Alcohol sentence example

alcohol
  • No alcohol, he reminded her.
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  • Violations, especially by those supplying alcohol to minors, should be dealt with severely.
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  • Even his ability to find alcohol for a party was adventurous.
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  • She snatched the lighter on the mantle and ran to the door, standing close until the alcohol lit and spread.
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  • Connor finished his second drink and Jackson could see by the softening around his eyes that the alcohol had started to work its magic.
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  • She tried to tell herself it was the alcohol scattering her thoughts and not the growing feeling of respect or concern she felt toward him.
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  • Too much alcohol on an empty stomach.
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  • von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
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  • They entered a dark dining hall, where a pot of tea and two tea cups sat waiting for them next to a carafe of amber alcohol at the table nearest the entrance.
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  • It was difficult to believe that Connie would tell Allen, knowing his weakness for alcohol, but how else would he have known?
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  • Her gaze went around the chamber and settled on the alcohol in the corner.
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  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
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  • The freshly-expressed yeast juice causes concentrated solutions of cane sugar, glucose, laevulose and maltose to ferment with the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, but not milk-sugar and mannose.
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  • Pasteur found that, when cane sugar was fermented by yeast, 49.4% of carbonic acid and 51.1% of alcohol were produced; with expressed yeast juice cane sugar yields 47% of carbonic acid and 47.7% of alcohol.
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  • Its industries include manufactures of cotton stuffs, alcohol and soap.
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  • He agreed with Pasteur that the presence of living cells is essential to the transformation of sugar into alcohol, but dissented from the view that the process occurs within the cell.
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  • The glycols are somewhat thick liquids, of high boiling point, the pinacones only being crystalline solids; they are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether.
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  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.
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  • Her blood was thrumming even faster than the alcohol alone would have caused, her body growing too warm for comfort.
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  • The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
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  • Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
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  • Billy Langstrom died last night with alcohol in his car.
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  • She had nothing better to do, not with her source of alcohol gone and her bed in flames.
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  • It is readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
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  • It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.
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  • Gabe approached and stopped behind her, claiming the alcohol with one hand.
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  • Alcohol buffered her from her all-out panic, enough so that she was able to sip coffee without dropping the mug.
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  • He cleared it, pushing aside the haze of alcohol and the pain he sensed but didn't understand the source of.
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  • She'd dared to hope again that everything was a hallucination brought on by too much alcohol, until Toby burst in chasing a cat she didn't remember owning.
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  • "We have similar taste in alcohol," he said, and lifted his glass to her.
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  • The two last classes number over 400,000 (1903), but the quantity of alcohol distilled by them is small.
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  • The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
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  • It will not dissolve in water as gums do, but it is soluble in alcohol, as resin usually is.
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  • No alcohol is served at the cafe, although patrons are welcome to bring their own.
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  • He had enough alcohol in his veins to believe he could drive, and too much pride to leave the party in the passenger seat.
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  • I had a second drink and let my belly dilute the alcohol with pot roast before leaving for Howie's house.
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  • Ample mention was made of alcohol as the fuel for the engine of lust.
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  • It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether and water.
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  • The hydrated salt forms rose-red prisms, readily soluble in water to a red solution, and in alcohol to a blue solution.
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  • He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.
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  • The powder is soluble in alcohol and strong solutions of alkalis, such as ammonia.
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  • AlcohoLThe distillation of alcohol is in the hands of three classes of persons.
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  • Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
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  • The warmth of the alcohol filled her.
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  • What is it with immortals and alcohol?
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  • We make our own alcohol.
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  • You're not allowed alcohol.
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  • Commercial alcohol or "spirits of wine" contains about 90% of pure ethyl alcohol, the remainder being water.
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  • It crystallizes in short hard prisms, which are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol.
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  • "I need your head clear," he said, irritated about the alcohol.
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  • She downed her painkillers with a swig of alcohol.
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  • Instead, she slumped against the wall, defeated by alcohol and impotent rage.
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  • The liquid is precipitated by alcohol, and the washed and dried precipitate is then dissolved in water and allowed to stand, when the salt separates in dark-coloured crystals.
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  • Their selection for a particular purpose depends upon some special quality which they possess; thus for brewing certain essentials are demanded as regards stability, clarification, taste and smell; whereas, in distilleries, the production of alcohol and a high multiplying power in the yeast are required.
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  • These fine jet droppers with a mixture of alcohol and water have proved very effective for balloon observations.
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  • Alcohol is made from the refuse molasses obtained from these beet-sugar factories.
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  • It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and boiling water.
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  • The restaurant is smoke-free, and no alcohol is served.
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  • "Why do you insist on giving our women alcohol?" he demanded of Daniela, who stood beside him.
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  • It is readily soluble in water and alcohol, but insoluble in ether.
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  • The elementary composition of sugar and alcohol was fixed in 1815 by analyses made by GayLussac, Thenard and de Saussure.
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  • Dean instinctively sniffed the air for the smell of cordite but his nostrils picked up only the scent of alcohol.
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  • It was like being drunk, but on a person, not alcohol.
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  • Daniela observed her for a moment then replaced the cup with a glass filled with the alcohol.
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  • "If you didn't bring them here either half-eaten by demons or thinking they're dead, they wouldn't need alcohol," Daniela snapped.
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  • Her headache pulsed and she felt hot from alcohol.
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  • He touched her neck, and she waited, assuming he'd take blood from her despite his distaste of alcohol.
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  • The human had spent most of the evening pacing around the cell, trying to make some sense of everything, stopping only briefly to eat, in an effort to soak up all the alcohol.
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  • He knew she was on borrowed time given the alcohol's delayed reaction.
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  • Other things included smoking, using drugs or alcohol.
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  • The yellow precipitate obtained is washed with a solution of potassium acetate and finally with dilute alcohol.
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  • From the foregoing it will be seen that the term fermentation has now a much wider significance than when it was applied to such changes as the decomposition of must or wort with the production of carbon dioxide and alcohol.
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  • Alcohol.
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  • It is a crystalline body, soluble only in concentrated alcohol.
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  • It crystallizes in yellow needles which melt at T 7 T ° C., and are only sparingly soluble in alcohol.
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  • ethylene dibromide) with silver acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus: C 2 H 4 Br 2 + C2H302 Ag-*C2H4(O C2H30)2->C2H4(OH)2+2K C2H302 by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G.
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  • The chloride,CdC1 2, bromide,CdBr 2, and iodide,Cdl2,arealsoknown, cadmium iodide being sometimes used in photography, as it is one of the few iodides which are soluble in alcohol.
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  • It crystallizes in needles and is soluble in alcohol.
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  • Alcohol has undergone various oscillations, according to the legislation governing distilleries.
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  • It is soluble in absolute alcohol and in ether.
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  • Various solvents, such as benzene, alcohol and chloroform, will dissolve out the pigment, leaving the plastid colorless.
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  • This comes in almost all such cases from the decomposition of sugar, which is split up by the protoplasm into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
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  • The crystalline form appears to be due entirely to the carotin, which can be artificially crystallized from an alcohol or ether solution.
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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
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  • Meta-aminophenol is prepared by reducing metanitrophenol, or by heating resorcin with ammonium chloride and ammonia to 200° C. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol is prepared by heating meta-aminophenol with methyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid in an autoclave; by sulphonation of dimethylaniline, the sulphonic acid formed being finally fused with potash; or by nitrating dimethylaniline, in the presence of sulphuric acid at 0° C. In the latter case a mixture of nitro-compounds is obtained which can be separated by the addition of sodium carbonate.
