably amassed his material in the library of Alexandria, so that Greek authorities would naturally furnish the great bulk of his collections.
Doubtless, however, he returned to Rome after a long sojourn in Alexandria, a fact which explains the defectiveness of his information about the countries to the east of his native land, and renders it possible for him to have made use of the " chorography " of Agrippa, a map of the Roman Empire and adjacent countries set up by order of Augustus in the Porticus Vipsaniae.
For many centuries Egypt was famous as a wheat raiser; it was a cargo of wheat from Alexandria which St Paul helped to jettison on one of his shipwrecks, as was also, in all probability, that of the "ship of Alexandria whose sign was Castor and Pollux," named in the same narrative.
On the other hand, there are the curious and puzzling catalogues of Aristotelian books, one given by Diogenes Laertius, another by an anonymous commentator (perhaps Hesychius of Miletus) quoted in the notes of Gilles Menage on Diogenes Laertius, and known as " Anonymus Menagii," and a third copied by two Arabian writers from Ptolemy, perhaps King Ptolemy Philadelphus, son of the founder of the library at Alexandria.
In 1904 the opening of a standard gauge railway to Cairo placed Port Said in a position to compete with Alexandria for the external trade of Egypt generally, besides making it a tourist route to the capital from Europe.
The statue of Serapis in the Serapeum of Alexandria was of purely Greek type and workmanship - a Hades or Pluto enthroned with a basket or corn measure on his head, a sceptre in his hand, Cerberus at his feet, and (apparently) a serpent.
According to Plutarch, Ptolemy Soter stole it from Sinope, having been bidden by the unknown god in a dream to bring him to Alexandria.
The god of Alexandria soon won an important place in the Greek world.
385 of the Serapeum of Alexandria, and of the famous idol within it, after the decree of Theodosius, marked the deathagony of paganism throughout the empire.
But why was a Plutonic Serapis selected rather than another god to furnish the Egyptian element to the chief divinity of Alexandria?
It seems unwarranted to make this Sarapsi= Sarapis travel to Sinope and thence to Alexandria as the type of the Egyptian god; but whether or no the Egyptian appellation Sarapis was applied to express the Babylonian Sarapsi, the part it played in the last days of Alexander may have determined the choice by which the Egyptian Osiris-Apis supplied the name and some leading characteristics to the god of Alexandria.
His efforts to destroy the ships of Mehemet Ali at Alexandria in 1825 were defeated by contrary winds.
He was almost the only one among them whom Dundonald, with whom he served in a successful attack on an Egyptian war-ship near Alexandria, exempts from the sweeping charges of cowardice he brings against the Greeks.
It is only in Alexandria, where the Jews were still subject to the yoke of the Gentile, that at this time (c. 140 B.C.) we find the oldest Sibylline verses (iii.
Zanesville was first platted in 1800 by Ebenezer Zane (r 747181 r) of Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia), his brother Jonathan, and John McIntire, his son-in-law, of Alexandria, Va., who under an act of Congress of 1796 surveyed a road from Wheeling to what is now Maysville, Kentucky, and received for this service three sections of land.
After the conquest by Amr ibn el-`Asi, inland Cyrenaica regained some importance, lying as it did on the direct route between Alexandria and Kairawan, and Barca became its chief place.
P. Banks in the Red River expeditions in March-May 1864, in which his gun-boats, held above Alexandria by shallow water and rapids, narrowly escaped isolation, being enabled to return only by the help of a dam built by Lieut.-Colonel (BrigadierGeneral) Joseph Bailey (1827-1867).
The rivalry of the see of Alexandria with Constantinople was also displayed in the contest, Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, assisting the court in bringing about the fall of Chrysostom.
'Alrlrcavos), of Alexandria, Roman historian, flourished during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian and Antoninus Pius.
PAPPUS OF ALEXANDRIA, Greek geometer, flourished about the end of the 3rd century A.D.
Suidas states that he was of the same age as Theon of Alexandria, who wrote commentaries on Ptolemy's great work, the Syntaxis mathematica, and flourished in the reign of Theodosius I.
The son graduated at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, in 1837, and from the law department of the university of Virginia in 1841, and began the practice of law in Alexandria, Virginia, but in 1850 removed to Baltimore, Maryland, where he won a high position at the bar.
According to the testimony of Athanasius of Alexandria, the hermit Anthony decided that it should be held to be unlawful and impious to leave the bodies of the martyrs unburied (Vita Ant.
The earliest positive traditions belong to Alexandria and N.
For Alexandria little can be urged save a certain strain of "Alexandrine" idealism and allegorism, mingling with the more Palestinian realism which marks the references to Christ's sufferings, as well as the eschatology, and recalling many a passage in Philo.
He taught at Alexandria, and had among his scholars Asclepius, John Philoponus, Damascius and Simplicius.
Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).
I speak of the natural Turks, who trade either into the black Sea or some part of the Morea, or between Constantinople and Alexandria, and not of the Pyrats of Barbary, who are for the most part Renegado's, and learnt their skill in Christendom..
When Nelson left the coast of Egypt, Hood commanded the blockading force off Alexandria and Rosetta.
