Alexander sentence example

alexander
  • "I desire peace, no less than the Emperor Alexander," he began.
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  • The reverend began, "We welcome you today to the marriage of Alexander Matthew Barnett and Carmen Natalie Pulock."
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  • Napoleon received Balashev in the very house in Vilna from which Alexander had dispatched him on his mission.
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  • The prince of Orange married the grand duchess Anna Paulowna, sister of Tzar Alexander I.
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  • This inevitability alone can explain how the cruel Arakcheev, who tore out a grenadier's mustache with his own hands, whose weak nerves rendered him unable to face danger, and who was neither an educated man nor a courtier, was able to maintain his powerful position with Alexander, whose own character was chivalrous, noble, and gentle.
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  • Alexander's conduct caused renewed intervention; in 364 he was defeated at Cynoscephalae by the Thebans, although the victory was dearly bought by the loss of Pelopidas, who fell in the battle.
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  • Theocritus (Idyll 17) hails Ptolemy Philadelphus as a demigod, and speaks of his father as seated among the gods along with Alexander.
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  • To meet the invader the great king had in Asia Minor an army slightly larger, it would seem, than Alexander's, gathered under the satraps of the western provinces at Zeleia.
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  • To the native Egyptians Alexander appeared as a deliverer from the Persian tyranny, and he sacrificed piously to the gods of Memphis.
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  • Demetrius had presented himself in 307 as the liberator, and driven the Macedonian garrison from the Peiraeus; but his own garrisons held Athens thirteen years later, when he was king of Macedonia, and the Antigonid dynasty clung to the points of vantage in Greece, especially Chalcis and Corinth, till their garrisons were finally expelled by the Romans in the name of Hellenic liberty., The new movement of commerce initiated by the conquest of Alexander continued under his successors, though the breakup of the Macedonian Empire in Asia in the 3rd century and the distractions of the Seleucid court must have withheld many advantages from the Greek merchants which a strong central government might have afforded them.
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  • How far the financial administration was removed from the competence of the provincial governors, as it seems to have been in Alexander's system, we cannot say.
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  • With the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed in their coinage that of Alexander.
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  • In language and manners the courts of Alexander's successors were Greek.
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  • The Oriental features which Alexander had introduced were not copied.
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  • As under Alexander, so under his successors, we find a corps of OacrtXuol rrai&ES.
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  • One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II.
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  • The armies of Alexander's successors were still in the main principles of their organization similar to the army with which Alexander had conquered Asia.
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  • During the years immediately after Alexander the very Macedonians who had fought under Alexander were ranged against each other under the banners of the several chiefs.
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  • He is here! thought Rostov, who had unconsciously returned to the house where Alexander lodged.
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  • "To whom shall it be given?" the Emperor Alexander asked Koslovski, in Russian in a low voice.
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  • I have received the letter you brought from the Emperor Alexander and am very glad to see you.
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  • Here Balashev hesitated: he remembered the words the Emperor Alexander had not written in his letter, but had specially inserted in the rescript to Saltykov and had told Balashev to repeat to Napoleon.
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  • And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
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  • The Persian fleet in vain endeavoured to relieve it, and Miletus did not long hold out against Alexander's attack.
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  • The story of Alexander's cutting the fatal "Gordian knot" on the chariot of the ancient Phrygian king Gordius is connected with his stay in this place.
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  • Memnon the Rhodian, now in supreme command of the Persian fleet, saw the European coasts exposed and set out to raise Greece, where discontent always smouldered in Alexander's rear.
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  • It was, however, the need to ensure command of the sea and free all lines of communication behind him that determined Alexander's plan for the next campaign.
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  • To cut Alexander's communications with the rear, Darius now committed the error of entangling his large force in the mountain defiles.
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  • Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'
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  • Alexander refused the bargain and definitely claimed the whole.
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  • When it fell, Alexander had the old Tyrian people scattered to the winds, 30,000 sold as slaves.
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  • The occupation of the rest of Syria and Palestine proceeded smoothly, and after the fall of Gaza Alexander's way lay open into Egypt.
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  • The winter (332-331) which Alexander spent in Egypt saw two memorable actions on his part.
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  • The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.
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  • Alexander came within sight of the Persian host without having met with any opposition since he quitted Tyre.
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  • Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.
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  • Alexander entered Persis, the cradle of the Achaemenian house, and came upon fresh masses of treasure in the royal city, Persepolis.
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  • With the spring of 330 Alexander was prepared for further pursuit.
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  • At Ecbatana new masses of treasure were seized, but when once the necessary measures which its disposal and the occupation of the Median capital entailed were taken, Alexander continued the pursuit.
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  • It was an exciting chase of king by king, in which each covered the ground by incredible exertions, shedding their slower-going followers as they went, past Rhagae (Rai) and the Caspian gates, till early one morning Alexander came in sight of the broken train which still clung to the fallen king.
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  • The pursuit had brought Alexander into that region of mountains to the south of the Caspian which connects western Iran with the provinces to the east of the great central desert.
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  • In Asia Alexander learnt that Bessus had taken the diadem as Darius' successor in Bactria, but so soon as he marched against him Aria rose in his rear, and Alexander had to return in all haste to bring the revolt under.
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  • Not satisfied with procuring this, Alexander had Parmenio himself, who had been left in command in Media, put to death by secret orders.
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  • By the winter of 329-328 Alexander had reached the Kabul valley at the foot of the Paropamisadae (Hindu Kush).
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  • The ordinarily received chronology makes Alexander reach the Kabul valley in the winter of 330-329.
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  • That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.
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  • In the spring of 328 Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into Bactria and followed the retreat of Bessus across the Oxus and into Sogdiana (Bokhara).
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  • Till the spring of 327 Alexander was moving to and fro in Bactria and Sogdiana, beating down the recurrent rebellions and planting Greek cities.
