It is not only among albino animals that colour factors are carried in a latent condition, but also in white flowers.
Albino individuals may reappear among the offspring.
So clear is the evidence on this point that any one adequately acquainted at first hand with the phenomena, by employing an albino of known gametic structure and mating it with a coloured individual, also of known gametic constitution, could predict the result.
In spite of the inquiry being only in its initial stages, there is already good evidence to believe that Cuenot's theory is correct, and that an albino is an individual whose skin lacks the power to secrete either the ferment or the chromogen.
A moment's consideration, however, will show that, while an albino may be an individual in which one or more of the complementary bodies of pigmentation are absent, a pigmented animal is something more than an individual which carries all the factors necessary for the development of colour.
- Skins Of The Striped Domestic Cat, Giving The "Ticked" Breed And A Partially Albino Specimen.
The albino variety especially, which is known as the "golden tench," can be recommended for ornamental waters, as its bright orange colours render it visible for some distance below the surface of the water.
Other breeds include the Japanese, with an orange coat, broadly banded on the hind-quarters with black; the pink-eyed and short and thick-furred albino Polish; the Siberian, probably produced by crossing the Himalayan with the Angora; and the black-and-tan and blue-and-tan.
A true or complete albino is altogether devoid of pigment.
Smith, to occur among a breed of albino trout, which breed true and are reared in the State fish-hatcheries of America.
With birds and mammals, however, there is no doubt that complete albino individuals do occur; and among species which, like the jackdaw, certain deer and rabbits, are normally deeply pigmented.
It has been shown that the individuals in such an offspring may bear patterns which never occurred in the ancestry of the coloured parent, but did in that of the albino; and, moreover, if the same coloured parent be mated with another individual, either albino or coloured, that their offspring may never contain members bearing such patterns.
And yet the albino itself shows no somatic pattern or pigment.
He was able by appropriate experiments to demonstrate that when an albino is derived (extracted) from a coloured ancestry, and is then crossed with a coloured individual, both the colour of the pigmented parent and of the pigmented ancestry of the albino may appear among the individuals of the offspring.
P. Mudge have both shown that albino rats also carry in a latent condition the determinants for black or grey.
When an albino mouse, rat, guinea-pig or rabbit is crossed with either a pure self or pure pied-coloured form, the offspring are similar to, though not always exactly like, the coloured parent; provided, of course, that the albino is pure and is not carrying some colour or pattern determinant which is dominant to that of the coloured parent used.
But the third son married twice, and by the first wife had five normal and one albino children, and by the second, six normal and three albino children.
An albino is a homozygote; that is, all its gametes are carrying the character of albinism and none of them bear the alternative character - the allelomorph - of pigmentation.
Let A stand for a pure albino and (A)N for a normal person, who nevertheless carries the character albinism (A) recessive.
Among albino rats, for instance, the author of this article has reason to believe, upon theoretical grounds resting on an experimental basis, that probably no less than thirteen types exist.
In this case, the greater constitutional vigour of the albino is thus accurately demonstrated.
It is well known that the long-haired albino rabbit, called Angora, when at rest, has the habit of swaying its head sideways in a peculiar fashion.
C. C. Hurst has shown that the long-haired and albino characters are always accompanied in heredity with the swaying habit.
Albino varieties occasionally occur in the wild state.
They were thirty-four in number, among which was an albino, and had been sent to that institution, together with a few other animals, by order of Marshal Forey, who was appointed commander-in-chief of the French expeditionary force to Mexico after the defeat of General Lorencez at Puebla (May 5th, 1862), and returned to France at the end of 1863, after having handed over the command to Marshal (then General) Bazaine.
The blue eyes -and the white coat of the kitten indicate that the Siamese breed is a semi-albino, which when adult tends towards melanism, such a combination of characters being apparently unknown in any other animal.
It is thus evident that park-cattle are an albino offshoot from the ancient Pembroke black breed, which, from their soft and well-oiled skins, are evidently natives of a humid climate, such as that of the forests in which dwelt the wild aurochs.
FERRET, a domesticated, and frequently albino breed of quadruped, derived from the wild polecat (Putorius foetidus, or P. putorius), which it closely resembles in size, form, and habits, and with which it interbreeds.
P. Mudge for rats, that in a cross between a coloured individual of known gametic purity and an albino, the individuals of the progeny in either the first or second, or both generations, may differ, and that the difference in some cases wholly depends upon the albino used.
Haacke has described a single albino rat, in which he states that the hairs of the shoulder and mid-dorsal regions were of a different texture from those of the rest of the body.
And it is possible that this albino, had it developed colour, would have been of the piebald pattern.
Cuenot was the first to show this for albino mice.
C. C. Hurst, more recently, has shown that albino rabbits, whether pure bred for eight generations at least, or extracted from pigmented parents, may carry the determinants for black or for black and grey.
This is likewise true of albino mice when they carry the determinants for more than one colour.
The experiments of the latter author show that, if a gametically pure black rat be crossed with an albino derived from a piebald black and white ancestry, all the offspring in successive litters will be black; but if the same black parent be crossed with albinoes extracted from parents of which one or both are grey, then both grey and black members will appear in the successive litters.
Or, to express it otherwise, an albino extracted from yellow parents, bred with an albino extracted from black parents, will give an albino offspring whose gametes in equal numbers are bearers of the black and yellow determinants.
Some of the individuals will be one or other of the two colours, the determinants of which were borne by the albino, and others the colour of the pigmented parent.
But in such albino crosses the colour characters are latent because albinoes do not carry the whole of the complements for colour production.
Pickering, still later, showed, in the case of four Norway hares, two of which were injected while in their pigmented or summer coat, and two while in their albino or winter coat, that coagulation occurred in the former cases but not in the latter.
They are said to be all descendants of one albino male specimen received in the Paris Museum menagerie in 1866, which, paired with normal specimens in 1867 and 1868, produced numerous white offspring, which by selection have been fixed as a permanent race, without, according to L.
Albino specimens of this monkey are not uncommon, but the pure white monkeys, not albinos, said to inhabit Mindanao, are mythical.
Haringtoni, differs as regards colour in a remarkable manner from all other known members of the group. It is a medium-sized species of a pale creamy buff colour above, lighter beneath, and with a whitish tail, while it is further characterized by the absence of the first upper premolar, which shows that it is not an albino or pale variety.
In a complete albino not only is all pigment absent in the skin, but also that which is normally present in deeper organs, such as the sympathetic nervous system and in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Bobby Lowe, as he was popularly known, was one of the most remarkable personalities of his day, with his tall, striking figure, albino complexion and hair, and faculty for epigram and irony.