The support of Albert duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and of Louis II.
and of his consort Maria Luisa of Spain, was born in Florence in 1783, and from 1818-48 was viceroy of the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia; his mother was the Princess Elizabeth, sister of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia.
The armies of the rival kings met at Gdllheim near Worms, where Adolph was defeated and slain, and Albert submitted to a fresh election.
He had a large family, but only one of his sons, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I., survived him.
Albert never visited the Holy Land, but he appears to have had a considerable amount of intercourse with returned crusaders, and to have had access to valuable correspondence.
On the 27th of April 1831, Charles Albert succeeded Charles Felix on the throne of Piedmont.
Though eventually this activity of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the older societies, in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which he himself took no part.
He extolled Charles Albert and appealed to his patriotism; he believed that the church was necessary and the secret societies harmful; rqpresentative government was undesirable, but he advocated a consultative assembly.
Rudolph was unable to secure the succession to the German throne for his son, and on his death in 1291, the princes, fearing Albert's power, chose Adolph of Nassau as king.
Albert sought to play an important part in European affairs.
At length the hostility of the princes was overcome, and in December 1282 Rudolph invested his sons Albert and Rudolph with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.
In 1291 he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king; but the princes refused on the pretext of their inability to support two kings, but perhaps because they feared the increasing power of the Habsburgs.
The conspirators endeavoured to obtain the co-operation of the prince of Carignano, afterwards King Charles Albert, who was known to share their patriotic aspirations.
Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland.
These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.
Early in life, as one of the leaders of the Calixtine party, he defeated the Austrian troops of the German King Albert II., son-in-law and successor of King Sigismund.
For the philosophy of Aquinas, see Albert Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, ii.; B.
Having studied at Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow and Paris, he returned to Ingolstadt in 1507, and in 1509 was appointed tutor to Louis and Ernest, the two younger sons of Albert the Wise, the late duke of BavariaMunich.
The doctrinal differences came to a head in the trials of George Duffield (1832), Lyman Beecher (1835) and Albert Barnes (1836) which, however, resulted in the acquittal of the accused, but which increased friction and ill feeling.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
In 1203 it was conquered by Waldemar II., king of Denmark, but in 1227 it reverted to Albert, a son of its former duke.
When Albert died in 1260 Saxony was divided.
Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
The principal thoroughfares are Wandsworth Road and Battersea Park and York Roads from east to west, connected north and south with the Victoria or Chelsea, Albert and Battersea bridges over the Thames.
ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-), German-Swiss physicist, was born of Jewish parents at Ulm in the kingdom of Wurttemberg on May 14 1879.
ALBERT OF AIX (fl.
Kugler, Albert von Aachen (Stuttgart, 1885); M.
Besides these we have in the same period the spark telegraph of Reiser, of Don Silva, and of Cavallo, the pith ball telegraph of Francis Ronalds (a model of which is in the collection of telegraph apparatus in the Victoria and Albert Museum), and several others.
Both King Victor Emmanuel and his brother Charles Felix had no sons, and the heir presumptive to the throne was Prince Charles Albert, of the Carignano branch of the house of Savoy.
In March 1821, Count Santorre di Santarosa and other conspirators informed Charles Albert of a constitutional and anti-Austrian plot, and asked for his help. After a momentary hesitation he informed the king; but at his request no arrests were made, and no precautions were taken.
The next day the king abdicated after appointing Charles Albert regent.
The mission of Gaetano Castiglia and Marquis Giorgio Pallavicini to Turin, where they had interviewed Charles Albert, although without any definite resultfor Confalonieri had warned the prince that Lombardy was not ready to risewas accidentally discovered, and Confalonieri was himself arrested.
There was great resentment throughout Italy, and in answer to the popes request Charles Albert declared that he was with him in everything, while from South America Giuseppe Garibaldi wrote to offer his services to Hi~ Holiness.
Charles Albert, although mahftaining his reactionary policy, had introduced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the army and developed the resources of the country.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
Charles Albert could dispose of 90,000 men, including some 30,000 from central Italy, but he took the field with only half his force.
He then requested Charles Albert to take the papal troops under his command, and also wrote to the emperor of Austria asking him voluntarily to relinquish Lombardy and Venetia.
A force of Tuscan volunteers was attacked by a superior body of Austrians at Curtatone and Montanaro and defeated after a gallant resistance on the 27th of May; Charles Albert, after wasting precious time round Peschiera, which capitulated on the 3oth of May, defeated Radetzky at Goito.
But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her hands, could not intervene.
But Charles Charles Albert, who, whatever his faults, had a generous Albertre- nature, was determined that so long as be had an news the army in being he could not abandon the Lombards War, and the Venetians, whom he had encouraged in their resistance, without one more effort, though he knew full well that he was staking all on a desperate chance.
Charles Albert, realizing ~ his own failure and thinking that his son might obtain better terms, abdicated and departed at once for Portugal, where he died in a monastery a few months later.
~er his immediate command, to operate on the ncio, while Cialdini with 80,000 men was to operate on the The Austrian southern army consisting of 95,000 men was amanded by the archduke Albert, with General von John chief of the staff.
He had led the country out of the despondency which followed the defeat of Novara and the abdication of Charles Albert, through all the vicissitudes of national unification to the final triumph at Rome.
In some cases there was foundation for the laborers claims, but unfortunately the movement got into the hands of professional agitators and common swindlers, and the leader, a certain Giampetruzzi, who at one time seemed to be a worthy colleague of Marcelin Albert, was afterwards tried and condemned for having cheated his own followers.
Albert Lang, " Ober die Knospung bei Hydra and einigen Hydropolypen," Zeitschr.
There is a small government house, standing in beautiful grounds, adjoining Albert Park, with plantations of oaks and pines.
The parks are the Domain, with a botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree.