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  • It was now that Alexander completed the conquest of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush by the reduction of the last mountain strongholds of the native princes.
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  • Whilst the heavier troops moved down the Kabul valley to Pencelaotis (Charsadda) under Perdiccas and Hephaestion, Alexander with a body of lighter-armed troops and cavalry pushed up the valleys which join the Kabul from the north - through the regions now known as Bajour, Swat and Buner, inhabited by Indian hill peoples, as fierce then against the western intruder as their Pathan successors are against the British columns.
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  • The books give a number of their "cities" reduced by Alexander - walled mountain villages which can in some cases be identified more or less certainly with places where the clans are established to-day.
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  • Alexander reached the Hydaspes just as the rains broke, when the river was already swollen.
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  • Alexander moved along close under the hills.
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  • It was a bitter mortification to Alexander, before whose imagination new vistas had just opened out eastwards, where there beckoned the unknown world of the Ganges and its splendid kings.
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  • For three days the will of king and people were locked in antagonism; then Alexander gave way; the long eastward movement was ended; the return began.
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  • Alexander left the conquered portion of India east of the Indus to be governed under Porus, Omphis of Taxila, and Abisares, the country west of the Indus under Macedonian governors, and set out to explore the great river The g ?
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  • It was the high summer of 325 when Alexander reached Patala.
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  • For the 150 miles between Ras Malan and Pasni Alexander was compelled by the natural barriers to march inland, and it was here that his troops sank under the horrors of heat and thirst and sand.
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  • This policy did not allay the discontent of the Macedonian army, and when Alexander in the summer of 324 moved to the cooler region of Media, an actual mutiny of the Macedonians broke out on the way at Opis on the Tigris.
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  • It was occasioned by the discharge of the Macedonian veterans, and only the personal magnetism of Alexander and his threat to entrust himself altogether to the Orientals availed to quell it.
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  • At Ecbatana the death of Hephaestion for a time plunged Alexander into a passion of mourning.
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  • The latter enterprise Alexander designed to conduct in person; under his supervision was prepared in Babylon an immense fleet, a great basin dug out to contain 1000 ships, and the watercommunications of Babylonia taken in hand.
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  • On the 15th and 16th Alexander caroused deep into the night at the house by man through his chamber to bid him farewell.
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  • Of those, again, who maintain the traditional view, some, like Niebuhr and Grote, regard it as convicting Alexander of mad ambition and vainglory, whilst to Kaerst Alexander only incorporates ideas which were the timely fruit of a long historical development.
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  • Some notion of the personal appearance of Alexander may be got from the literature and the surviving monuments.
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  • Alexander shaved clean, and set the fashion in this respect for the Graeco-Roman world for the next 500 years.
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  • - The campaigns and life of Alexander did not lack contemporary historians, some of them eye-witnesses and even associates.
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  • Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.
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  • For further references to the literature on Alexander, see Kaerst's article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie (1894).
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  • The figure of Alexander naturally impressed itself upon the imagination of the world which his career had shaken.
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  • The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.
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  • As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
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  • The Alexander romance found its way into Europe through the medium of Latin, but originated mainly from the versions of the pseudo-Callisthenes, not from the more sober narrative of Quintus Curtius.
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  • In due course Alexander was born, and Philip's suspicions were overcome by a second appearance of the dragon, which was held to prove the divine fatherhood.
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  • When he was twelve years old he was instructed in starcraft by Nectanebus, who was killed by a fall into a pit, into which he had been playfully pushed by Alexander.
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  • The second book continues the history of his conquests, and the third contains the victory over Porus, the relations with the Brahmins, the letter to Aristotle on the wonders of India, the histories of Candace and the Amazons, the letter to Olympias on the marvels of Farther Asia, and lastly the account of Alexander's death in Babylon.
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  • Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent.
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  • The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
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  • The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
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  • According to all the traditions of romance it was necessary to avenge the death of Alexander.
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  • Jean le Nevelon relates how Alior, the son of Alexander and Candace, avenged his father's death on Antipater and others.
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  • It is interesting for its connexion with the 15th-century romance of Perceforest, since in it Alexander visits Britain, where he bestows Scotland on Gadifer and England on Betis (otherwise Perceforest).
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  • After an account of the ancient history of Macedonia and of the intrigue of Nectanebus we are told how Philip dies, and how Alexander subdues Rome and receives tribute from all European nations.
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  • Alexander returns to Babylon, is crowned with much pomp and mass is celebrated.
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  • The Alexander cycle was no less popular in Great Britain.
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  • The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.
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  • Bruce at Bannockburn makes the same oration as Alexander at "Effesoun."
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  • The reputation of the oracle, which was in origin medical, spread, and with it grew Alexander's skilled plans of organized deception.
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  • 166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
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  • The result was a great disaster, and Alexander had recourse to the old quibble of the Delphic oracle to Croesus for an explanation.
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  • Lucian's own close investigations into Alexander's methods of fraud led to a serious attempt on his life.
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  • Alexander had remarkable beauty and the striking personality of the successful charlatan, and must have been a man of considerable intellectual abilities and power of organization.
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  • His nationality is uncertain, but Zosimus, Eunapius and Sulpicius Alexander (a GalloRoman historian quoted by Gregory of Tours) all refer to him as a Frank.
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  • They were the king's lieutenants for judicial and administrative purposes and were established in the 12th century, either by Alexander I.
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  • At the head of the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the archbishops of Scutari (with three suffragans), Prizren and Durazzo; the mitred abbot of St Alexander is the spiritual chief of the Mirdites.
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  • The first Napier of Merchiston, "Alexander Napare," acquired the Merchiston estate before the year 1438, from James I.
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  • His eldest son Alexander, who succeeded him in 1 454, was provost of Edinburgh in 1 455, 1 457 and 1469; he was knighted and held various important court offices under successive monarchs; at the time of his death in 1473 he was master of the household to James III.