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  • The breathing becomes shallow, the drug killing, like nearly all neurotic poisons (alcohol, morphia, prussic acid, &c.), by paralysis of the respiratory centre, and the patient dying in a state of coma.
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  • It is a yellow, microcrystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol and chloroform, and forming readily decomposed salts with acids.
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  • Red wine, a smaller quantity of white, grape alcohol and wine alcohol are produced.
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  • rend., 188 4, 9 8, p. 1 44) obtained a form which he termed nacre (or pearly) sulphur; the same modification was obtained by Sabatier (ibid., 1885, 100, p. 1346) on shaking hydrogen persulphide with alcohol or ether.
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  • Another form, mixed with the variety just described, is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing the mixture to air at about 5°.
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  • The gas is much more soluble in alcohol.
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  • It is readily soluble in alcohol and in water, the solution.
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  • A pure zinc salt has been prepared by Nabl (Monats., 1899, 20, p. 679) by acting with zinc on a solution of sulphur dioxide in absolute alcohol, whilst H.
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  • Tetrathionic acid, H 2 S 4 0 6, is obtained in the form of its barium salt by digesting barium thiosulphate with iodine: 2Ba 2 S 2 0 3 -f12 = BaS406 -F 2BaI, the barium iodide formed being removed by alcohol; or in the form of sodium salt by the action of iodine on sodium thiosulphate.
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  • The residue is dissolved in alcohol and to the cold saturated solution a cold alcoholic solution of picric acid is added.
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  • Macabebe's principal industries are the cultivation of rice and sugar cane, the distilling of nipa alcohol, and the weaving of hemp and cotton fabrics.
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  • In the town there are tanneries, and manufactures of alcohol, chocolate and soap. The women make fine lace.
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  • yXvid r, sweet), a trihydric alcohol, trihydroxypropane, C 3 H 5 (OH) 3.
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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."
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  • According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
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  • It dissolves readily in water and alcohol in all proportions, but is insoluble in ether.
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  • Other thriving local industries include the manufacture of oil, soap, flour, leather, alcohol and esparto grass rugs.
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  • For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
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  • west, there are numerous sugarfactories; cotton is also grown and manufactured, and alcohol, flour, soap, iron goods and cotton stuffs are among the other industrial products.
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  • Wallach, Ann., 1878, 193, p. 25) It crystallizes in monoclinic tables, and is readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
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  • The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.
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  • It is a crystalline solid, which melts at 29 0 -30 0 C. and boils at 218°-219° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
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  • It is soluble in 4ths of its weight of cold, and in half its weight of boiling water, and dissolves in alcohol, but not in ether.
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  • Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
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  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
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  • Transparent soaps are prepared by dissolving ordinary soap in strong alcohol and distilling off the greater portion of the alcohol till the residue comes to the condition of a thick transparent jelly.
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  • It is almost insoluble in water, but mixes in all proportions with absolute alcohol, ether, benzene and various oils.
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  • This is then dissolved in water, reduced by alcohol and ignited in oxygen.
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  • He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.
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  • It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.
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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
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  • This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
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  • Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
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  • Of these, undoubtedly the simplest are the ethers (q.v.), formed by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules of the same alcohol, " simple ethers," or of different alcohols, " mixed ethers."
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  • This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetylacetone (3) by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalonic acid and tetrachioracetone (4); whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide (5) (Th.
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  • 'Cooh Ci, BrC CO CBr3+ H H2 HC ("CH, HC C /CH, H02C C02HCI CI (t) (2) C(3) (4) (5) The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol solution has been studied by A.
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  • If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol,is thus separated, the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests.
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  • By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
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  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.
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  • The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.
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  • considerably greater than the alcohol group. The ketone group corresponds to a thermal effect of 53.52 calories.
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  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
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  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.
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  • Ethyl salicylate, C 6 H 4 (OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5j is obtained by boiling salicylic acid with alcohol and a little sulphuric acid, or by dropping an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid into 13-naphthalene sulphonic acid at a temperature of 140-150° C. (German Patent 76,574).
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  • (C 6 H 4 CO 2 H) 2 is obtained by continued heating of salicylic acid and acetyl chloride to 130140° C. It is an amorphous yellow mass which is easily soluble in alcohol.
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  • Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 2 OH, is a colourless liquid, boiling at 116.8°, and formed by reducing normal butyl aldehyde with sodium, or by a peculiar fermentation of glycerin, brought about by a schizomycete.
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  • Isobutyl alcohol, (CH 3) 2 CH CH 2 OH, the butyl alcohol of fermentation, is a primary alcohol derived from isobutane.
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  • It is a liquid, smelling like fusel oil and boiling at 108.4° C. Methyl ethyl carbinol, CH 3 C 2 H 5 CHOH, is the secondary alcohol derived from nbutane.
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  • Trimethyl carbinol or tertiary butyl alcohol, (CH 3) 3.
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  • COH, is the simplest tertiary alcohol, and was obtained by A.
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  • In the season of 1904-1905, which may be taken as typical, 179 estates, with a planted area of 431,056 acres, produced 11,576,137 tons of cane, and yielded - in addition to alcohol, brandy and molasses-1,089,814 tons of sugar.
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  • By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.
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  • It is reduced by nascent hydrogen to the secondary alcohol C6H5.CH.OH.CH3 phenyl-methyl-carbinol, and on oxidation forms benzoic acid.
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  • They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.
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  • It differs from egg-albumin in its specific rotation (-57° to - 64°), and in being slowly coagulated by alcohol and ether.
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  • Fibrin, produced from fibrinogen by a ferment, is a jelly-like substance, coagulable by heat, alcohol, &c. The muscle-albumins include " myosin " or paramyosinogen, a globulin, which by coagulation induces rigor mortis, and the closely related " myosinogen " or myogen; myoglobulin and myoalbumin are also found in muscles.
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  • It is very soluble in water, but only slightly soluble in strong alcohol.
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  • On reduction glucose appears to yield the hexahydric alcohol d-sorbite, and on oxidation d-gluconic and d-saccharic acids.
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  • C 6 H 12 O 6 BaO, precipitable by alcohol.
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  • This character is the base of the plan of adding glucose to wine and beer wort before fermenting, the alcohol content of the liquid after fermentation being increased.
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  • Caoutchouc is not dissolved by water or alcohol, and is not affected except by the strongest acids.
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  • It crystallizes in fine silky needles and is soluble in water and alcohol.
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  • Paramide is a white amorphous powder, insoluble in water and alcohol.
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  • Lead sulphate, PbSO 4, occurs in nature as the mineral anglesite (q.v.), and may be prepared by the addition of sulphuric acid to solutions of lead salts, as a white precipitate almost insoluble in water (1 in 21,739), less soluble still in dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 36,504) and insoluble in alcohol.
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  • It forms colourless transparent crystals, soluble in one and a half parts of cold water and in eight parts of alcohol, which on exposure to ordinary air become opaque through absorption of carbonic acid, which forms a crust of basic carbonate.
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  • PHENANTHRENE, C14H10, a hydrocarbon isomeric with anthracene, with which it occurs in the fraction of the coal tar distillate boiling between 270°-400° C. It may be separated from the anthracene oil by repeated fractional distillation, followed by fractional crystallization from alcohol (anthracene being the less soluble), and finally purified by oxidizing any residual anthracene with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (R.