We find cases of their intervention in the ecclesiastical affairs of Alexandria, of the East, of Africa, Gaul and Spain.
After the period of the persecutions had passed by, the great ecclesiastical capitals Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch and Constantinople, as secondary centres of organization and administration, drew to themselves and kept in their hands a share in ecclesiastical affairs.
From time to time it seemed as if Milan would become to Rome what Constantinople was to Alexandria.
According to Byzantine ideas, the Church was governed - under the supreme authority, of course, of the emperor - by the five patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
Rome had for a long time opposed this division, but, since some kind of division was necessary, had put forward the idea of the three sees of St Peter - Rome, Alexandria and Antioch - those of Constantinople and Jerusalem being set aside, as resulting from later usurpations.
The appeal from all patriarchal or conciliary judgments was to him; and on those occasions when he had to depose bishops of the highest standing, notably those of Alexandria and Constantinople, Ms judgments were carried into effect.
The essential reason of Urban II.'s action, and consequently the true cause of the crusade, was the ambition of the pope to unite with Rome and the Roman Church the Churches of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria and even Constantinople, which the Greek schism had rendered independent.
Meletius Of LYcoPOLIS), and on this account excommunicated by Peter of Alexandria, who had ordained him deacon.
2) indeed does not hesitate to say that Arius was chagrined because Alexander, instead of himself, had been appointed to the see of Alexandria, and that the beginning of his heretical attitude is, in consequence, to be attributed to discontent and envy.
His doctrinal position is explained in his letters to his patron Eusebius, bishop of the imperial city of Nicomedia, and to Alexander of Alexandria, and in the fragments of the poem in which he set forth his dogmas, which bears the enigmatic title of " Thalia " (06XECa), used in Homer, in the sense of " a goodly banquet," most unjustly ridiculed by Athanasius as an imitation of the licentious style of the drinking-songs of the Egyptian Sotades (270 B.C.).
For years the controversy may have been fermenting in the college of presbyters at Alexandria.
Arius was not without adherents, even outside Alexandria.
During his absence Arius returned to Alexandria, but even now the people are said to have raised a fierce riot against the heretic.
Chiefly on the ground that such a work was beyond the powers of a Roman, it is generally agreed that Trogus did not gather together the information from the leading Greek historians for himself, but that it was already combined into a single book by some Greek (very probably Timagenes of Alexandria).
46, to the effect that Dionysius of Alexandria c. 250 sent a letter to Meruzanes, bishop of the brethren in Armenia.
The Eucharist was no doubt the one important sacrifice in the minds of the clergy who had attended the schools of Constantinople and Alexandria; yet the heart of the people remained in their ancient blood-offerings, and as late as the r2th century they were prone to deny that the mass could expiate the sins of the dead unless accompanied by the sacrifice of an animal.
If we could believe the fathers of the 5th and succeeding centuries Nicene orthodoxy prevailed in their country from the first; and in the 5th century they certainly chose for translation the works of orthodox fathers alone, such as Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory Nazianzen, Cyril of Jerusalem and Cyril of Alexandria, Athanasius, Julius of Rome, Hippolytus, Irenaeus, avoiding Origen and other fathers who were becoming suspect.
For the time Tyre lost its political existence, while the foundation of Alexandria presently changed the lines of trade, and dealt a blow even more fatal to the Phoenician cities.
Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.
He was the author of an alphabetical lexicon, chiefly of poetical words, abridged from the great lexicon (llEpi yXcovv(7w) of Pamphilus of Alexandria (fl.
It formed the basis of the lexicon, or rather glossary, of Hesychius of Alexandria, which is described in the preface as a new edition of the work of Diogenianus.
The Walachian town of Alexandria was founded by fugitives from Sistova in 1878.
In the Roman period it was favoured by Caesar, and took the name of Julia; and, though it suffered severely when the fugitive Dolabella stood his last siege within its walls (43 B.C.), Strabo describes it as a flourishing port, which supplied, from the vineyards on the mountains, the greater part of the wine imported to Alexandria.
There is a large export of eggs to Alexandria; but the wealth of the place depends most on the famous "Latakia" tobacco, grown in the plain behind the town and on the Ansarieh hills.
There are three main varieties, of which the worst is dark in colour and strong in flavour; the best, grown in the districts of Diryus and Amamareh, is light and aromatic, and is exported mainly to Alexandria; but much goes also to Constantinople, Cyprus and direct to Europe.
After a short and unsuccessful experience as a teacher in the Boston Latin school, he began in 1856 to study for the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the theological seminary at Alexandria, Virginia.
Its merchant ships vied with those of Genoa, Venice and Ragusa, trading as far west as the North Sea and the Baltic, and as far east as Alexandria.
Clement of Alexandria taught that justice is not merely retributive, that punishment is remedial, that probation continues after death till the final judgment, that Christ and the apostles preached the Gospel in Hades to those who lacked knowledge, but whose heart was right, that a spiritual body will be raised.
Antioch and Code-Syria, Cyprus, Alexandria together with Egypt and the Thebais, Rome and the lower parts of Italy, together with certain parts of middle Italy, Proconsular Africa