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  • He fought at Flodden and escaped with his life, but his eldest son Alexander, (fifth of Merchiston) was killed.
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  • Alexander's eldest son (Alexander, sixth of Merchiston) was born in 1513, and fell at the battle of Pinkie in 1547.
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  • His first wife died in 1563, and in 1572 he married a cousin, Elizabeth Mowbray, by whom he had three sons, the eldest of whom was named Alexander.'
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  • The legend with regard to the origin of the name Napier was given by Sir Alexander Napier, eldest son of John Napier, in 1625, in these words: "One of the ancient earls of Lennox in Scotland had issue three sons: the eldest, that succeeded him to the earldom of Lennox; the second, whose name was Donald; and the third, named Gilchrist.
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  • The church of St Mary and St German belonged to a Benedictine abbey founded under a grant from William the Conqueror in 1069 and raised to the dignity of a mitred abbey by Pope Alexander II.
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  • The Reformed Presbyterian Church (Covenanters) sent John Cuthbertson in 1751; he was joined in 1773 by Matthew Lind and Alexander Dobbin from the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, and they organized in March 1 774 the Reformed Presbytery of America.
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  • The Anti-Burgher Synod sent Alexander Gellatly and Andrew Arnot in 1752, and two years later they organized the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; they were joined in 1757 by the Scotch Church in New York City, which.
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  • Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
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  • (Alexander Farnese) invested his son Pierluigi with the duchies of Parma and Piacenza.
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  • Boyd Alexander, a British officer, further explored the lake, which then contained few stretches of open water.
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  • He was a good scholar and mixed with the best literary society, being an intimate friend of Alexander Pope.
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  • In 324 the Areopagus, after inquiry, reported that nine men had taken bribes from Harpalus, the fugitive treasurer of Alexander.
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  • Prince Alexander, who was born on the 5th of April 1857, was nephew of the tsar Alexander II., who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the tsaritsa.
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  • When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).
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  • (For the political history of Prince Alexander's reign, see Bulgaria.) Without any previous training in the art of government, the young prince from the outset found himself confronted with difficulties which would have tried the sagacity of an experienced ruler.
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  • After attempting to govern under these conditions for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the tsar Alexander III., assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881), and a suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years was voted by a specially convened assembly (July 13).
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  • Although Servia was protected from the consequences of defeat by the intervention of Austria, Prince Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia, and after long negotiations he was nominated governor-general of that province for five years by the sultan (April 5, 1886).
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  • Prince Alexander possessed much charm and amiability of manner; he was tall, dignified and strikingly handsome.
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  • The term is also applied to the descendants of the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great.
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  • William's next quarrel was with Pope Alexander III., and arose out of a double choice for the vacant bishopric of St Andrews.
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  • He left one son, his successor Alexander II., and two daughters, Margaret and Isabella, who were sent to England after the treaty of 1209, and who both married English nobles, Margaret becoming the wife of Hubert de Burgh.He also left some illegitimate children.
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  • After the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a considerable number of Jews returned to the city, but we know practically nothing of its history for more than a century until, in 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Syria.
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  • This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until it was taken and plundered by Alexander the Great.
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  • It has been universally admitted that " the palaces " or "the palace " (rd, 3aviXeca) burned down by Alexander are those now in ruins at Takhti Jamshid.
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  • It is safest therefore to identify these last with the royal palaces destroyed by Alexander.
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  • It seems that about 340 the island was conquered for the Persian king by his Rhodian admiral Mentor; in 332 it submitted to Alexander the Great.
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  • David Carnegie, which started in July 1896, and travelled north-easterly until it reached Alexander Spring; then turning northward, it traversed the country between Wells's track of 1896 and the South Australian border.
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  • This report led to the passing of a number of acts which, proving ineffectual, were followed by the Factories and Shops Act of 1896, passed by the ministry of Mr (afterwards Sir Alexander) Peacock.
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  • The emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his idol, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216.
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  • But Philip had now become thoroughly alarmed, and he despatched Alexander Farnese, son of the duchess of Parma, to join his uncle Don John with a veteran force of 20,000 troops.
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  • Philip immediately appointed Alexander Farnese to the vacant post.
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  • Alexander Ghent had fallen into the hands of John Casimir, Farnese and under his armed protection a fierce and intolerant governor= Calvinism reigned supreme in that important city.
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  • During his absence in Egypt, whither he had been sent by Pompey, without the consent of the senate, to restore Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, Syria had been devastated by robbers, and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, had again taken up arms with the object of depriving Hyrcanus of the high-priesthood.
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  • The next event we hear of in the history of the city is its conquest by Alexander the Great (331 B.C.), and later by Ptolemy Lagi and Demetrius Poliorcetes.
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  • Their king Syrmus took refuge in Peuce (Peuke, an island in the Danube), whither Alexander was unable to follow him.
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  • The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
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  • Opposed by an anti-pope whom the emperor favored, Alexander found it was his truest policy to rely for support upon the antiimperialist communes.
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  • When Frederick once more crossed the Alps in 1166, he advanced on Rome, and besieged Alexander in the Coliseum.
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  • Frederick escaped alone to Pavia, whence he opened negotiations with Alexander.
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  • Yet neither the acts by which their league was ratified nor the terms negotiated for them by their patron Alexander evince the smallest desire of what we now understand as national independence.
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  • Aided by his terrible son, Cesare Borgia, Alexander VI.
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  • In 1534 Alessandro Farnese, who owed his elevation to his sister Giulia, one of Alexander VI.s mistresses, took the tiara with the title of Paul III.
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  • The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal of the Dreikaiserbund, both as a guarantee of European peace and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties.
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  • Cesare was Alexander's favourite son, and it was for him that the pope's notorious nepotism was most extensively practised.