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  • It crystallizes in colourless plates or needles, which melt at 99° C. Its solutions in alcohol and ether have a faint blue fluorescence.
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  • Aconitine (C33H45N013, according to Dunstan; C34H47NOH, according to Freund) is a crystalline base, soluble in alcohol, but very sparingly in water; its alcoholic solution is dextrorotatory, but its salts are laevorotatory.
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  • Alcohol, strychnine and warmth must also be employed.
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  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.
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  • It is miscible in all proportions with alcohol, ether and water.
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  • It is a crystalline solid, which sublimes at 112°-115° C. It is insoluble in water, and is only slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.
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  • (For trichloracetaldehyde see Chloral.) By the action of acetaldehyde on alcohol at Ioo° C., acetal, CH 3.
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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.
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  • The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CH�CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.
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  • It is prepared by oxidizing cinnamyl alcohol, or by the action of sodium ethylate on a mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
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  • Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
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  • It is almost insoluble in water, but readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
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  • It can be synthetically prepared by the reduction of coniferyl alcohol, (HO) (CH 3 O) C6H3 CH :CH CH20H, which occurs in combination with glucose in the glucoside coniferin, C16H2208.
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  • This particular product was insoluble in a mixture of ether and alcohol, and its composition could be expressed by the term tri-nitrocellulose.
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  • A characteristic difference between guncotton and collodion cotton is the insolubility of the former in ether or alcohol or a mixture of these liquids.
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  • It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
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  • The making of ether by the action of sulphuric acid on alcohol was known in about the 13th century; and later Basil Valentine and Valerius Cordus described its preparation and properties.
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  • Ether is manufactured by the distillation of 5 parts of 90% alcohol with 9 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature of 140°-145° C., a constant stream of alcohol being caused to flow into the mixture during the operation.
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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
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  • If it be rubbed in or evaporation be prevented, it acts, like alcohol and chloroform, as an irritant.
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  • Taken internally, ether acts in many respects similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked, being exerted both reflexly from the stomach and directly after its rapid absorption.
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  • The abuse of alcohol may also be mentioned here as a factor in the poduction of disease.
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  • That quinine, chloroform, glycerin, alcohol, with others, had no attractive influence on them - negative chemiotaxis.
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  • Temperance in the use of alcohol has followed the demonstration not only of its unimportance as a food or tonic, but also of its harmfulness, save in very small quantities.
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  • In the earlier part of the 19th century, and in remoter districts even in its later years, the use of alcohol was regarded not as a mere indulgence, but as essential to health; the example of teetotallers, as seen in private life and in the returns of the insurance offices, has undermined this prepossession.
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  • It forms white crystals, which melt at 40° C., and are readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
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    0
  • It is decomposed readily by water, sodium hydroxide, alcohol and ether: 2SiHF 3 +4H 2 0 = H 4 S10 4 +H 2 SiF 6 -1-211 2; SiHF 3 +3NaOH H 2 O =H4S104+3NaF+H2; 2SiHF 3 +4C 2 H 5 OH =Si(0C 2 H 5) 4 +H 2 SiF 6 +2H 2 i SiHF 3 +3(C 2 H 5) 2 0 =SiH(OC2H5)3+3C2H5F.
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  • It is decomposed by alcohol and also by ether when heated to loo° C.: Si14-I-2C2H50H =S102±2C2H51+ 2HI; Si14+4(C2H5)20=Si(OC2H5)4+4C2H51.
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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
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  • Triethyl silicol, (C2H5),Si OH, is a true alcohol, obtained by condensing zinc ethyl with silicic ester, the resulting substance of composition, (C2H5)3 SiOC2H51 with acetyl chloride yielding a chloro-compound (C2H5)3SiC1, which with aqueous ammonia yields the alcohol.
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  • Dumas obtained barium methyl carbonate by the action of carbon dioxide on baryta dissolved in methyl alcohol (Ann., 1840, 35, p. 283).
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  • It is not very stable, water decomposing it into alcohol and the alkaline carbonate.
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  • 00 2 H 5, is formed by the addition of well-cooled absolute alcohol to phosgene (carbonyl chloride).
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  • Sodium amalgam converts it into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic ester.
    0
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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.
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  • All sugars are colourless solids or syrups, which char on strong heating; they are soluble in water, forming sweet solutions but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
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  • He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.
    0
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  • These reactions permit the transformation of an aldose into a ketose; the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde.
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  • The starting point was ordinary(d)mannite (mannitol),C 6 H 14 0 61 a naturally occurring hexahydric alcohol, which only differed from a-acritol, the alcohol obtained by reducing a-acrose, with regard to optical activity.
    0
    0
  • Impure inactive forms result on the polymerization of glycollic aldehyde and also on the oxidation of erythrite, a tetrahydric alcohol found in some lichens.
    0
    0
  • Chemically they appear to be ether anhydrides of the hexoses, the union being effected by the aldehyde or alcohol groups, and in consequence they are related to the ethers of glucose and other hexoses, i.e.
    0
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  • When slowly crystallized it forms large monoclinic prisms which are readily soluble in water but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
    0
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  • About 1760 the Berlin apothecary Marggraff obtained in his laboratory, by means of alcohol, 6.2% of sugar from a white variety of beet and 4.5% from a red variety.
    0
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  • A Spiritus Nucis Juglandis is given as an antispasmodic. It doubtless owes its properties to the alcohol which it contains.
    0
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  • About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of ether and alcohol and their derivatives.
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  • It melts at 213° C. and boils at 351° C. It is insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and ether, but readily soluble in hot benzene.
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  • aquifolium, Hydrastis canadensis, &c. It is a yellow, crystalline solid, insoluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in 41 parts of water at 21°, and moderately soluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is a monacid base; the hydrochloride, C 20 H 17 N0 4 HC1, is insoluble in cold alcohol, ether and chloroform, and soluble in 500 parts of water; the acid sulphate, C 20 H 17 N0 4 H 2 SO 4, dissolves in about loo parts of water.
    0
    0
  • Titanium trioxide, T103, is obtained as a yellow precipitate by dropping the chloride into alcohol, adding hydrogen peroxide, and finally ammonium carbonate or potash.
    0
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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.
    0
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  • Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
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  • On dry distillation it is resolved into trimethylamine and methyl alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is a liquid which boils at 135-136° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzene.
    0
    0
  • Cadaverine is a syrup at ordinary temperatures, and boils at 178-179° C. It is readily soluble in water and alcohol, but only slightly soluble in ether.
    0
    0
  • It is a liquid, which boils at 183° C., and is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
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  • Metaphenylene diamine crystallizes in rhombic plates which melt at 63° C. and boil at 287° C. It is easily soluble in water and alcohol.
    0
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  • The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.
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  • The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
    0
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  • The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
    0
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  • Liquids other than water may be used: thus alcohol separates a-pipecoline and ether nitropropylene.
    0
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  • An example is propyl alcohol and water.
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  • Examples are water and methyl or ethyl alcohol.
    0
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  • One of the earliest red-hot tube syntheses of importance was the formation of naphthalene from a mixture of alcohol and ether vapours.
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  • It forms deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at ioo° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid (q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and fumaric acid.
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  • A large trade is carried on in grain, flour, alcohol, cattle and wood.
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  • Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.
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  • p. 375) applied in Russia to the manufacture of alcohol, by a series of chemical reactions starting from the production of acetylene by the action of water upon calcium carbide.