Several other residential suburbs lie among the hills on the mainland, such as Mount Albert, Mount Eden and Epsom.
Still more famous was Albert, count of Mansfeld (1480-1560), an intimate friend of Luther and one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of the Reformation.
With Albert was associated his brother Gebhard, and another member of the family was Johann Gebhard, elector of Cologne from 1558 to 1562.
ALBERT (1522-1557), prince of Bayreuth, surnamed THE WARLIKE, and also Alcibiades, was a son of Casimir, prince of Bayreuth, and a member of the Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern family.
The peace of Crepy in September 1544 deprived him of this employment, but he had won a considerable reputation, and when Charles was preparing to attack the league of Schmalkalden, he took pains to win Albert's assistance.
Sharing in the attack on the Saxon electorate, Albert was taken prisoner at Rochlitz in March 1547 by John Frederick, elector of Saxony, but was released as a result of the emperor's victory at Miihlberg in the succeeding April.
When Charles lef t Germany a few weeks later, Albert renewed his depredations in Franconia.
The rival forces met at Sievershausen on the 9th of July 1553, and after a combat of unusual ferocity Albert was put to flight.
Henry II., duke of Brunswick, then took command of the troops of the league, and after Albert had been placed under the imperial ban in December 1553 he was defeated by Duke Henry, and compelled to fly to France.
Albert I of Brandenburg >>
In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux >>
Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
It was destroyed in 1553 by Albert, margrave of Brandenburg, but has been partly restored.
In the Victoria and Albert Museum.
This was an order founded by Albert, 3rd bishop of Riga, in 1201, to serve as an instrument, under his control, for the conquest of the land.
Frederick of Saxony (fn4) held the office from 1498 to 1511; and he was succeeded by the Hohenzollern Albert of BrandenburgAnspach.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
But in 1561 another master followed the example of Albert, and received Courland as an hereditary fief from Poland.
The Order, clinging to its rights with the conservatism of an ecclesiastical corporation, still maintained its claims to East Prussia, and pressed them tenaciously even against the electors of Brandenburg themselves, when they inherited the land on the failure of Albert's descendants in 1618.
Higher education is given at the Royal College of Science, Dublin; the Albert Agricultural College, Glasnevin; and the Munster Institute, Cork, for female students, where dairying and poultry-keeping are prominent subjects.
Charles Albert Fechter >>
There are numerous chemical and other manufactures which have been removed from London itself; and the large population can also be traced in part to the foundation of the Victoria and Albert docks at Plaistow.
But some things do not at all cohere with what is otherwise known of Albert.
In this case, of course, Albert could not be the person referred to, as he was a Dominican.
Albert Schwegler >>
A copy of the book was sent to the Prussian minister of education, Karl Albert Kamptz (1769-1849), the notorious hunter of democrats.
For the First Crusade William had followed Albert of Aix; and he had consequently depicted Peter the Hermit as the prime mover in the Crusade.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
His view of the value of Albert of Aix, and his account of the First Crusade, have been generally followed (Kugler alone having attempted, to some extent, to rehabilitate Albert of Aix); and thus von Sybel's work may be said to mark a revolution in the history of the First Crusade, when its legendary features were stripped away, and its real progress was first properly discovered.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
Hagenmeyer inclines to believe in an original author, distinct from Albert the copyist; and he thinks that this original author (whether or no he was present during the Crusade) used the Gesta and also Fulcher, though he had probably also "eigene Notizen and Aufzeichnungen."
There seems no doubt that it is a piece of plagiary, and that its writer, Richard, "canon of the Holy Trinity" in London, stands to the Carmen as Tudebod to the Gesta, or Albert of Aix to his supposed original.
Broward Albert W.
ALBERT GALLATIN (1761-1849), American statesman, was born in Geneva (Switzerland) on the 29th of January 1761.
Albert Gallatin's father died in 1765, his mother five years later, and his only sister in 1777.
James Madison became secretary of state, and Albert Gallatin secretary of the treasury.
The Writings of Albert Gallatin, edited by Henry Adams, were published at Philadelphia, in three volumes, in 1879.
With these volumes was published an excellent biography, The Life of Albert Gallatin, also by Henry Adams; another good biography is John Austin Stevens's Albert Gallatin (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen" series.
von Hofmann, who designed the laboratories and accepted the professorship in 1845 at the instigation of Prince Albert, and under his successor (in 1864) Sir Edward Frankland, this institution became one of the most important centres of chemical instruction.
A small portion of this was raised (at great risk) by performances at the Albert Hall in London, conducted by Wagner and Richter, in 1877.
The method of preparing these gores was originally found empirically, but since the days of Albert Darer it has also engaged the minds of many mathematicians, foremost among whom was Professor A.
Thoulet was published in 1904 at the expense of Prince Albert of Monaco.
Albert Edward Nyanza >>
With the accession of Albert I.
These ' Parker's invaluable series of Roman photographs may be seen at the library of the Victoria and Albert museum, at the Ashmolean museum and the Bodleian library, Oxford.
The building suffered from fire in 741, and, after it had been repaired by Archbishop Albert, was described by Alcuin as "a most magnificent basilica."
Lang's Horace Mann, his Life and Work (New York, 1893), Albert E.
Charles Albert >>
Here are tombs of several rulers and princes of Saxony, including those of Albert and Ernest, the founders of the two existing branches of the Saxon house.
Ficklen above cited, another by the same author in collaboration with Grace King (New Orleans, 1902) and another (more valuable) by Albert Phelps (Boston, 1905), in the American Commonwealth Series.
In 1496 the temporary armistice between the Poles and Turks, renewed in 1493, came to an end, and John Albert, king of Poland, seized the occasion to invade Moldavia.
Besides the eldest son Auguste Louis, they had two other children - a son Albert, and a daughter Albertine, who afterwards became the duchesse de Broglie.