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  • Alexander now contemplated sending Cesare to Romagna to subdue the turbulent local despots, and with the help of the French king carve a principality for himself out of those territories owing nominal allegiance to the pope.
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  • In the 6th century Alexander of Tralles used colchicum for gout, iron for anaemia, and rhubarb in liver weakness and dysentery.
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  • When Alexander had won the victory of Arbela, and occupied Babylon and Susa, he met (in the spring of 330) with strong resistance in Persia, where the satrap Ariobarzanes tried to stop his progress at the "Persian gates," the pass leading up to Persepolis.
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  • Alexander had planned to amalgamate the former rulers of the world with his Macedonians; but his death was followed by a Macedonian reaction.
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  • When in 221 Molon, the satrap of Media, rebelled against Antiochus III., his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, joined him, but they were defeated and killed by the king.
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  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) was the first modern geographer to become a great traveller, and thus to acquire an extensive.
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  • The Greco-Persian wars had made the remoter parts of Asia Minor more than a name to the Greek geographers before the time of Alexander the Great, but the campaigns of that conqueror from 329 to 325 B.C. opened up the greater Asia to the knowledge of Europe.
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  • The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
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  • The Greeks who accompanied Alexander described with care the towns and villages, the products and the aspect of the country.
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  • He entered the Persian Gulf, and rejoined Alexander at Susa, when he was ordered to prepare another expedition for the circumnavigation of Arabia.
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  • Alexander died at Babylon in 323 B.C., and the fleet was dispersed without making the voyage.
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  • In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.
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  • With the same object Alexander Mackenzie, with a party of Canadians, set out from Fort Chippewyan on the 3rd of June 1789, and descending the great river which now bears the explorer's name reached the Arctic sea.
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  • Against this law, too, many petitions went to Rome for rehabilitation, until in 1498 the Spanish pope Alexander VI.
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  • But in 1496, when the sovereigns again complained that the inquisitors were, without royal knowledge or consent, disposing of the property of the condemned and thus depriving the public revenues of considerable sums, Alexander VI.
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  • After the death of his mother in 1463, and of her principal supporter, James Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, two years later, the person of the young king, and with it the chief authority in the kingdom, were seized by Sir Alexander Boyd and his brother Lord Boyd, while the latter's son, Thomas, was created earl of Arran and married to the king's sister, Mary.
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  • About 1479, probably with reason both suspicious and jealous, James arrested his brothers, Alexander, duke of Albany, and John, earl of Mar; Mar met his death in a mysterious fashion at Craigmillar, but Albany escaped to France and then visited England, where in 1482 Edward IV.
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  • Early in 1787 King was moved by the Shays Rebellion and by the influence of Alexander Hamilton to take a broader view of the general situation, and it was he who introduced the resolution in Congress, on the 21st of February 1787, sanctioning the call for the Philadelphia constitutional convention.
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  • Un homme d'etat russe (1884) gave the history of the emancipation of the serfs by Alexander II.
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  • South of the lake two ranges of the Tian-shan, separated by the valley of the Naryn, stretch in the same direction, lifting up their icy peaks to 16,000 and 18,000 ft.; while westwards from the lake the precipitous slopes of the Alexander chain, 9000 to io,000 ft.
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  • Half a day's journey beyond Sura, on the Mesopotamian side of the river, are the extensive ruins of Haragla (Heraclea) and Rakka, once the capital of Harun al-Rashid (Nicephorium of Alexander; Callinicus of the Seleucids and Romans).
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  • In the time of Alexander the nomenclature was reversed, the right arm being known as Pallacopas.
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  • Alexander Bain in 1846 suggested enclosing the wheelwork in the rotator.
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  • Alexander Ivanovich (1769-1825) served with distinction under his relative Suvarov in the Turkish Wars, and took part as a general officer in the Italian and Swiss operations of 1799, and in the war against Napoleon in Poland in 1806-1807 (battle of Heilsberg).
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  • Prince Gorchakov, Alexander Mikhailovich (1798-1883), Russian statesman, cousin of Princes Petr and Mikhail Gorchakov, was born on the 16th of July 1798, and was educated at the lyceum of Tsarskoye Selo, where he had the poet Pushkin as a school-fellow.
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  • For the time, however, he made a virtue of necessity, and Alexander II., recognizing the wisdom and courage which Gorchakov had exhibited, appointed him minister of foreign affairs in place of Count Nesselrode.
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  • Prince Gorchakov devoted himself entirely to foreign affairs, and took no part in the great internal reforms of Alexander II.'s reign.
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  • A large new cathedral dedicated to St Alexander Nevski was in course of construction in 1907; the foundation stone was taken from the church of St Sophia.
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  • The palace of the prince, occupying the site of the Turkish konak was built by Prince Alexander in 1880-1882; it has been greatly enlarged by King Ferdinand.
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  • In front of the palace is the public garden or Alexander Park.
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  • A small -mausoleum contains the remains of Prince Alexander; there are monuments to the tsar Alexander II., to Russia, to the medical officers who fell in the war of 1877 and to the patriot Levsky.
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  • Towards the end of the reign of Alexander II., the government, in order to preserve order in the country districts, also created a special class of mounted rural policemen (uryadniki, from uriad, order), who, armed with power to arrest all suspects on the spot, rapidly became the terror of the countryside.
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  • The " Third Section " was suppressed by Alexander II.
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  • - Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: (I) the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost, ' From Catherine II.'s time to that of Alexander II.
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  • These powers were, however, severely restricted by the emperor Alexander III.
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  • Under Alexander III., however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos.
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  • Not the least valuable of the gifts of the " tsar emancipator," Alexander II., to Russia was the judicial System system established by the statute (Sudebni Ustav) of the 10th of November 1864.
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  • This fact made the new system especially obnoxious to the bureaucracy,, and during the latter years of Alexander II.
