How to use Alcohols in a sentence
The higher alcohols such as propyl, isobutyl, amyl, capryl, oenanthyl and caproyl, have been identified; and the amount of these vary according to the different conditions of the fermentation.
The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Polymethylenes can give only secondary and tertiary alcohols, benzene only tertiary; these latter compounds are known as phenols.
Of these, undoubtedly the simplest are the ethers (q.v.), formed by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules of the same alcohol, " simple ethers," or of different alcohols, " mixed ethers."Advertisement
These compounds may be regarded as oxides in just the same way as the alcohols are regarded as hydroxides.
An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
The introduction of hydroxyl groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generically named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their increased chemical activity and acid nature.
The phenols more closely resemble the tertiary alcohols, since the hydroxyl group is linked to.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.Advertisement
This is true of the fatty acid series, and the corresponding ketones and alcohols, and also of the succinic acid series.
The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
The average value for primary alcohols is 44.67 cal., but many large differences from this value obtain in certain cases.
The acid finds considerable use in organic chemistry, being employed to discriminate between the different types of alcohols and of amines, and also in the production of diazo, azo and diazo-amino compounds.
Nascent hydrogen reduces them to primary alcohols, and phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine.Advertisement
Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.
The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic esters.
Our knowledge of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary hexyliodide.
The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.Advertisement
Diamines.-The diamines contain two amino groups and bear the same relation to the glycols that the primary monamines bear to the primary alcohols.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
Ketones, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols yield a mixture of acids on oxidation.
It may be synthetically prepared by any of the general methods described in the article Alcohols.
It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.Advertisement
The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.
For the formation of primary and secondary alcohols see Aldehydes and Ketones.
Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
Now in oxidizing, or introducing more oxygen, for instance, by means of a mixture of sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and admitting that oxygen acts on both compounds in analogous ways, the two alcohols may give (as they lose two atoms of hydrogen) CH 3 CH 2 COH and CH 3 C0 CH 3.
And so, as a rule, from isomeric alcohols, those containing a group - CH 2.0H, yield by oxidation aldehydes and are distinguished by the name primary; whereas those containing CH OH, called secondary, produce ketones.
These compounds generally behave as ketones; but at the same time they may act as alcohols, i.e.
With the Grignard reagent, they form addition compounds which on the addition of water yield tertiary alcohols, except in the case of ethyl formate, where a secondary alcohol is obtained.
Menschutkin (Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1 445; Ann., 1879, 1 95, p. 334) examined the rate of esterification of many acids with alcohols.
It was found that the normal primary alcohols were all esterified at about the same rate, the secondary alcohols more slowly than the primary, and the tertiary alcohols still more slowly.
Meyer (Ber., 18 94, 2 7, p. 510 et seq.) showed that in benzenoid compounds ortho-substituents exert a great hindering effect on the esterification of alcohols by acids in the presence of hydrochloric acid, this hindering being particularly marked when two substituents are present in the ortho positions to the carboxyl group. In such a case the ester is best prepared by the action of an alkyl halide on the silver salt of the acid, and when once prepared, can only be hydrolysed with great difficulty.
The fats and waxes are the esters of the higher fatty acids and alcohols.
Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil.
According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.
They are readily hydrolysed by water, and combine with bases to form alkyl ureas, and with alcohols to form carbamic esters.
Villiger (Be y ., 1901, 34, pp. 2679, 3612) showed that many organic compounds (ethers, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, &c.) behave towards acids, particularly the more complex acids, very much like bases and yield crystallized salts in which quadrivalent oxygen must be assumed as the basic element.
They may be regarded as the anhydrides of the alcohols, being formed by elimination of one molecule of water from two molecules of the alcohols; those in which the two hydrocarbon radicals are similar are known as simple ethers, and those in which they are dissimilar as mixed ethers.
They may be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on the alcohols, alkyl sulphuric acids being first formed, which yield ethers on heating with alcohols.
Nitric acid and chromic acid oxidize them in such a manner that they yield the same products as the alcohols from which they are derived.
At the same time various subsidiary products such as glycerin, succinic acid, small quantities of higher alcohols, volatile acids and compound esters are produced.
It differs from the simple ketenes in that it is apparently unacted upon by phenols and alcohols.
In 1855, reviewing the various substances that had been obtained from glycerin, he reached the conclusion that glycerin is a body of alcoholic nature formed on the type of three molecules of water, as common alcohol is on that of one, and was thus led (1856) to the discovery of the glycols or diatomic alcohols, bodies similarly related to the double water type.
This discovery he worked out very thoroughly in investigations of ethylene oxide and the polyethylene alcohols.
With methyl and ethyl alcohols it forms secondary amines (Vidal, Comptes rendus, 1891, 112, p. 950; 1892, 115, p. 123).
Aldehydes and Ketones.-The aldehydes are prepared in the usual manner from primary alcohols and acids.
Alcohols are classified on two distinct principles, one depending upon the number of hydroxyl groups present, the other on the nature of the remaining groups attached to the carbon atom which carries the hydroxyl group. Monatomic or monohydric alcohols contain only one hydroxyl group; diatomic, two, known as glycols; triatomic, three, known as glycerols; and so on.
The second principle leads to alcohols of three distinct types, known as primary, secondary and tertiary.
The genesis and formulation of these types may be readily understood by considering the relation which exists between the alcohols and the parent hydrocarbon.
Propane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 3, can give rise to two alcohols - a primary alcohol, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH (normal propyl alcohol), formed by replacing a hydrogen atom attached to a terminal carbon atom, and a secondary alcohol, CH 3.
In 1860 Hermann Kolbe predicted the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols from theoretical considerations.