About half a mile from the town is the Albert Memorial Middle Class College, opened in 1865, and capable of accommodating 300 boys.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
Democrat (died in office)1905-1909 John Albert Johnson Republican 1909Adolph Olson Eberhart Bibliography.
The elector Charles Albert of Bavaria was reputed to have made a treaty with Louis XV.
In the same year he accompanied Albert Gallatin, as his secretary, to Russia, and in 1814 returned to the United States as the bearer of important dispatches from the American peace commissioners at Ghent.
Dessau was probably founded by Albert the Bear; it had attained civic rights as early as 1213.
A full account of his literary activity and ecclesiastical troubles will be found in Abbe Albert Houtin's La Question biblique au XIX e siècle (Paris, 2nd ed., 1902) and La Question biblique au XX e siècle (Paris, 1906), but the latter especially is largely unfair to the conservatives and sadly lacking in religious feeling.
"ALBERT BAIRD CUMMINS (1850-), American politician, was born at Carmichaels, Pa., Feb.
Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.
In passing through Holland he made the acquaintance of Albert Schultens (1686-1750), whose influence on his philological views became allpowerful a few years later.
ARTHUR WILLIAM PATRICK ALBERT, CONNAUGHT Duke Of (1850-), third son and seventh child of Queen Victoria, was born at Buckingham Palace on the 1st of May 1850.
Otto appointed his younger son Dietrich as his successor and was attacked and taken prisoner by his elder son Albert; but, after obtaining his release by order of the emperor Frederick I., he had only just renewed the war when he died in 1190.
Otto was succeeded by his son Albert, called the Proud, who was engaged in warfare with his brother Dietrich until his death in 1195.
As Albert left no children, Meissen was seized by the emperor Henry VI.
In 1243 Henry's son Albert was betrothed to Margaret, daughter of Frederick II.; and Pleissnerland, a district west of Meissen, was added to his possessions.
Albert was engaged in struggles with his three sons, who took him prisoner in 1288; but he was released the following year by order of the German king Rudolph I.
Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and Dietrich or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized by King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, and was for some time retained by him and his successor King Albert I.
In the course of constant efforts to secure the mark the brothers Frederick and Dietrich defeated the troops of King Albert at Lucka in May 1307 and secured partial possession of their lands.
At the west end of George Street, in the centre of Charlotte Square, stands the Albert Memorial, an equestrian statue of the prince consort, with groups at each of the four angles of the base.
At the top of King Street there is a statue of Queen Victoria and close by a statue of Prince Albert, at the entrance to Hyde Park, in which the most elevated spot is occupied by a statue of Captain Cook.
Sir John Robinson had been succeeded as premier by Mr Harry Escombe (February-October 1897) and Escombe by Sir Henry Binns, on whose death in June 1899 Lieut.-Colonel (afterwards Sir) Albert Hime formed a ministry which remained in office until after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer War.
Smythe, who had been colonial secretary under Sir Albert Hime.
The Franciscans took the lead in this intellectual movement with Alexander of Hales and Bonaventura, but the Dominicans were soon able to boast of two greater names in Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas.
Albert and no doubt stood on a higher level than Anselm and Abelard, not merely by their wider range of knowledge but also by the intellectual massiveness of their achieve ments; but it may be questioned whether the earlier writers did not possess a greater force of originality and a keener talent.
Some of these, it may be said, are simply the old Scholastic problem in a different garb; but the extended horizon of which Haureau speaks is amply proved by mere reference to the treatises of Albert and St Thomas.
For this reason and because the system of Thomas is simply that of Albert rounded to a greater completeness and elaborated in parts by the subtle intellect of the younger man, it will be convenient not to separate the views of master and scholar, except where their differences make it necessary.
Albert was " the first Scholastic who reproduced the whole philosophy of Aristotle in systematic order with constant reference to the Arabic commentators, and who remodelled it to meet the requirements of ecclesiastical dogma " (Ueberweg, i.
But in Albert it may be said that the matter was still too new and too multifarious to be thoroughly mastered.
The monotheistic influence of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators shows itself in Albert and Aquinas, at the outset, in the definitive fashion in which the " mysteries " y sof the Trinity and the Incarnation are henceforth detached from the sphere of rational or philosophical theology.
The existence of God is maintained by Albert and Aquinas to be domonstrable by reason; but here again they reject the ontological argument of Anselm, and restrict themselves to the a posteriori proof, rising after the manner of Aristotle from that which is prior for us to that which is prior by nature or in itself.
God is not fully comprehensible by us, says Albert, because the finite is not able to grasp the infinite, yet he is not altogether beyond our knowledge; our intellects are touched by a ray of his light, and through this contact we are brought into communion with him.
Albert and Aquinas alike maintain the beginning of the world in time; time itself only exists since the moment of this miraculous creation.
Albert and Aquinas both profess the moderate Aristotelian Realism which treats genera and species only as substantiae secundae, yet as really inherent in the individuals, and constituting their form or essence.
Albert and Aquinas agree in declaring that the principle of individuation is to be found in matter, not, however, in matter as a formless substrate but in determinate matter (materia signata), which is explained to mean matter quantitatively determined in certain respects.
" The variety of individuals," says Albert, " depends entirely upon the division of matter," and Aquinas says the principle of the diversity of individuals of the same species is the quantitative division of matter," which his followers render by the abbreviated phrase materia quanta.
This conclusion, it is needless to say, is strenuously opposed both by Albert and by Aquinas.
The Franciscan order, on the other hand, early showed their rivalry in attacks upon the doctrines of Albert and Aquinas.
While agreeing with Albert and Thomas in maintaining the threefold existence of the universals, Duns Scotus attacked the Thomist doctrine of individuation.
It was taught in Paris by Albert of Saxony (about 1350-1360)13501360) and Marsilius of Inghen (about 1364-1377, afterwards at Heidelberg), as well as by Johannes Buridanus, rector of the university as early as 1327.