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  • When heated with glycerin to ioo C. it yields formic acid and carbon dioxide; above this temperature, allyl alcohol is formed.
    0
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  • Ethyl oxalate, (C0.0C2H5)2, prepared by boiling anhydrous oxalic acid with absolute alcohol, is a colourless liquid which boils at 186° C. Methyl oxalate (CO.
    0
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  • 00H3)2, which is prepared in a similar manner, is a solid melting at 54° C. It is used in the preparation of pure methyl alcohol.
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  • The administration of enormous doses of alcohol is to be condemned strongly.
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  • The word "alcohol" is of Arabic origin, being derived from the particle al and the word kohl, an impalpable powder used in the East for painting the eyebrows.
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  • Ordinary alcohol, which we shall frequently refer to by its specific name, ethyl alcohol, seldom occurs in the vegetable kingdom; the unripe seeds of Heracleum giganteum and H.
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  • In the animal kingdom it occurs in the urine of diabetic patients and of persons addicted to alcohol.
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  • The mechanism of alcoholic fermentation is discussed in the article Fermentation, and the manufacture of alcohol from fermented liquors in.
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  • Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile liquid of an agreeable odour.
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  • It mixes with water in all proportions, the mixing being attended by a contraction in volume and a rise in temperature; the maximum contraction corresponds to a mixture of 3 molecules of alcohol and I of water.
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  • This water cannot be entirely removed by fractional distillation, and to prepare anhydrous or "absolute" alcohol the commercial product must be allowed to stand over some dehydrating agent, such as caustic lime, baryta, anhydrous copper sulphate, &c., and then distilled.
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  • Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol.
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  • The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
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  • The presence of water in alcohol may be detected in several ways.
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  • Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed.
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  • A more delicate method consists in adding a very little anthraquinone and sodium amalgam; absolute alcohol gives a green coloration, but in the presence of minute traces of water a red coloration appears.
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  • Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide.
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  • Alcohol is extensively employed as a solvent; in fact, this constitutes one of its most important industrial applications.
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  • It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.
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  • In general, gases dissolve in it more readily than in water; loo volumes of alcohol dissolve 7 volumes of hydrogen, 25 volumes of oxygen and 16 volumes of nitrogen.
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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).
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  • Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid.
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  • In almost all countries heavy taxes are levied on manufactured alcohol mainly as a source of revenue.
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  • In the United Kingdom the excise duty is eleven shillings per proof gallon of alcohol, while the customs duty is eleven shillings and 5' g fivepence; the magnitude of these imposts may be more readily understood when one remembers that the proof gallon costs only about sevenpence to manufacture.
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  • The great importance of alcohol in the arts has necessitated the introduction of a duty-free product which is suitable for most industrial purposes, and at the same time is perfectly unfit for beverages or internal application.
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  • In the United Kingdom this "denaturized" alcohol is known as methylated spirit as a distinction from pure alcohol or "spirits of wine."
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  • It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.
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  • This spirit ("unmineralized methylated spirit") consisted of 90 parts of alcohol of 60-66 over-proof (9 1 -95% of pure alcohol) and 0 parts of wood-naphtha.
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  • The Finance Act of 1902 allows a manufacturer to obtain a license which permits the use of duty-free alcohol, if he can show that such alcohol is absolutely essential for the success of his business, and that methylated spirit is unsuitable.
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  • Notwithstanding this permission there have been many agitations on the part of chemical manufacturers to obtain a less restricted use of absolute alcohol, and in 1905 an Industrial Alcohol Committee was appointed to receive evidence and report as to whether any modification of the present law was advisable.
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  • In the United States the same question was considered in 1896 by a Joint Select Committee on the use of alcohol in the manufactures and arts.
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  • The German regulations are apparently based on a keen appreciation of the fact that while one particular denaturizing agent may have little or no effect on one industry, yet it would be quite fatal to the success of another; there is consequently a great choice of denaturizing agents, and in certain cases it is sufficient to mix the alcohol with a reagent necessary for the purpose in hand, or even with a certain amount of the final product, it being only necessary to satisfy the state that the spirit is not available as a beverage.
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  • In France, the general denaturizing agent is wood-spirit of at least 58 over-proof, and containing 25% of acetone and 2.5% of "impurites pyrogenees"; 10 litres of this spirit denaturizes Too litres of alcohol.
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  • In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).
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  • ==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted.
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  • If, on the other hand, the alcohol be rubbed into the skin, or if its evaporation be prevented - as by a watch-glass - it absorbs water from the tissues and thus hardens them.
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  • Thoroughly rubbed into the skin alcohol dilates the bloodvessels and produces a mild counter-irritant effect.
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  • Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.
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  • In a 50% solution or stronger - as when neat whisky is taken - alcohol precipitates the pepsin which is an essential of gastric digestion, E.nd thereby arrests this process.
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  • The desirable effects produced by alcohol on the stomach are worth obtaining only in cases of acute diseases.
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  • In chronic disease and in health the use of alcohol as an aid to digestion is without the support of clinical or laboratory experience, the beneficial action being at least neutralized by undesirable effects produced elsewhere.
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  • The continued use of large doses of alcohol produces chronic gastritis, in which the continued irritation has led to overgrowth of connective tissue, atrophy of the gastric glands and permanent cessation of the gastric functions.
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  • After absorption, which is very rapid, alcohol exerts a marked action upon the blood.
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  • Hence the diminished oxidation of the tissues, which leads to the accumulation of unused fat and so to the obesity which is so often seen in those who habitually take much alcohol.
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  • Alcohol also diminishes the oxidation which is the main source of the body-heat.
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  • The largest amount of alcohol that can be burnt up within the healthy body in twenty-four hours is 12 oz., but it must be consumed in great dilution and divided into small doses taken every four hours.
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  • Otherwise the alcohol will for the most part leave the body unused in the urine and the expired air.
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  • It follows that alcohol is a food in fever, and its value in this regard is greatly increased by the fact that it requires no primary digestion, but passes without changes, and without needing change, to the tissues which are to use it.
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  • According to Sir Thomas Fraser nothing else can compete with alcohol as a food in desperate febrile cases, and to this use must be added its antipyretic power already explained and its action as a soporific. During its administration in febrile cases the drug must be most carefully watched, as its action may prove deleterious to the nervous system and the circulation in certain classes of patient.
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  • The state of the pulse is the best criterion of the action of alcohol in any given case of fever.
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  • The toxicology of alcohol is treated in other articles.
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  • intoxication), chronic alcoholism, delirium tremens, and all the countless pathological changes - extending to every tissue but the bones, and especially marked in the nervous system - which alcohol produces.
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  • After death the presence of alcohol can be detected in all the body fluids.
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  • Soc., 1897, 60, p. 360; " Note on the Dielectric Constant of Ice and Alcohol at very low Temperatures," ib., 1897, 61, p. 2; " On the Dielectric Constants of Pure Ice, Glycerine, Nitrobenzol and Ethylene Dibromide at and above the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
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  • The acid, auricyanic acid, 2HAu (CN) 4.3H20, is obtained by treating the silver salt (obtained by precipitating the potassium salt with silver nitrate) with hydrochloric acid; it forms tabular crystals, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether.
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  • Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.
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  • From 1872 onwards he was a strict teetotaller, not touching alcohol even as a medicine, and there was some murmuring among his clergy that his teaching on this subject verged on heresy.