These are the primary alcohols.
Furthermore, he exhibited a comparison between these three types of alcohols and the amines.
Many reactions serve to distinguish these three types of alcohols.
The primary alcohols are first oxidized to aldehydes, which, on further oxidation, yield acids containing the same number of carbon atoms as in the original alcohol.
Secondary alcohols yield ketones, which are subsequently oxidized to a mixture of two acids.
Tertiary alcohols yield neither aldehydes nor ketones, but a mixture of two or more acids.
Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.
Primary alcohols are obtained by decomposing their sulphuric acid esters (from sulphuric acid and the olefines) with boiling water; by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines; or by the reduction of aldehydes, acid chlorides or acid anhydrides.
Secondary alcohols result from the reduction of ketones; and from the reaction of zinc alkyls on aldehydes or formic acid esters.
Butlerow in 1864, who thus discovered the tertiary alcohols.
It is interesting to note that, whereas zinc methyl and ethyl give tertiary alcohols, zinc propyl only gives secondary alcohols.
The alcohols are neutral in reaction, and the lower members possess the property of entering into combination with salts, in which the alcohol plays the role of water of crystal O- lization.
The haloid esters of the paraffin alcohols formed by heating the alcohols with the halogen acids are the monohaloid derivatives of the paraffins, and are more conveniently prepared by the action of the phosphorous haloid on the alcohol.
The physical properties of the alcohols exhibit a gradation with the increase of molecular weight.
The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.
The boiling points of the normal alcohols increase regularly about for each CH, increment; this is characteristic of all homologous series of organic compounds.
Of the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols having the same empirical formula, the primaryhave the highest, and the tertiary the lowest boiling point; this is in accordance with the fairly general rule that a gain is symmetry is attended by a fall in the boiling point.
He also devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification, of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols.
C 2 H 5 SO 2 C1 (chlorides of sulphonic acids), by heating the salts of esters of sulphuric acid with potassium hydrosulphide, and by heating the alcohols with phosphorus pentasulphide.
Waxes The waxes consist chiefly of the fatty acid esters of the higher monohydric alcohols, with which are frequently associated free alcohols as also free fatty acids.
These acids can be further refined to make fatty alcohols, metallic soaps, fatty amines, fatty acid esters and fatty amides.
Oxidation of Alcohols Alcohols are oxidized by warming with an oxidizing agent, such as acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution.
The Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation has been known for 20 years and produces epoxides from allylic alcohols with high degrees of stereocontrol.
Fused calcium chloride is the commonest absorbent; but it must not be used with alcohols and several other compounds, since it forms compounds with these substances.
In their general behaviour towards oxidizing agents the primary glycols behave very similarly to the ordinary primary alcohols (q.v.), but the secondary and tertiary glycols break down, yielding compounds with a smaller carbon content.
We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
Four isomeric alcohols of this formula are known; two of these are primary, one secondary, and one tertiary (see Alcohols).
Butlerow in 1864 by acting with zinc methyl on acetyl chloride (see Alcohols).
The name is derived from alcohol dehydrogenatum in allusion to the fact that they may be prepared by the oxidation of alcohols.
They do not polymerize, and in the presence of caustic alkalies do not resinify, but oxidize to alcohols and acids (see Benzaldehyde for Cannizzaro's reaction).
Mai, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2135); from the higher alcohols by converting them into esters which are then distilled (F.
The normal alcohols were found to be transparent to the ultraviolet rays, the normal fatty acids less so.
In a tall glass filled with ice, combine the alcohols and sour mix.
In a shaker with ice, combine all three alcohols with the grenadine and shake.
The alcohols and additives used by perfumeries are sometimes highly flammable.
However, findings suggest that these reactions often occur with inks containing toxic ingredients such as cinnabar in red pigments, or dispersing solutions composed of formaldehyde or denatured alcohols.
Other sources of calories include organic acids (such as acetic acid and lactic acid) and polyols (sugar alcohols such as Mannitol, Xylitol and Glycerol).
In some diets, sugar substitutes such as stevia, sugar alcohols, and artificial sweeteners are permitted; however, it is not known entirely the effects that these substances have on the body or on the success of a low carb diet.
Skip desserts, which are heavy in the stomach and may ferment when eaten with other foods, causing bacterium to alter them to alcohols, vinegars and acetic acids.
Also, you should limit your intake of sugar substitutes and sugar alcohols while on a low carb diet.
Sugar alcohols are sweet substances that contain a unique chemical structure partially matching sugar and partially matching alcohol.
Sugar alcohols are natural substances extracted from plants.
Because they are natural, many people feel sugar alcohols are healthier than artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose, and saccharine, which are made from chemicals.
Sugar alcohols are often used to sweeten low-carbohydrate and diabetic foods.
Most sugar alcohols aren't as sweet as sugar.
Sugar alcohols also generally have fewer calories per gram than sugar.
Sugar alcohols are carbohydrates, and they show up in the carbohydrate counts on nutritional labels.
The other sugar alcohols have an effect ranging from mild to moderate, with malitol syrup having the most significant effect.
In most cases, sugar alcohols are safe replacements for sugar for diabetics.
If you are insulin-dependent, it is best to talk with your doctor before eating foods containing sugar alcohols.
Sugar alcohols may or may not be effective for low-carbohydrate diets.
Some dieters report that sugar alcohols increase carbohydrate cravings and cause their blood sugar to rise.
Many food manufacturers use sugar alcohols to provide sweetness.
Many people feel sugar alcohols are "free" foods they can eat indiscriminately.
Many of them contain alcohols, paraffins, phosphates and other ingredients that could trigger skin reactions.