Like Louis the Great before him, Sigismund had failed to found a dynasty, but, fifteen years before his death, he had succeeded in providing his only daughter Elizabeth with a consort apparently well able to protect both her and her inheritance in the person of Albert V., duke of Austria.
Albert, a sturdy soldier, who had given brilliant proofs of valour and generalship in the Hussite wars, was crowned king of Hungary at Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg) on the 1st of January 1438, elected king of the Romans at Frankfort on the 18th of March 1438, and crowned king of Bohemia at Prague on the 29th of June 1438.
Albert left behind him two infant daughters only, but his consort was big with child, and, in the event of that child proving to be an heir male, his father's will bequeathed to him the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, under the regency of his mother.
She did not fill up the dignity of palatine, vacant since the 26th of October 1765, and governed Hungary through her son-in-law, Albert of Saxe-Teschen.
Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.
On the reassembling of the diet, Count Albert Apponyi was elected speaker, and the minority seemed disposed to let the government try to govern.
2 The cabinet consisted of Dr Wekerle (premier and finance), Ferencz Kossuth (commerce), Count Gyula Andrassy (interior), 'Count Albert Apponyi (education), Davanyi (agriculture), Polonyi ((justice) and Count Aladar Zichy (court).
The Lexicon Latina-Hungaricum of Albert Molnar first appeared at Nuremberg in 1604, and with the addition of Greek was reprinted till 1708.
The last, considered the best, was corrected and re-edited by Albert Molnar at Hanau in 1608.7 Heltai published also (1571) a translation, improved from that by Blasius Veres (1565), of the Tripartitum of VerbOczy, and Chronika (1575) adapted from the Decades of Bonfini.
The Calvinist Albert Molnar, already mentioned, was more remarkable for his philological than for his theological labours.
Among authors of other historical or humorous romances and tales which have appeared from time to time are Francis Marton alias Lewis Abonyi, Joseph Gaal, Paul Gyulai, William GyOri, Lazarus Horvath, the short-lived Joseph Irinyi, translator of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Francis Ney, Albert ' D affy, Alexander Vachott and his brother Emeric (Vahot), Charles Szathmary, Desider Margittay, Victor Vajda, Joseph Bodon, Atala Kisfaludy and John Kratky.
For the medieval history of Hungary the Mdtydskori diplomatikai emlekek (Diplomatic Memorials of the Time of Matthias Corvinus), issued by the academy under the joint editorship of Ivan Nagy and Baron Albert Nyary, affords interesting material.
This appears to have been due in the first instance to Albert Girard (1595-1632), who extended Vieta's results in various branches of mathematics.
We have next to consider the works of Albert Girard, a Flemish mathematician.
(Copenhagen, 1877); Julius Albert Friderieia, Adelsvaeldens sidste Dage (Copenhagen, 1894); Danmarks Riges Historie, v.
ALBERT BARNES (1798-1870); American theologian, was born at Rome, New York, on the 1st of December 1798.
ALBERT (1490-1568), Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, and first duke of Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV., king of Poland.
During the ensuing year Prussia was devastated, and Albert consented early in 1521 to a truce for four years.
This proposal, which commended itself to Albert, had already been discussed by some of his relatives; but it was necessary to proceed cautiously, and he assured Pope Adrian VI.
Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, George, prince of Ansbach, laid the scheme before Sigismund of Poland.
After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.
Summoned before the imperial court of justice, Albert refused to appear and was placed under the ban; while the order, having deposed the grand master, made a feeble effort to recover Prussia.
In imperial politics Albert was fairly active.
The early years of Albert's rule in Prussia were fairly prosperous.
This step was the beginning of the troubles which clouded the closing years of Albert's reign.
There were no longer church lands available with which to conciliate the nobles, the burden of taxation was heavy, and Albert's rule became unpopular.
The state of turmoil caused by these religious and political disputes was increased by the possibility of Albert's early death and the necessity in that event for a regency owing to the youth of his only son, Albert Frederick.
Albert was a voluminous letterwriter, and corresponded with many of the leading personages of the time.
Albert III of Saxony >>
His verses to King Charles Albert, then prince of Carignano, on the birth of his son Victor Emmanuel, attracted the prince's attention and proved the beginning of a long intimacy.
But the proposal fell through when the news of the armistice between King Charles Albert and Austria arrived, and the two delegates were made the objects of a hostile demonstration.
In October 1848 Cibrario was made senator, and after the battle of Novara (March 1849), when Charles Albert abdicated and retired to a monastery near Oporto, Cibrario and Count Giacinto di Collegno were sent as representatives of the senate to express the sympathy of that body with the fallen king.
He reached Oporto on the 28th of May, and after staying there for a month returned to Turin, which he reached just before the news of Charles Albert's death.
della monarchia di Savoia (Turin, 1854); Degli ordini cavallereschi (Turin, 1846); Degli ordini religiosi (Turin, 1845); and the Memorie Segrete of Charles Albert, written by order of Victor Emmanuel but afterwards withdrawn.
ALBERT NYANZA, a lake of Central Africa, the northern of the two western reservoirs of the Nile, lying in the western (Albertine) rift-valley, near its north end.
Lake Albert lies between 1° 9' and 2° 17' N.
Throughout its extent Albert Nyanza is shallow; at its southern end the water for a considerable distance is not more than 3 ft.
- Albert Nyanza receives the whole of the drainage of Albert Edward Nyanza and the Semliki river, and with them and its own basin forms the "Albertine " Nile system.
A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
That the Albert Edward Nyanza once covered a much larger area than it does at present is certain.
The removal of the block led to the shrinkage of the lake and the formation of the Semliki, which found its way to the more northern lake - Albert Nyanza.
Gradually the Semliki eroded its bed, and consequently the level of Albert Edward Nyanza continued to fall.