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  • Alexander insisted still more strongly on this claim, and in the convention which he concluded with the First Consul in October 1801 it was agreed that the maintenance of a just equilibrium between Austria and Prussia should be Napoleon.
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  • The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
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  • Like Alexander in the last period of his reign, Nicholas considered himself the supreme guardian of European order, and was ever on the watch to oppose revolution in all its forms. Hence he was generally in strained relations with France, especially in the time of Louis Philippe, who became king not by the grace of God but by the will of the people.
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  • He had died at St Petersburg on the 2nd of March 1855 and had been succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander II.
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  • On the 13th of March 1881, when returning from a military parade to the Winter Palace, Alexander II.
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  • (For details of this revolutionary movement, see Nihilism.) In respect of foreign policy the reign of Alexander II.
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  • 2 9 a of Alexander II.'s reign her domination had been firmly established throughout nearly the whole of the vast expanse of territory lying between Siberia on the north and Persia and Afghanistan on the south, and stretching without interruption from the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Chinese frontier.
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  • As soon as this fact became known to Alexander III.
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  • But it was not till after the death of Alexander III.
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  • The old Liberal movement and the terrorist organizations which had been suppressed by Alexander III.
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  • The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
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  • The plan was approved by Alexander II.
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  • The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.
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  • The name was first suggested by Speranski, under Alexander I., for the suggested parliament of delegates from the zemstvos and local dumas.
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  • "ALEXANDER HUGH BRUCE, BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH Loth (or 6TH) Baron (1849-1921), British politician, was born at Kennet, Alloa, Jan.
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  • Alexander disliked business of state, preferring literature and philosophy; a collection of his Latin poems appeared at Paris in 1656 under the title Philomathi Labores Juveniles.
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  • Certayne Ecloges of Alexander Barclay, Priest, written in his youth, were probably printed as early as 1513, although the earliest extant edition is that in John Cawood's reprint (1570) of the Ship of Fools.
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  • The last of them seems to have been Pixodarus, after whose death the crown was seized by a Persian, Orontobates, who offered a vigorous resistance to Alexander the Great.
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  • But his capital, Halicarnassus, was taken after a siege, and the principality of Caria conferred by Alexander on Ada, a princess of the native dynasty.
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  • The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were the basic principles of Hamilton's policy.
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  • Henry was twice married, first to Sarah Skelton, and second to Dorothea Spotswood Dandridge, a grand-daughter of Governor Alexander Spotswood.
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  • Borlase was well acquainted with most of the leading literary men of the time, particularly with Alexander Pope, with whom he kept up a long correspondence, and for whose grotto at Twickenham he furnished the greater part of the fossils and minerals.
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  • The next castle was a royal residence from 1189 to 1371 and was occupied occasionally by William the Lion, Alexander II.
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  • Alexander Brodie (1617-1680), the fourteenth laird, was one of the commissioners who went to the Hague to treat with Charles II., and afterwards became a Scottish lord of session and an English judge.
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  • Under Darius Codomannus (336-330) the advancing Greek power brought matters to a head, and at the battle of Issus in 333 Alexander settled its fate.
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  • There is little doubt that Josephus refers to the same events; but there is considerable confusion in his history of the Persian age, and when he places the schism and the foundation of the new Temple in the time of Alexander the Great (after the obscure disasters of the reign of Artaxerxes III.), it is usually supposed that he is a century too late.
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  • - The second great period of the history of the Jews begins with the conquest of Asia by Alexander the Great, disciple of Aristotle, king of Macedon and captaingeneral of the Greeks.
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  • It ends with the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of the Roman Empire, which was, like Alexander, at once the masterful pupil and the docile patron of Hellenism.
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  • Whether the master of the provinces, in which there were Jews, be an Alexander, a Ptolemy, a Seleucid or a Roman, the force by which he rules is the force of Greek culture.
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  • When Alexander invaded the interior of the Eastern world, which had hitherto remained inviolable, he came as the champion of Hellenism.
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  • In connexion with Alexander's march through Palestine Josephus gives a tradition of his visit to Jerusalem.
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  • In Arrian's narrative of Alexander's exploits, whose fame had already faded before the greater glory of Rome, there is no mention of the visit or the city or the Jews.
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  • Seven days after the capture of Gaza Alexander was at Pelusium.
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  • According to the tradition which Josephus has preserved the high priest refused to transfer his allegiance, and Alexander marched against Jerusalem after the capture of Gaza.
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  • The high priest dressed in his robes went out to meet him, and at the sight Alexander remembered a dream, in which such a man had appeared to him as the appointed leader of his expedition.
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  • So the danger was averted: Alexander offered sacrifice and was shown the prophecy of Daniel, which spoke of him.
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  • It is true that Alexander was subject to dreams and visited shrines in order to assure himself or his followers of victory.
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  • However this may be, Alexander's tutor had been in Asia and had met a Jew there, if his disciple Clearchus of Soli is to be trusted.
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  • - After the death of Alexander Palestine fell in the end to Ptolemy (301 B.C.) and remained an Egyptian province until 198 B.C. For a century the Jews in Palestine and in Alexandria had no history - or none that Josephus knew.
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  • At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
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  • The more orthodox or conservative Jews preferred the tolerant rule of the Ptolemies: the rest, who chafed at the isolation of the nation, looked to the Seleucids, who inherited Alexander's ideal of a united empire based on a universal adoption of Hellenism.
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  • In 153 Alexander Balas withdrew Jonathan from his allegiance to Demetrius by the offer of the high-priesthood.
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  • The Sadducean nobility continued in power under his brother and successor Alexander Jannaeus (103-78); and the breach between the king and the mass of the people widened.
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  • Alexander raised the siege, made peace with Ptolemy and secretly sent to Cleopatra for help against her son.