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  • Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.
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  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.
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  • Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, - t whilst if it be heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260° C. a dodecahydride is formed.
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  • rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.46 at 26°, and gives with an excess of water a dense precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.28 at 25.6°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 2.98 at 26°.
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  • Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.
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  • According to Quincke, the surface tension of pure water in contact with air at 20° C. is 81 dynes per linear centimetre, while that of alcohol is only 25.5 dynes; and a small percentage of alcohol produces much more than a proportional decrease in the surface tension when added to pure water.
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  • The pipette having been carefully dried, the process is repeated with pure alcohol or with proof spirits, and the strength of any admixture of water and spirits is determined from the corresponding number of drops, but the formula generally given is not based upon sound data.
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  • In both forms it is usual to have the space between the bulb and the protecting sheath partly filled with mercury or alcohol to act as a conductor and reduce the time necessary for the thermometer to acquire the temperature of its surroundings.
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  • The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
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  • In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
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  • With zinc dust in presence of caustic soda it yields the secondary alcohol oxanthranol, C 6 H 4: CO Choh: C 6 H 4, with tin and hydrochloric acid, the phenolic compound anthranol, C5H4: CO.
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  • It behaves more as a ketone than as a quinone, since with hydroxylamine it yields an oxime, and on reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yields a secondary alcohol, whilst it cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous acid.
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  • "ALCOHOL I.525).
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  • - Alcohol intended for potable purposes has always been subject to a heavy duty in all countries.
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  • In the United Kingdom the duty on alcohol was raised in 1920 from 30s.
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  • Owing to its prohibitive price, duty-paid alcohol cannot be used for the many purposes for which it is essential, quite apart from the production of light, heat and power.
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  • In 1853 exhaustive experiments were carried out in England with a view to ascertaining whether it would be possible so to treat alcohol as to allow it to be used industrially without, at the same time, any risk of the revenue being defrauded.
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  • These experiments resulted in the legislation of 1855, when the use of duty-free alcohol mixed with 10% by volume of wood naphtha, known as methylated spirits, was authorized for manufacturing purposes only.
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  • The Netherlands legalized the use of denatured alcohol in 1865; in 1872 France permitted its use under a special tax, and in Germany its employment was authorized in 1879, the other European countries following, Austria in 1888, Italy in 1889, Sweden in 1890, Norway in 1891, Switzerland in 1893, and Belgium in 1896.
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  • In the United States the tax on distilled spirits was repealed in 1817, but was reimposed at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, and it was not until 1907 that denatured alcohol became tax-free for general purposes.
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  • Alcohol was used in Germany for many years before the World War in increasing quantities as a source of heat, but its application for light and power started about 1887.
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  • In 1895, in order to bring down its price, a distillation tax was imposed, from which a refund was paid on alcohol used for other than beverage purposes.
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  • About this date the output of alcohol in Germany and its use in stationary internal-combustion engines increased rapidly.
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  • The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.
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  • The subject received little attention in the United Kingdom, owing to the relatively high cost of home-produced alcohol as compared with that of imported petrol; and the use of alcohol in England for generating mechanical power was neither contemplated nor provided for by the Legislature before 1920, when, as the result of the consideration of the position by the Government, following on a report by a Departmental Committee appointed towards the end of 1918, clauses were inserted in the Finance Act of 1920 legalizing the use of alcohol for power purposes.
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  • Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
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  • For these reasons alcohol has not been used to any extent in petrol motors.
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  • In the appended table are given some comparative figures in connexion with commercial petrols and alcohol, taken from H.
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  • Alcohol and Petrol as Fuel.
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  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
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  • If foodstuffs are to be employed it must be possible to grow them in excess of food requirements, and at a cost low enough to ensure that the price of the alcohol shall be about the same as that 1 The lower calorific value plus the latent heat of evaporation at constant volume.
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  • Foodstuffs could not be grown in the United Kingdom at sufficiently low prices, nor in sufficient quantities, to produce alcohol commercially and on a large scale.
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  • Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.
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  • It is in this direction, which is being actively followed up in the dominions and colonies, that the production of alcohol for use in internal-combustion engines is most likely to advance so far as the British Empire is concerned.
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  • It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
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  • Whilst the use of alcohol for power purposes, mainly in connexion with stationary and agricultural engines, was common in Germany before the war, its employment in Europe and also in the United States for motor engines has not made much headway, nor was it apparent in 1921 that any active steps were being taken outside the British Empire to develop it for the purpose on any considerable scale.
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  • In France, where large stocks of alcohol were left over from the manufacture of explosives during the war, it was unable to compete with petrol as regards price, and was only being used in comparatively small quantities, and mixed with benzol.
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  • The German production of alcohol had fallen off very much since the war, and little if any was being used for motors, benzol being the fuel principally employed.
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  • The manufacture of alcohol from the sulphite lyes of the wood-pulp industry was contemplated, but carbide, although produced in increasing quantities, was not considered as a possible raw material owing to its greater importance as a source of the fertilizer cyanamide.
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    0
  • An alcohol monopoly law was passed in July 1918.
    0
    0
  • In Sweden, where wood pulp is made in enormous quantities, the manufacture of alcohol from the waste sulphite lyes is carried on, and it was estimated that in 1920 the probable capacity was in the neighbourhood of 8,000,000 gal.; the actual production, however, amounted to about 2,750,000 gal.
    0
    0
  • Norway also produces sulphite lyes and alcohol from them on a smaller scale.
    0
    0
  • There are several distilleries in the United States devoted to the production of industrial alcohol, with an estimated capacity of about 90,000,000 gal.; in 1919 about ioo,000,000 gal.
    0
    0
  • Some attention is also being given to the manufacture of alcohol for power purposes in Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philippines; and in Cuba, from the molasses produced as a by-product in the sugar refineries.
    0
    0
  • METHYL ALCOHOL (CH 2 OH), the simplest aliphatic alcohol; an impure form is known in commerce as wood-spirit, being produced in the destructive distillation of wood.
    0
    0
  • It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.
    0
    0
  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.
    0
    0
  • To obtain it perfectly pure the crude alcohol is combined with oxalic, benzoic or acetic acid, and the resulting ester separated, purified, and finally decomposed with potash.
    0
    0
  • Methyl alcohol is also obtained in the dry distillation of molasses.
    0
    0
  • The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
    0
    0
  • Pure methyl alcohol is a colourless mobile liquid, boiling at 66°-67°, and having a specific gravity of 0 8142 at o° C. It has a burning taste, and generally a spirituous odour, but when absolutely pure it is said to be odourless.
    0
    0
  • It mixes in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
    0
    0
  • Oxidation gives formaldehyde, formic acid and carbonic acid; chlorine and bromine react, but less readily than with ethyl alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The chief industrial applications are for making denatured alcohol (q.v.), and as a solvent, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Methyl chloride CH 3 C1, is a gas, boiling at - 23°, obtained by chlorinating methane, or better, from methyl alcohol; wood spirit is treated with salt and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid gas conducted into the boiling spirit in the presence of zinc chloride, the evolved gas being washed with potash and dried by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Alcohol dissolves 35 volumes and water 4.
    0
    0
  • It can be readily diazotized, and the diazonium salt when boiled with alcohol yields aposafranine or benzene induline, C18H12N3.
    0
    0
  • Kehrmann showed that aposafranine could be diazotized in the presence of cold concentrated sulphuric acid, and the diazonium salt on boiling with alcohol yielded phenylphenazonium salts.