This stream leaves Albert Edward Nyanza at its N.W.
enters Albert Nyanza in 1° 9' N.
This rocky barrier acts as a regulator for the water received from Albert Edward Nyanza and, by checking the erosion of the river bed, tends to maintain the level of the lake.
When this bar wears away Albert Edward Nyanza will, in all probability, disappear as a lake and will become a river, a continuation of its present most southern affluent, the Ruchuru.
Albert Nyanza, on the other hand, is threatened in the distant future with destruction from another cause - the filling of its bed by the alluvium poured into it by the Semliki, the Victoria Nile and, in a lesser degree, by other streams. The Semliki receives directly or indirectly the whole of the drainage of Ruwenzori, and also that of the eastern face of the Congo mountains as well as the drainage basin of Albert Edward Nyanza.
This process, continually going on, has formed a large plain at the south end of Albert Nyanza, which has seriously encroached upon the lake.
Albert Nyanza has indeed shrunk in its dimensions during the comparatively few years it has been known to Europeans.
It seems probable that, in a period geologically not very remote, the " Albertine " system will consist of one great river, extending from the northern slopes of the Kivu range, where the Ruchuru has its rise, to the existing junction of the Victoria Nile with Albert Nyanza.
The combined drainage area, including the water surface of Albert Edward Nyanza, the Semliki and Albert Nyanza, is some 16,600 sq.
or more per annum), the volume of water entering Albert Nyanza by the Semliki when in flood being not less than 700 cubic metres per second.
Of the water received by Albert Nyanza annually (omitting the Victoria Nile from the calculation) between 50 and 60% is lost by evaporation, whilst 24,265,000,000 cubic metres are annually withdrawn by the Bahr-el-Jebel.
Albert Nyanza was consequently entered on his map as a vast lake extending about 380 m.
In his speech at the Albert Hall on the 21st of December 1905 it was noticeable that, before the elections, the prime minister laid stress on only one subject which could be regarded as part of a constructive programme - the necessity of doing something for canals, which was soon shelved to a royal commission.
A few years later further work, with Albert Ladenburg, on the same element yielded silicochloroform and:led to a demonstration of the close analogy existing between the behaviour in combination of silicon and carbon.
Below London Bridge the river is embanked for a short distance in front of the Tower of London, and above Westminster Bridge the Albert Embankment extends for nearly 1 m.
The bridges in order above London Bridge are as follows, railway-bridges being bracketed - Southwark, (Cannon Street), (Blackfriars), Blackfriars, Waterloo, (Hungerford - with a footway), Westminster, Lambeth, Vauxhall, (Grosvenor), Victoria, Albert, Battersea, (Battersea), Wandsworth, (Putney), Putney and Hammersmith.
£120,774 Albert Bridge..
The only other public buildings, beyond those at Westminster, which fall into a great group are the modern museums, the Imperial Institute, London University and other institutions, and Albert Hall, which lie between Kensington Gore and Brompton and Cromwell Roads, and these, together with the National Gallery (in Trafalgar Square) and other art galleries, and the principal scientific, educational and recreative institutions, are considered in Section V.
The Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens, was erected (1872) by " Queen Victoria and her People to the memory of Albert, Prince Consort," from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, with a statue of the Prince (1876) by John Henry Foley beneath a huge ornate Gothic canopy.
The he Board of Education directly administers the following educational institutions - the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with its branch at Bethnal Green, from both of which objects are lent to various institutions for educational purposes; the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines; the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street; the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; and the Royal College of Art, South Kensington.
Close to this museum is the Victoria and Albert Museum (formerly South Kensington Museum, 1857) for which an extension of buildings, from a fine design by Sir Aston Webb, was begun in 1899 and completed in ten years.
The chief halls devoted mainly to concerts are the Royal Albert Hall, close to the South Kensington museums, and Queen's Hall in Langham Place, Regent Street.
Following the river down from the Tower these docks, with dates of original opening and existing extent, are - St Katherine's (1828; 102 acres), London (1805; 571 acres), West India, covering the northern part of the peninsula called the Isle of Dogs (1802; 1212 acres), East India, Blackwall (1806; 38 acres), Royal Victoria and Albert Docks (1876 and 1880 respectively), parallel with the river along Bugsby's and Woolwich Reaches, nearly 3 m.
Its ancient castle is picturesquely situated on a lofty porphyry rock, and is memorable as the place from which, in 1455, Kunz von Kaufungen carried off the young princes Albert and Ernest, the founders of the present royal and ducal families of Saxony.
C. Beugnot were published by his grandson, Count Albert Beugnot (2nd ed., Paris, 1868); see H.
Spanish glass is well represented in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The earliest articles of Chinese glass the date of which has been ascertained, which have been noticed, are some bearing the name of the emperor Kienlung (1735-1795), one of which is in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
28 (1893); Albert Hartshorne, Old English Glasses (London); E.
59, 60, 63, 64, 65; Alexander Nesbitt, " Glass," Art Handbook, Victoria and Albert Museum; E.
Riano, " Spanish Arts," Art Handbook, Victoria and Albert Museum; H.
Ruff and Curt Albert (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 53) by decomposing titanium fluoride with silicon chloroform in sealed vessels at 100 -120° C. It is a colourless gas which may be condensed to a liquid boiling at -80 2° C. On solidification it melts at about -110° C. The gas is very unstable, decomposing slowly, even at ordinary temperatures, into hydrogen,, silicon fluoride and silicon: 4SiHF 3 =2H 2 +3SiF 4 +Si.
Ruff and Curt Albert, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 2222).
importance which has tributaries coming from north of the main stream; the rest of the very numerous affluents have their rise in the hilly country which stretches from Albert Nyanza in a general north-west direction as far as 23° E., and forms the water shed between the Nile basin and that of the Congo.