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  • Alexander summoned his mercenaries, and 6000 Jews were killed before he set out on his disastrous campaign against an Arabian king.
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  • Offering an ineffectual resistance to the passage of the Syrian troops, Alexander was driven back by Aretas, king of Arabia, against whom they had marched.
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  • On his deathbed it is said that Alexander advised his wife to reverse this policy and rely upon the Pharisees.
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  • This ruling may be interpreted as part of a campaign directed against the counsellors of Alexander or as an instance of their general principle that intention is equivalent to commission in the eye of the Law.
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  • Others shared this conviction: Strabo speaks of embassies from Egypt and Judaea bearing presents - one deposited in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus bore the inscription of Alexander, the king of the Jews.
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  • But his son Alexander escaped during the journey, gathered some force, and overran Judaea.
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  • In spite of this, Aristobulus (56 B.C.) and Alexander (55 B.C.) found loyalists to follow them in their successive raids.
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  • At the same time his son Alexander was beheaded at Antioch by Pompey's order as an enemy of Rome.
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  • In Palestine few could command leisure for meditation; as for opportunities of effective intervention in affairs, they had none, it would seem, once Alexander was dead.
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  • At any rate Alexander crucified two sons of Simon the Galilean, who had headed a revolt in the time of the census.
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  • Alexander Zaimis, a former prime minister of Greece, arrived in Crete on the 1st of October.
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  • A document was published in London purporting to be a "Declaration of Mr Alexander Henderson made upon his Death-bed "; and, although this paper was disowned, denounced and shown to be false in the General Assembly of August 1648, the document was used by Clarendon as giving the impression that Henderson had recanted.
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  • Alexander II., entering Alexandria under Roman patronage, married, and within twenty days assassinated, his elderly cousin and stepmother.
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  • The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimate birth, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II.
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  • Another sister, Princess Dagmar, subsequently married the grand duke Alexander Alexandrovitch, afterwards Emperor Alexander III.
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  • The first known instance of a mitred abbot is Egelsinus of St Augustine's, Canterbury, who received the honour from Pope Alexander II.
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  • And one needs a spot to suggest moves and the such, as with Alexander Iii --Lohengrin 13:01, 3 Feb 2007 (PST)
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  • "ALEXANDER GUCHKOV (1862-), Russian politician, was born in Moscow in 1862.
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  • The native rulers of Roshan and Shignan claim descent from Alexander the Great, of whom legends are still current in the country about the upper Oxus.
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  • The influence of Greek culture in northern India is fully recognized, and the distribution of Greek colonies previous to Alexander's time is attested by practical knowledge of the districts they were said to occupy.
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  • In 326 B.C. Alexander invaded the Punjab.
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  • Darius and Xerxes were repulsed in their efforts to subjugate the Greek Peninsula, and Alexander the Great conquered their successor Darius III.
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  • European influence on Asia has been specially strong at two epochs, firstly after the conquests of Alexander the Great, and secondly from the r6th century onwards.
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  • Alexander's conquests resulted in the foundation of a Perso-Greek kingdoms in Asia, which not only hellenized their own area but influenced the art and religion of India and to some extent of China.
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  • There has been great difference of opinion as to the extent to which Alexander's conquests influenced Asia, and it is equally hard to say what is the effect now being produced by Europe.
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  • His eldest son, George John James, succeeded as 5th earl; his second son was General Sir Alexander Hamilton-Gordon, K.C.B.; his third son was the Reverend Douglas Hamilton-Gordon; and his youngest son Arthur Hamilton, after holding various high offices under the crown, was created Baron Stanmore in 1893.
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  • "ALEXANDER STAMBOLIISKI (1879-), Bulgarian statesman, was born at Slavovitsa in Bulgaria Sept.
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  • 64, called by Darius Haumavarka); and the historians of Alexander mention a march through Gedrosia, where he lost his whole army but seven men (Arrian vi.
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  • The character of true monarchy is well defined in the well-known lines of Cowper (Verses supposed to be written by Alexander Selkirk): " I am monarch of all I survey, My right there is none to dispute."
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  • Alexander M`Leod boasted in November 1840 that he was one of a Canadian party who, on the 29th of December 1837, had captured and burned a small American steamboat, the "Caroline," and in the course of the attack had shot Amos Durfee.
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  • The sect was the outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and was founded in 1708 by Alexander Mack of Schwarzenau, Germany, and seven of his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of the Scriptures.
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  • The first congregation in America was organized on Christmas Day 1723 by Peter Becker who preceeded Alexander Mack to Germantown, Pennsylvania.
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  • During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
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  • It occupies the site of a fortress erected in the time of Alexander II., which was besieged in 1303 by Edward I.
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  • Early in the next century the name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in honour of Alexander's memory.
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  • A bibliography of works dealing with the subject is included in the article by the Rev. Alexander Gordon in the Dictionary of National Biography.
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  • Gregory, still supported by Naples, Hungary, Bavaria, and by Rupert, king of the Romans, found protection with Ladislaus, and in a synod at Cividale del Friuli banned Benedict and Alexander as schismatical, perjured and scandalous.
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  • John XXIII., having succeeded to the claims of Alexander in 1410, concluded a treaty with Ladislaus, by which Gregory was banished from Naples on the 31st of October 1411.
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  • Seleucus, as a young man of about twenty-three, accompanied Alexander into Asia in 333, and won distinction in the Indian campaign of 326.
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  • Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
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  • Seleucus now saw the whole empire of Alexander, Egypt alone excepted, in his hands, and moved to take possession of Macedonia and Thrace.
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  • Soter (324 or 323-262) was half a Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324.
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  • Soon after Antiochus's accession, Media and Persis revolted under their governors, the brothers Molon and Alexander.
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  • In 221 Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed.
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  • Antiochus next, following in the steps of Alexander, crossed into the Kabul valley, received the homage of the Indian king Sophagasenus and returned west by way of Seistan and Kerman (206/5).(206/5).