    0
    0
  • Potassium osmiate, K 2 0sO 4 2H 2 0, formed when an alkaline solution of the tetroxide is decomposed by alcohol, or by potassium nitrite, crystallizes in red octahedra.
    0
    0
  • It acts as an oxidizing agent, liberating iodine from potassium iodide, converting alcohol into acetaldehyde, &c.
    0
    0
  • Potassium osmichloride, K 2 OsC1 6, is formed when a mixture of osmium and potassium chloride is heated in a current of chlorine, or on adding potassium chloride and alcohol to a solution of the tetroxide in hydrochloric acid.
    0
    0
  • It fumes in air; with water it gives ZrOI 2.8H 2 0; and with alcohol ethyl iodide and zirconium hydroxide are formed.
    0
    0
  • Sugar and alcohol were also placed under the control of central boards, in connexion with existing organizations but with a certain independence: for instance, the Sugar Kartel ceased to exist, while the Central Sugar Board continued.
    0
    0
  • Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
    0
    0
  • It is rapidly acted on by water, especially if means are taken to remove the layer of calcium hydrate formed on the metal; alcohol acts very slowly.
    0
    0
  • It is easily soluble in water, from which it crystallizes in cubes, and also in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is soluble in dilute aqueous alcohol, but insoluble in strong alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.
    0
    0
  • It is soluble in I in 3 of cold water and in I in 50 of 90% alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The agriculture of the republic supplies the material for several important industries, including the production of sugar, beer and spirits, starch (120 factories), syrup, glucose, chicory, coffee substitutes from rye and barley, jams. Alcohol and spirits are distilled in 1,100 distilleries employing 18,000 workmen and producing annually some.
    0
    0
  • It is very soluble in water, yielding a strongly alkaline solution; it also dissolves in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Soc., 1893, 65, p. 890) obtained NaOH H 2 O from hot concentrated solutions and NaOH 2H 2 O from a solution of the hydroxide in 96.8% alcohol.
    0
    0
  • When dissolved in water it yields some NaOH and H202; on crystallizing a cold 'solution Na202.8H20 separates as large tabular hexagonal crystals, which on drying over sulphuric acid give Na 2 0 2.2H 2 0; the former is also obtained by precipitating a mixture of caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide solutions with alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Sodyl hydroxide, NaHO 2, exists in two forms: one, Na O.OH, obtained from hydrogen peroxide and sodium ethylate; the other, 0 :Na OH, from absolute alcohol and sodium peroxide at 0 °.
    0
    0
  • Soc., 1905, 27, p. 1019) the iodide differs from the other haloid salts in separating from solution in alcohols with "alcohol of crystallization."
    0
    0
  • The acid sulphite, NaHSO 3, obtained by saturating a cold solution of the carbonate with sulphur dioxide and precipitating by alcohol, is employed for sterilizing beer casks.
    0
    0
  • They combine with hypochlorous acid to form chlorhydrins; and are easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with water, the alcohol from which the olefine was in the first place derived is regenerated.
    0
    0
  • It is still more soluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The metal also reacts with alcohol to form potassium ethylate, while hydrogen escapes, this time without inflammation: K+C 2 H 5.
    0
    0
  • A preparation sufficing for most purposes is obtained by digesting the commercial article in absolute alcohol, decanting and evaporating the solution to dryness and fusing in silver vessels.
    0
    0
  • The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.
    0
    0
  • It is sparingly soluble in absolute alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The carbonate, being insoluble in strong alcohol (and many other liquid organic compounds), is much used for dehydration of the corresponding aqueous preparations.
    0
    0
  • 1.35, and in absolute alcohol.
    0
    0
  • An excess of alcohol, in fact, precipitates normal sulphate (with little bisulphate) and free acid remains in solution.
    0
    0
  • There are manufactures of alcohol, liqueurs, chocolate, starch, sugar, preserves, flour, soap, leather, earthenware, glass, matches, paper, linen, woollen goods and rugs.
    0
    0
  • This appears particularly in their attitude toward revenue officers sent to discover and close illicit stills for the distilling from Indian corn of so-called " moon-shine " whisky (consisting largely of pure alcohol).
    0
    0
  • To these may be added wool-weaving, centred at Sedan, and minor industries such as the manufacture of basket-work, wooden shoes, &c. Coal and raw wool are prominent imports, while iron goods, cloth, timber, live-stock, alcohol and the products of the soil are exported.
    0
    0
  • Arecaidine forms white crystals easily soluble in water, and difficultly soluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The excise taxes in 1905 were levied on tobacco, alcohol and alcoholic beverages, and on cotton goods.
    0
    0
  • Livingstone was a great advocate of the prohibition of alcohol among the natives, and that policy was always adhered to by Khama.
    0
    0
  • The result was that their territories and those of other petty chiefs lying to the north of the Molopo were made native reserves, into which the importation of alcohol was forbidden.
    0
    0
  • It melts readily over the fire, and softens even with the heat of the mouth; it is insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is only very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in solutions of the alkaline iodides and in alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, and many liquid hydrocarbons.
    0
    0
  • Its solutions in the alkaline iodides and in alcohol and ether are brown in colour, whilst in chloroform and carbon bisulphide the solution is violet.
    0
    0
  • Lavoisier showed that air was necessary to the formation of vinegar from alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
    0
    0
  • Most of the azoximes are very volatile substances, sublime readily, and are easily soluble in water, alcohol and benzene.
    0
    0
  • The alkali and alkaline earth cyanides are soluble in water and in alcohol, and their aqueous solution, owing to hydrolytic dissociation, possesses an alkaline character.
    0
    0
  • Ammonium cyanide, NH 4 NC, a white solid found to some slight extent in illuminating gas, is easily soluble in water and alcohol, and is very poisonous.
    0
    0
  • Potassium cyanide is an excessively poisonous, colourless, deliquescent solid; it is readily soluble in water, but almost insoluble in absolute alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Allyl cyanide boils at 119° C. Benzonitrile boils at 190.6° C. When solidified it melts att7° C. It is easily soluble in alcohol and ether.
    0
    0
  • They are colourless liquids, readily soluble in alcohol and in ether, but insoluble in water.
    0
    0
  • It may be prepared artificially by the oxidation of methyl alcohol and of formaldehyde; by the rapid heating of oxalic acid (J.
    0
    0
  • It is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
    0
    0
  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.
    0
    0
  • It is a tertiary base, and has also the properties of an acid and an alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Sodium in amyl alcohol solution reduces it to hydroecgonidine C9H15N02, while moderate oxidation by potassium permanganate converts it into norecgonine.
    0
    0
  • ANTIPYRINE (phenyldimethyl pyrazolone) (C11H12N20), is prepared by the condensation of phenylhydrazine with acetoacetic ester, the resulting phenyl methyl pyrazolone being heated with methyl iodide and methyl alcohol to loo-110° C.: CH 0=N CH3 C-N CH3 >N C6H5 - II >N C6H6 CH 2 -CO HC-CO Phenyl methyl pyrazolone Antipyrine On the large scale phenylhydrazine is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, the solution warmed to about 40° C. and the aceto-acetic ester added.
    0
    0
  • The portion distilling at about 200° C. is then methylated by means of methyl alcohol and methyl iodide at loo-i io C., the excess of methyl alcohol removed and the product obtained decolorized by sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
  • The compounds containing this radical are treated under other headings; the hydride is better known as ethane, the alcohol, C 2 H 5 OH, is the ordinary alcohol of commerce, and the oxide (C 2 H 5) 2 O is ordinary ether.