See Calwer-Zeller, Theologisches Handworterbuch, and the account of him in Albert Knapp's new edition of Die erste Liebe zu Christo (1845).
By a previous Anglo-Belgian protocol (May 1910) the Congo-Uganda frontier had been modified so as to give Belgium the western shores of Albert Nyanza and in Feb.
1915 another agreement fixed the frontier between Albert Nyanza and the CongoNile watershed.
It contains some 50o,000 printed volumes, 700,000 pamphlets, over 9000 prints and drawings (including 284 by Albert Diirer), nearly 20,000 MSS., and 40,000 letters.
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
of France, he married in 1385 Margaret, daughter of Duke Albert of Bavaria, an alliance which consolidated his position in the Netherlands.
Stendal was founded in 11, 51 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter.
Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher >>
See also Albert Welles, History of the Welles Family (New York, 1876).
Francis, prince of Joinville; Louis Philippe Albert, count of Paris; and the traveller Prince Henry of Orleans.
Among the succeeding rulers those who did most for the town in the erection of handsome buildings and the foundation of schools and scientific institutions were Albert V., William V., Maximilian I., Max Joseph and Charles Theodore.
"ALBERT HAUCK (1845-), German theologian, was born at Hassertriidingen, M.-Franken, Dec. 9 1845, and was educated at the gymnasium at Ansbach and later (1864-8) at the universities of Erlangen and Berlin.
can go up the ship canal to the Albert Basin, 3 m.
The queen and Prince Albert wrote to congratulate the chancellor of the exchequer.
HENRY MOORE (1831-1895), English painter, the ninth son of William Moore, of York, and brother of Albert Joseph Moore, was born in that city on the 7th of March 1831.
This duke had no issue, and the succession passed to the children of his brother Albert, the English prince consort.
It was sent from India to Emmanuel, king of Portugal, in 1513; and from a sketch taken in Lisbon, Albert Diirer composed his celebrated but fanciful engraving, which was reproduced in so many old books on natural history.
ALBERT LEA, a city and the county-seat of Freeborn county, Minnesota, U.S.A., about 97 m.
It is attractively situated between Fountain Lake and Albert Lea Lake, and is a summer resort.
It has a public library and the Freeborn County Court House, and is the seat of Albert Lea College (Presbyterian, for women), founded in 1884, and of Luther Academy (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran), founded in 1888.
Albert Lea is a railway and manufacturing centre of considerable importance, has grain elevators and foundries and machine shops, and manufactures bricks, tiles, carriages, wagons, flour, corsets, refrigerators and woollen goods.
Albert Lea was settled in 1855 and received a city charter in 1878.
The city and the lake were named in honour of Lieutenant Albert Miller Lea (1808-1891), a West Point graduate (1831) who, on behalf of the United States government, first surveyed the region and described it in a report published in 1836.
Albert Nyanza >>
Of his decorative paintings, the best known are the elegant compositions (in spirit fresco) on the walls of the Victoria and Albert Museum, representing "The Industrial Arts of War and Peace."
The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia.
He practised astrology; this recommended him to Duke Albert of Prussia, who made him his librarian (1550).
As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.
Charles Albert (d.
The latter being without a son, the succession devolved upon Charles Albert, of the cadet line of the princes of Carignano, who were descended from Thomas, youngest son of Charles Emmanuel I.
Charles Albert abdicated, on the evening of his defeat at Novara (April 20, 1849), in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II.
Four bridges cross the Lagan; the Queen's Bridge (1844, widened in 1886) is the finest, while the Albert Bridge (1889) replaces a former one which collapsed.
Public monuments are few, but include a statue of Queen Victoria (1903) and a South African War memorial (1905) in front of the city hall; the Albert Memorial (1870), in the form of a clock-tower, in Queen Street; a monument to the same prince in High Street; and a statue in Wellington Place to Dr Henry Cooke, a prominent Presbyterian minister who died in 1868.
On the 7th of February 1901 Queen Wilhelmina married Henry Wladimir Albert Ernst, duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (born on the 19th of April 1876).
But there was great discontent, and the defeat of Charles Albert at Novara caused consternation among the Liberals.
ADRIEN ALBERT MARIE DE MUN, Count (1841-), French politician, was born at Lumigny, in the department of Seine-et-Marne, on the 28th of February 1841.
He was tragically drowned while bathing in the Neva in July 1789, a few months after his marriage with a daughter of Albert Euler, son of Leonhard Euler.
On the extinction of this family in 1248, most of their fiefs were given by the two bishops to the father-in-law of the last lord of Andechs, Albert, count of Tirol.
Albert Sidney Johnston >>
His story has been dramatized by Max Ring, Die Genfer (1850), by Jose Echegaray, La Muerte en los Labios (1880), by Albert Hamann, Servet (1881), and by Prof. Shields, The Reformer of Geneva (1897).
In 1848 he was one of those who asked King Charles Albert for the constitution.
le Prince Albert de Monaco, 24 sheets (Paris, 1904).
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
After the death of the elector Frederick in 1464, Albert and Ernest ruled their lands together, but in 1485 a division was made by the treaty of Leipzig, and Albert received Meissen, together with some adjoining districts, and founded the Albertine branch of the family of Wettin.
Regarded as a capable soldier by the emperor, Albert, in 1475, took a prominent part in the campaign against Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, and in 1487 led an expedition against Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, which failed owing to lack of support on the part of the emperor.
In 1488 he marched with the imperial forces to free the Roman king Maximilian from his imprisonment at Bruges, and when, in 1489, the king returned to Germany, Albert was left as his representative to prosecute the war against the rebels.
Albert, who was a man of great strength and considerable skill in feats of arms, delighted in tournaments and knightly exercises.
Frederick Augustus Albert >>
Through the marriage of Sigismund's daughter, Elizabeth, with the German king, Albert II., Luxemburg, which had been made a duchy in 1354, passed to the house of Habsburg, but was seized in 1443 by Philip III.