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  • An impostor, who claimed to be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Balas (reigned 150-145), was installed as king by Ptolemy Philometor and given Ptolemy's daughter Cleopatra to wife, but Alexander proved to be dissolute and incapable, and when Demetrius, the son of Demetrius I., was brought back to Syria by Cretan condottieri, Ptolemy transferred his support and Cleopatra to the rightful heir.
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  • Alexander was defeated by Ptolemy at the battle of the Oenoparas near Antioch and murdered during his flight.
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  • Nicator (first reign 145-140) was a mere boy,' and the misgovernment of his Cretan supporters led to the infant son of Alexander Balas, Antiochus Vi.
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  • Demetrius (second reign 129-126), who had been allowed by the Parthians to escape, now returned to Syria, but was soon again driven from Antioch by a pretender, Alexander Zabinas, who had the support of the king of Egypt.
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  • During Kett's rebellion he was allowed to preach in the rebels' camp on Mousehold Hill, but without much effect; and later on he encouraged his chaplain, Alexander Neville, to write his history of the rising.
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  • As he had formerly had dealings with the house of Alexander Severus, so now he entered into a correspondence with the emperor Philip the Arabian and his wife Severa.
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  • Having rivalled the exploits of Caesar, he now longed to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great.
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  • These actions proclaimed so unmistakably Napoleon's intention of making Italy an annexe of France as to convince Francis of Austria and Alexander of Russia that war with him was inevitable.
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  • At a later time he reproached himself for not having dethroned the Hohenzollerns outright; but it is now known that Alexander would have forbidden this step, and that he dissuaded Napoleon from withdrawing Silesia from the control of the House of Hohenzollern.
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  • The partition of Turkey had to be postponed; the financial collapse of England could not be expected now that she framed an alliance with the Spanish patriots and had their markets and those of their colonies opened to her; and the discussions with the tsar Alexander, which had not gone quite smoothly, now took a decidedly unfavourable turn.
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  • Napoleon desired to press on the partition of Prussia, Alexander that of Turkey.
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  • Alexander had succeeded in pacifying Finland, and his troops held the Danubian provinces of Turkey - a pledge, as it seemed, for the future conquest of Constantinople.
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  • These facts, and not, as has often been assumed, the treachery of Talleyrand, decided Alexander to assume at Erfurt an attitude of jealous reserve.
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  • The campaign of 1812 may, therefore, be considered as resulting, fi-stly, from the complex and cramping effects of the Continental System on a northern land which could not deprive itself of colonial goods; secondly, from Napoleon's refusal to mitigate the anxiety of Alexander on the Polish question; and thirdly, from tie annoyance felt by the tsar at the family matters noticed above.
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  • His diplomacy before the war of 1812 was less successful than that of Alexander, who skilfully ended his quarrel with Turkey and gained over to his side Sweden.
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  • The demands of the tsar Alexander were for a time so exorbitant as to bring the powers at the congress of Vienna to the verge of war.
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  • He censured Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, inveighing especially against the servile ceremony of adoration.
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  • Callisthenes wrote an account of Alexander's expedition, a history of Greece from the peace of Antalcidas (387) to the Phocian war (3S7), a history of the Phocian war and other works, all of which have perished.
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  • The romantic life of Alexander, the basis of all the Alexander legends of the middle ages, originated during the time of the Ptolemies, but in its present form belongs to the 3rd century A.D.
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  • Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
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  • See also Alexander The Great (ad fin.).
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  • Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
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  • In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket.
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  • A similar bibliography of Russian ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 1877 or 1878.
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  • When Paris (Alexander), son of Priam, had carried off his brother's wife, he went round to the princes of the country and called upon them to unite in a war of revenge against the Trojans.
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  • Alexander Black's Story of Ohio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account.
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  • Alexander of Hales was the oracle of the Franciscans, while the rival order rejoiced in Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas.
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  • After the conquest of Alexander the city quickly lost its supremacy to his new foundation, and although it remained the greatest native centre, its population was less than that of Alexandria.
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  • These, however, in spite of more than one revolt, continued to supply fleets to the Persians down to the time of the Macedonia invasion (332 B.C.), and inland Syria remained comparatively peaceful first under its own local governors, and, after Darius, as a satrapy, till its subjugation by Alexander.
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  • Dioscorus followed his father's profession in his native place; Alexander became at Rome one of the most celebrated medical men of his time; Olympius was deeply versed in Roman jurisprudence; and Metrodorus was one of the distinguished grammarians of the great Eastern capital.
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  • The two personages - the "old and foolish king" and the "poor and wise youth" - have been supposed (by Winckler) to be Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) and Demetrius (162-150 B.C.), or (by Haupt) Antiochus and the impostor Alexander Balas (150-146 B.C.), or (by others) Demetrius and Alexander; in favour of Alexander as the "youth" it may be said that he was of obscure origin, was at first popular, and was later abandoned by his friends.
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  • A few scenes and inscriptions were added by later kings, but the above is practically the history of the temple until Alexander the Great rebuilt the sanctuary itself.
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  • Many of them afterwards attained high positions in the Church; one, Anselm of Badagio, became pope under the title of Alexander II.
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  • It was Alexander II., the former pupil of Lanfranc, who gave the Norman Conquest the papal benediction - a notable advantage to William at the moment, but subsequently the cause of serious embarrassments.
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  • Lanfranc, during a visit which he paid the pope for the purpose of receiving his pallium, obtained an order from Alexander that the disputed points should be settled by a council of the English Church.
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  • He at once succeeded in obtaining from Alexander III.
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  • For the greater part of this time the archbishop resided at the Burgundian monastery of Pontigny, constantly engaged in negotiations with Alexander, whose hand he desired to force, and with Henry, from whom he hoped to extract an unconditional submission.