    0
    0
  • Allyl alcohol >>
    0
    0
  • In this latter form the observations have to be made at the standard temperature of 60° F., at which the graduation 100 corresponds to proof spirit and 200 to absolute alcohol.
    0
    0
  • The reading gives the volume of proof spirit equivalent to the volume of liquor; u A thus the readings 80° and 120° mean that 100 volumes of the test liquors contain the same amount of absolute alcohol as 80 and 120 volumes of proof spirit respectively.
    0
    0
  • Proof spirit is defined in the United States as a mixture of alcohol and water which contains equal volumes of alcohol and water at 60° F., the alcohol having a specific gravity of 0.7939 at 60° as compared with water at its maximum density.
    0
    0
  • The specific gravity of proof spirit is 0.93353 at 60°; and 100 volumes of the mixture is made from 50 volumes of absolute alcohol and 53.71 volumes of water.
    0
    0
  • % by volume of alcohol at 15° C., the highest division of the scale corresponding to the purest alcohol he could obtain (density 7947) and the lowest division corresponding to pure water.
    0
    0
  • Tralles's hydrometer differs from Gay-Lussac's only in being graduated at 4° C. instead of 15° C., and taking alcohol of density 7939 at 15.5° C. for pure alcohol instead of 7947 as taken by GayLussac (Keene's Handbook of Hydrometry).
    0
    0
  • Dr Bones of Montpellier constructed a hydrometer which was based upon the results of his experiments on mixtures of alcohol and water.
    0
    0
  • The interval between the points corresponding to pure alcohol and to pure water Bones divided into 100 equal parts, though the stem was proFIG.
    0
    0
  • When loaded with either of the lightest two weights the instrument is specifically lighter than Sikes's hydrometer when unloaded, and it may thus be used for specific gravities as low as that of absolute alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.
    0
    0
  • It dissolves iodine and absorbs chlorine, and is decomposed by water with formation of chromic and hydrochloric acids; it takes fire in contact with sulphur, ammonia, alcohol, &c., and explodes in contact with phosphorus; it also acts as a powerful oxidizing agent.
    0
    0
  • Chromic sulphate, Cr2(S04)3, is prepared by mixing the hydroxide with concentrated sulphuric acid and allowing the mixture to stand, a green solution is first formed which gradually changes to blue, and deposits violet-blue crystals, which are purified by dissolving in water and then precipitating with alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Juniper, cinnamon, carraway, camomile, cloves and other flavouring agents are also employed in conjunction with the bitter principles, alcohol and sugar.
    0
    0
  • Bitters are usually sold under the name of the substance which has been used to give them the predominant flavour, such as orange, angostura or peach bitters, &c. The alcoholic strength of bitters varies, but is generally in the neighbourhood of 40% of alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
    0
    0
  • Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(1)C 6 H 4 OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4 0 93) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azometa-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride.
    0
    0
  • It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene.
    0
    0
  • Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).
    0
    0
  • Azoxybenzene, (C 6 H 5 N) 2 0, crystallizes from alcohol in yellow needles, which melt at 36° C. On distillation, it yields aniline and azobenzene.
    0
    0
  • It can also be extracted from almost all plants by treatment of the tissue with alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Abietic acid can be extracted from colophony by means of hot alcohol; it crystallizes in leaflets, and on oxidation yields trimellitic, isophthalic and terebic acid.
    0
    0
  • It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.
    0
    0
  • It is precipitated from hot solutions by alcohol, falling as a white powder.
    0
    0
  • The latter species is grown in America chiefly for the manufacture of molasses from its juice, and in France as a source of alcohol.
    0
    0
  • A large proportion of the rice brought to Europe is used for starch-making, and some is taken by distillers of alcohol.
    0
    0
  • This law cannot be maintained in its generality, but nevertheless highly dispersive substances like carbon bisulphide are always found to produce a greater shift than liquids of smaller dispersion like water and alcohol.
    0
    0
  • They are readily soluble in water or alcohol and possess a bitter taste.
    0
    0
  • On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.
    0
    0
  • Formic ester yields a secondary alcohol under similar conditions.
    0
    0
  • - Methyl alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Boric acid is easily soluble in alcohol, and if the vapour of the solution be inflamed it burns with a characteristic vivid green colour.
    0
    0
  • The card nearly floats in a bowl filled with distilled water, to which 35% of alcohol is added to prevent freezing; the bowl is hermetically sealed with pure india-rubber, and a corrugated expansion chamber is attached to the bottom to allow for the expansion and contraction of the liquid.
    0
    0
  • Thus if in one gramme of a mixture of water, alcohol and salt we are told the amount of water and salt, we can tell the amount of alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Solutions of colloids in solvents such as water and alcohol seem to be divisible into two classes.
    0
    0
  • Strychnine crystallizes from alcohol in colourless prisms, which are practically insoluble in water, and with difficulty soluble in the common organic solvents.
    0
    0
  • It has a sweet astringent taste, very soluble in water, but scarcely soluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Its specific gravity is 96, a little less than that of water, and it dissolves freely in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic acid.
    0
    0
  • In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is ..rst oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed.
    0
    0
  • Its action on the stomach is practically identical with that of alcohol (q.v.), though in very much smaller doses.
    0
    0
  • It forms small crystals, showing a brilliant green reflex, and is soluble in water and alcohol with formation of a deep red solution.
    0
    0
  • Pararosaniline was reduced to the corresponding leuco compound (paraleucaniline), from which by diazotization and boiling with alcohol, the parent hydrocarbon was obtained (H 2 N C 5 H 4) 2 C:C 6 H 4 :NH 2 Cl - HC(C6H4NH2 HCl)3 - >HC(C6H4N2C13) Pararosaniline hydrochloride.
    0
    0
  • CH 3, is an aromatic smelling liquid of boiling point 129.5-130° C. It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
    0
    0
  • so to break up its molecules that, apart from small quantities used for its own substance, masses of it out of all proportion to the mass of yeast used become resolved into other bodies, such as carbon dioxide and alcohol, the process requiring little or no oxygen.
    0
    0
  • The following summary of some of the principal characteristics of half-a-dozen species will serve to show how such peculiarities can be utilized for systematic purposes: and others have shown that a ferment (zymase) can be extracted from yeast-cells which causes sugar to break up into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It has since been shown by Buchner and Albert that yeast-cells which have been killed by alcohol and ether, or with acetone, still retain the enzyme.
    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in water, but is readily soluble in alcohol,, and ether.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in yellow needles, which melt at 61° C., and are readily soluble in alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It forms colourless needles which melt at 94° C.; and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and caustic alkalis.
    0
    0
  • It is reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution to "aromatic" tetrahydro-a-naphthol (reduction occurring in the ring which does not contain the hydroxyl group).
    0
    0
  • It forms needles which melt at 160° C. (3-Naphthoic acid, obtained b y boiling 0-methylnaphthalene with dilute nitric acid, or by hydrolysis of its nitrile (formed when formyl-0-naphthalide is heated with zinc dust), crystallizes from alcohol in needles which Nitrosonaplithols or naphthoquinone-oxames, C 1 oH 6 (OH)(NO) or melt at 184° C. C 1 oH 6 (: NOH): 0.
    0
    0
  • In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.