Pius, wishing to counteract the effect of this policy, sent Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of the papal contingent to him.
Several members of the family of Albert were distinguished in letters and science.
Sparks's edition (10 vols., Boston, 1836-1842; revised, Philadelphia, 1858) also contained fresh matter; and there are further additions in the edition of John Bigelow (Philadelphia, 1887-1888; 5th ed., 1905) and in that by Albert Henry Smyth (to vols., New York, 1905-1907).
For a detailed description of these most remarkable crowns the reader must be referred to a paper by the late Mr Albert Way (Archaeological Journal, xvi.
CHARLES ALBERT [CARLO ALBERTO] (1798-1849), king of Sardinia (Piedmont), son of Prince Charles of Savoy-Carignano and Princess Albertine of Saxe-Courland, was born on the 2nd of October 1798, a few days before the French occupied Piedmont and forced his cousin King Charles Emmanuel to take refuge in Sardinia.
In 1802 King Charles Emmanuel abdicated in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel I.; the latter's only son being dead, his brother Charles Felix was heir to the throne, and after him Charles Albert.
On the fall of Napoleon in 1814 the Piedmontese court returned to Turin and the king was anxious to secure the succession for Charles Albert, knowing that Austria meditated excluding him from it in favour of an Austrian archduke, but at the same time he regarded him as an objectionable person on account of his revolutionary upbringing.
Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).
The king at once abdicated and appointed Charles Albert regent.
Charles Felix, who was then at Modena, repudiated the regent's acts, accepted Austrian military assistance, with which the rising was easily quelled, and exiled Charles Albert to Florence.
At the Congress of Verona (1822) the Austrian chancellor, Prince Metternich, tried to induce Charles Felix to set aside Charles Albert's rights of succession.
But the king was piqued by Austria's interference, and as both the grand-duke of Tuscany and the duke of Wellington supported him, Charles Albert's claims were respected.
France having decided to intervene in the Spanish revolution on the side of autocracy, Charles Albert asked permission to join the duc d'Angouleme's expedition.
On the death of Charles Felix (27th of April 1831) Charles Albert succeeded; he inherited a kingdom without an army, with an empty treasury, a chaotic administration and medieval laws.
The revolutionary movement throughout Italy was breaking down, but Charles Albert felt that while he possessed an army he could not abandon the Lombards and Venetians, and determined to stake all on a last chance.
Thereupon, feeling himself to be the obstacle to better conditions, Charles Albert abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel.
Charles Albert was not a man of first-rate ability; he was of a hopelessly vacillating character.
His infatuation for Kunigunde of Eisenberg caused his wife to leave him, a.nd after her death in 1270 he married Kunigunde, who had already borne him a son, Apitz or Albert.
Albert, who had married Elizabeth, daughter of Hermann III., count of Orlamiinde, after the death of his second wife in 1286, died on the 13th of November 1314.
Archduke Albert >>
UGANDA, a British protectorate in Eastern Equatorial Africa, lying between Lakes Victoria and Albert and between the Mountain Nile and Lake Rudolf.
long., from the German frontier on the south, across Albert Edward Nyanza and the Semliki River to the line of waterparting between the systems of the Congo and the Nile (in the country of Mboga); thence northwards this western boundary descended to the north coast of Albert Nyanza at Mahagi, and then followed the main stream of the Nile to about 5° N.
west of its true position in the maps used when the frontier was agreed upon, and that if it was maintained as the dividing line it would cut off the Uganda Protectorate from access to Albert Edward Nyanza while giving a corner of the Congo forest to Uganda.
shores of Albert Edward Nyanza.
From that point the frontier is formed by the Semliki to its mouth and the middle of Albert Nyanza to a point opposite Mahagi, where it meets the CongoSudan frontier.
At Fajao the navigation can be resumed into Lake Albert.
The main Nile stream when it quits Lake Albert continues navigable as far north as Nimule (3° 40' N.).
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
m.), Albert Nyanza (2700 sq.
m.), and Lakes Albert Edward and Dweru 1 (1500 sq.
m.), besides the small crater 1 In 1909 Albert Edward Nyanza was renamed by British geo lakes of Toro and Ankole (singularly beautiful), the lake-swamps Salisbury and Kirkpatrick in the Eastern province, Lakes Wamala in Buganda, and Kachera in Ankole.
This is the case with all the other lakes except Rudolf, Albert Nyanza and Albert Edward, in which the water ranges from salt to slightly brackish.
Hoima is the administrative headquarters in Unyoro; Butiaba is a trading port of some importance on Lake Albert; Mbarara is the capital of Ankole.
Government boats also ply on the Victoria Nile and Lake Kioga (Ibrahim) and on Albert Nyanza and the Mountain Nile.
Good roads connect Entebbe and Butiaba (the steamboat terminus on Albert Nyanza) and other districts.
In the early 'seventies Sir Samuel Baker (who had discovered Albert Nyanza) extended the rule of the Egyptian Sudan as far south as the Victoria Nile.
General Gordon, who succeeded Baker, and who had Dr Emin Bey (afterwards Emin Pasha) as lieutenant, attempted through Colonel Charles Chaille Long, in 1874, not only to annex Unyoro but also Buganda to the Egyptian dominions, and thoroughly established Egyptian control on Albert Nyanza.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
Seeing that the situation in Buganda was impossible unless they had a strong central force, which the company could not provide, Lugard and Williams had formed the idea of enlisting the Sudanese who had been left by Emin and Stanley at the south end of the Albert Lake.
Taking with him Kasagama, the rightful king of Toro, he traversed the north of Ankole, with which country he made a treaty, and passing thence through Unyoro, along the northern slopes of Ruwenzori, reached Kavali at the south end of Lake Albert, defeating the armies of Unyoro who opposed his progress.
later in the north, and the Baganda chiefs scattered the main body, while Colvile occupied the capital and built a line of forts from Buganda to Lake Albert, of which he left Major A.