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  • Philip and Alexander, who sincerely admired Athenian culture and courted a zealous co-operation against Persia, treated the conquered city with marked favour.
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  • The outbreak headed by Athens after Alexander's death (323) led to a stubborn conflict with Macedonia.
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  • Alexander Butlerow named the " structure theory," and contributed much to the development of the subject.
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  • Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903).
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  • The attack on Persia was delayed by the assassination of Philip in 336, and it needed some fighting before the young Alexander had made his position secure in Macedonia and Greece.
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  • Then came the invasion of the Persian empire by Alexander in 334 at the head of an army composed both of Macedonians and contingents from the allied Greek states.
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  • Before this force the Persian monarchy went down, and when Alexander died eleven years later (323) a Macedonian empire which covered all the territory of the old Persian empire, and even more, was a realized fact.
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  • Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
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  • The conquered empire presented Alexander with a system of government ready-made, which it was natural for the new masters to take over.
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  • The governors appointed by Alexander were, in the west of the empire, exclusively Macedonians; in the east, members of the Old Persian nobility were still among the satraps at Alexander's death, Atropates in Media, Phrataphernes in Parthia and Hyrcania, 1 For the events which brought this empire into being see Alexander The Great.
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  • For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into which it was divided after Alexander's death, see Seleucid Dynasty, Antigonus, Pergamum, &C., and for its effect on the spread of Hellenic culture see Hellenism.
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  • Alexander had at first trusted Persian grandees more freely in this capacity; in Babylonia, Bactria, Carmania, Susiana he had set Persian governors, till the ingrained Oriental tradition of misgovernment so declared itself that to the three latter provinces certainly Macedonians had been appointed before his death.
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  • In the case of certain provinces, possibly in the empire generally, Alexander established a double control.
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  • Especially to the gods of the conquered people Alexander showed respect.
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  • A new factor introduced by Alexander was the foundation of Greek cities at all critical points of intercourse in the conquered lands.
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  • The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.
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  • Alexander, who set out as king of the Macedonians and captaingeneral of the Hellenes, assumed after the death of Darius the.
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  • To the Greeks and Macedonians such a regime was abhorrent, and the opposition roused by Alexander's attempt to introduce among them the practice of proskynesis (prostration before the royal presence), was bitter and effectual.
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  • Of higher rank than the pezetaeri were the royal foot-guards (lavtXucoi inraoriarat), some 3,000 in number, more lightly armed, and distinguished (at any rate at the time of Alexander's death) by silver shields.
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  • The rest of Alexander's army was composed of Greeks, not formally his subjects.
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  • When Alexander was lord of Asia, innovations followed in the army.
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  • Contingents of the fine Bactrian cavalry followed Alexander into India.
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  • The death of Alexander interrupted the scheme, and his successors reverted to the older system.
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  • In the wars of Alexander the phalanx was never the most active arm; Alexander delivered his telling attacks with his cavalry, whereas the slow-moving phalanx held rather the position of a reserve, and was brought up to complete a victory when the cavalry charges had already taken effect.
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  • Apart from the pitched battles, the warfare of Alexander was largely hill-fighting, in which the hypaspistae took the principal part, and the contingents of light-armed hillmen from the Balkan region did excellent service.
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  • (corrected at some points in his Philip and Alexander).
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  • The modifications in the army system were closely connected with Alexander's general policy, in which the fusion of Greeks of and Asiatics held so prominent a place.
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  • How far did Alexander intend that in such a fusion Hellenic culture should retain its pre-eminence?
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  • High above all the medley of kindreds and tongues, untrammelled by national traditions, for he had outgrown the compass of any one nation, invested with the glory of achievements in which the old bounds of the possible seemed to fall away, stood in 324 the man Alexander.
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  • The Egyptians had, of course, ascribed deity by old custom to their kings, and were ready enough to add Alexander to the list.
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  • The Persians, on the other hand, had a different conception of the godhead, and we have no proof that from them Alexander either required or received divine honours.
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  • Did Alexander merely receive such honours?
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  • A new life entered the lands conquered by Alexander.
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  • At the same time Alexander himself made it a principal concern to win fresh geographical knowledge, to open new ways.
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  • So too Heraclides was sent to explore the Caspian; the survey, and possible circumnavigation, of the Arabian coasts was the last enterprise which occupied Alexander.
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  • The accession of Alexander brought about a change in the monetary system of the kingdom.
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  • Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.
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  • With the conquest of Asia, Alexander conceived the plan of issuing a uniform coinage for the empire.
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  • Gold had fallen still further from the diffusion of the Persian treasure, and Alexander struck in both metals on the Attic standard, leaving their relation to adjust itself by the state of the market.
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  • None of the coins with Alexander's own image can be shown to have been issued during his reign; the traditional gods of the Greeks still admitted no living man to share their prerogative in this sphere.
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  • - The external fortunes of the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's death must be briefly traced before its inner developments be touched upon.'
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  • There was, at first, when Alexander suddenly died in 323, no overt disruption of the empire.
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  • King Philip had been murdered by Olympias in 317; the young Alexander by Cassander in 310; Heracles, the illegitimate son of Alexander the Great, by Polyperchon in 309.
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  • Three solid kingdoms had thus emerged from all the fighting since Alexander's death: the kingdom of the Antigonids in the original land of the race, the kingdom of the Ptolemies in Egypt, and that of the Seleucids, extending from the Aegean to India.
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  • But already parts of the empire of Alexander had passed from Macedonian rule altogether.
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  • From this time Rome formally entered upon the heritage of Alexander as far as the Euphrates, but many of the dynasties which had arisen in the days of Macedonian supremacy were allowed to go on for a 'time as client states.
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  • The Macedonians of Alexander were not mistaken in seeing an essential transformation of their national monarchy when Alexander adopted the guise of an Oriental great 2.
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