    0
    0
  • They dissolve easily in water, but only to a slight extent in alcohol and ether.
    0
    0
  • Replacement of - NH 2 by hydrogen :-This exchange is brought about, in some cases, by boiling the diazonium salt with alcohol; but I.
    0
    0
  • Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
    0
    0
  • Hantzsch (Ber., 18 9 6, 2 9, p. 947 1898, 31, p. 1253) has shown that the chlorand bromdiazoniumthiocyanates, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanbenzene diazonium chlorides and bromides.
    0
    0
  • By dissolving this diazocyanide in alcohol and reprecipitating it by water, it is converted into the isomeric diazocyanide (melting at 105-106° C.), which does not yield para-chlorbenzonitrile when treated with copper powder.
    0
    0
  • When heated with water it forms ethyl hydroxy-acetate; with alcohol it yields ethyl ethoxyacetate.
    0
    0
  • Well-dried hydroxylamine hydrochloride is dissolved in methyl alcohol and mixed with sodium methylate; a solution of methyldichloramine in absolute ether is then added and an ethereal solution of diazomethane distils over.
    0
    0
  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at about o° C. It is a powerful methylating agent, reacting with water to form methyl alcohol, and converting acetic acid into methylacetate, hydrochloric acid into methyl chloride, hydrocyanic acid into acetonitrile, and phenol into anisol, nitrogen being eliminated in each case.
    0
    0
  • The alcohol is removed by distillation in vacuo, and by further concentration in vacuo a solution may be obtained which evolves 580 volumes of oxygen.
    0
    0
  • In this case it is readily seen that isomerism introduces itself in the three carbon atom derivative: the propyl alcohols, expressed by the formulae CH 3 CH2 CH 2 0HandCH 3 CHOH CH3, are known as propyl and isopropyl alcohol respectively.
    0
    0
  • It can be easily seen that this ratio, according to Henry's law, must correspond to that of vapour-pressures, and so be independent of the solvent; in fact, in alcohol the figures are o 0066 and o o052.
    0
    0
  • ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."
    0
    0
  • The esters of the aliphatic and aromatic acids are colourless neutral liquids, which are generally insoluble in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether.
    0
    0
  • They hydrolyse readily when boiled with solutions of caustic alkalies or mineral acids, yielding the constituent acid and alcohol.
    0
    0
  • With the Grignard reagent, they form addition compounds which on the addition of water yield tertiary alcohols, except in the case of ethyl formate, where a secondary alcohol is obtained.
    0
    0
  • The formation of an ester by the interaction of an acid with an alcohol is a "reversible" or "balanced" action, for as M.
    0
    0
  • Phys., 1862 (3), 65, p. 385 et seq.) have shown in the case of the formation of ethyl acetate from ethyl alcohol and acetic acid, a point of equilibrium is reached, beyond which the reacting system cannot pass, unless the system be disturbed in some way by the removal of one of the products of the reaction.
    0
    0
  • HS04, is obtained by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on alcohol.
    0
    0
  • Ethyl nitrate, C2H5.0N02, is a colourless liquid which boils at 86.3° C. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on ethyl alcohol (some urea being added to the nitric acid, in order to destroy any nitrous acid that might be produced in secondary reactions and which, if not removed, would cause explosive decomposition of the ethyl nitrate).
    0
    0
  • ONO, is a liquid which boils at 18° C.; the crude product obtained by distilling a mixture of alcohol, sulphuric and nitric acids and copper turnings is used in medicine under the name of "sweet spirits of nitre."
    0
    0
  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in plates, and is soluble in water and alcohol.
    0
    0
  • A similar product is obtained by oxidizing fermentation amyl alcohol with chromic acid.
    0
    0
  • In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
    0
    0
  • Ether, alcohol not in cluded elsewhere, essen tial oils, perfumery and cosmetics.
    0
    0
  • synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.
    0
    0
  • It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, and is thrown out of its aqueous solution by the addition of calcium chloride.
    0
    0
  • It may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isopropylcyanide with alkalies, by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (I.
    0
    0
  • By crystallization from alcohol it is obtained as colourless needles, melting at 115°.
    0
    0
  • When rubbed into the skin with such substances as alcohol or glycerine, which are absorbed, atropine is carried through the epidermis with them, and in this manner - or when simply applied to a raw surface - it paralyses the terminals of the pain-conducting sensory nerves.
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  • Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate.
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  • Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oil several other bodies of the C i, H 27, + 1.
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  • The chief constituent of the fusel oil procured in the manufacture of alcohol from potatoes and grain, usually known as fusel oil and potato-spirit, is isoprimary amyl alcohol, or isobutylcarbinol.
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  • Ordinary fusel oil yields also an isomeric amyl alcohol (active amyl alcohol) boiling at about 128°.
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  • Fusel oil and its chief constituent, amyl alcohol, are direct nerve poisons.
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  • Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil.
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  • The hydrocarbons are separated from the "Stupp" by means of alcohol, the soluble portion on distillation giving first phenanthrene and then a mixture of pyrene and fluoranthene.
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  • It is easily soluble in hot alcohol, ether and carbon bisulphide.
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  • It may be obtained from urine by evaporating to dryness on the water bath, taking up the residue in absolute alcohol and evaporating the alcoholic solution to dryness again.
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  • The solution is then evaporated to dryness and extracted by alcohol.
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  • It is readily soluble in water and in alcohol, but is insoluble in chloroform and ether.
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  • When heated with alcohol in sealed tubes, it yields carbamic esters; with alcohol and carbon bisulphide at Ioo° C., carbon dioxide is liberated and ammonium sulphocyanide is formed.
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  • Hyponitrous acid is formed by passing nitrous fumes into its methyl alcohol solution.
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  • It occurs naturally in some resins, especially in gum benzoin (from Styrax benzoin), in dragon's blood, and as a benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams. It can be prepared by the oxidation of toluene, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and cinnamic acid; by the oxidation of benzene with manganese dioxide and concentrated sulphuric acid in the cold (L.
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  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an aqueous solution of the acid, benzyl alcohol, tetrahydrobenzoic acid and hexahydrobenzoic acid are formed.
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  • It crystallizes in needles, melting at 42°C., and boiling at 360 C. It is insoluble in water but readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
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  • It is slightly soluble in water and more so in alcohol.
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  • Knowing that the water produced by the combustion of alcohol was not pre-existent in that substance but was formed by the combination of its hydrogen with the oxygen of the air, he burnt alcohol and other combustible organic substances, such as wax and oil, in a known volume of oxygen, and, from the weight of the water and carbon dioxide produced and his knowledge of their composition, was able to calculate the amounts of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen present in the substance.
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  • It is a colourless crystalline solid, readily soluble in water and alcohol; it deliquesces on exposure to air.
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  • Timber comes chiefly from North America and Scandinavia, alcohol from Cuba and the United States, wheat and flour from various British possessions, maize from Morocco and Argentina.
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  • It is partly dissolved by cold alcohol, the remainder being soluble in ether.
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  • The fat which is soluble in alcohol appears to consist, according to Schmidt and Roemer (Arch.
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  • Pure alizarin crystallizes in red prisms melting at 290° C. It is insoluble in water, and not very soluble in alcohol.
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  • The process may be made a continuous one by running a thin stream of alcohol continually into the heated reaction mixture of alcohol and sulphuric acid.
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  • phys., 1835, [2] 58, p. 19) by heating methyl alcohol with sulphuric acid.
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