Continent (1878) and In Darkest Africa (1890); Sir Richard Burton, Lake Regions of Central Africa (1860); Sir Samuel Baker, Albert Nyanza (1866); Emin Pasha, Journals (1886 edition); C. Chaille Long, Central Africa.
- the Albert Victor Mountains, the Sir Arthur Gordon range, and the Bismarck Mountains form a backbone united probably with the Sneeuw (Snowy) Mts., where perpetual snow was found by Dr. Lorentz in 1909 at 14,635 ft., and the height of Mt.
(Munich, 1892), and by Albert Sorel in his Lectures historiques (pp. 70 -112).
In 1581 it was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France (duche-pairie) for Albert de Gondi, marshal of France and general of the galleys.
In 1514 the archbishopric of Mainz fell vacant again, and Albert of Brandenburg, already archbishop of Magdeburg and administrator of Halberstadt, longing to add it to his possessions, was elected.
it was arranged that Albert should pay 14,000 ducats for the papal confirmation and 10,000 as a " composition " for permission to continue to hold, against the rules of the Church, his two former archbishoprics.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
Its rulers, however, with the exception of Count Albert II.
Albert, who was a Minnesinger, was loyal to the declining fortunes of the Hohenstaufen, and afterwards supported his brother-in-law, Rudolph of Habsburg, in his efforts to obtain the German throne.
He shared in the campaigns of Rudolph and fell in battle in 1298, during the struggle between Adolph of Nassau and Albert of Habsburg (afterwards King Albert I.).
This burgrave fought for King Albert I.
Dying in 1332, Frederick was succeeded by his son, John II., who, after one of his brothers had died and two others had entered the church, ruled his lands in common with his brother Albert.
In general he continued his father's policy, and when he died in 1 357 was succeeded by his son, Frederick V., who, after the death of his uncle Albert in 1361, became sole ruler of Nuremberg, Ansbach and Bayreuth.
These principalities were ruled by the sons and descendants of the elector Albert Achilles from 1486 to 1603; and, after reverting to the elector of Brandenburg, by the descendants of the elector John George from 1603 to 1791.
The position was simplified when, in 1220, Albert van Cuyck, the last of the hereditary burgraves, sold his rights to the bishop. These ecclesiastical princes were churchmen in little but name, and their desire to be absolute rulers found itself confronted by the determination of the burghers to secure greater independence.
Behind is the parade-ground, with the statues of Albert I.
The university (Collegium Albertinum) was founded in 1544 by Albert duke of Prussia, as a "purely Lutheran" place of learning.
Y.; Albert Buell Lewis, "Tribes of the Columbia Valley," Mem.
Till 1140 it belonged to the counts of Orlamunde; it then fell to Albert the Bear and the descendants of his second son.
c. 52 Prince Albert was appointed regent in case any of Queen Victoria's children should succeed to the crown under the age of eighteen.
John Albert >>
In March 1842 The Tribune began to give one column daily to a discussion of the doctrines of Charles Fourier, contributed by Albert Brisbane.
refused to allow Henry to hold two duchies, and gave Saxony to Albert the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg, who like his rival was a grandson of Magnus Billung.
Albert's attempts to obtain possession failed, and after Henry's death in 1139 he formally renounced Saxony in favour of Henry's son, Henry the Lion.
The title duke of Saxony was given to Bernard, the sixth son of Albert the Bear, together with the small territories of Lauenburg and Wittenberg, which were thus the only portions of the former duchy which now bore the name of Saxony.
Dying in 1212, Bernard was succeeded in Wittenberg by his younger son Albert I., who recovered Lauenburg after the defeat of Waldemar at Bornhoved in 1227.
Albert died in 1260, and soon after his death his two sons divided his territories, when the elder son John took Lauenburg which was sometimes called lower Saxony, and the younger, Albert II., took Wittenberg or upper Saxony.
Saxe-Lauenburg was governed by John until his death in 1285, when it passed to his three sons John II., Albert III.
As Albert had no sons the duchy was soon divided into two parts, until on the death of duke Eric III., a grandson of John II., in 1401, it was reunited by Eric IV., a grandson of Eric I.
died in 1412 he was succeeded by his son Eric V., who made strenuous but vain efforts to obtain the electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, which fell vacant on the death of the elector Albert III.
In Saxe-Wittenberg Albert II.
Lavish expenditure during the progress of the council of Constance reduced Rudolph to poverty, and on the death in 1422 of his brother Albert III., who succeeded him in 1419, this branch of the Ascanian family became extinct.
It was in 1455 during this war that the knight Kunz von Kaufungen carried into execution his daring plan of stealing the two sons of the elector Frederick, Ernest and Albert, but he was only momentarily successful, the princes soon escaping from his hands.
The childless death of their uncle William in 1482 brought Thuringia to the two princes, and Albert insisted on a division of their common possessions.
Ernest, the elder brother, obtained Saxe-Wittenberg with the electoral dignity, Thuringia and the Saxon Vogtland; while Albert received Meissen, Osterland being divided between them.
army corps of the North German Confederation under the command of Crown-Prince Albert.
John was succeeded in 1873 by his elder son Albert (1832-1902) who had added to his military reputation during the war of 1870.
On the 7th of June 1902 King Albert died, and was succeeded by his brother as King George.
In 1166 a coalition was formed against him a, Merseburg under the leadership of Albert the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg, and Archbishop Hartwig.
See Albert Shaw, Icaria: A Chapter in the History of Communism (New York, 1884); Jules Prudhommeaux, Icaria et son fondateur Etienne Cabet (Paris, 1907); and H.
"ALBERT LADENBURG (1842-1911), German chemist, was born at Mannheim July 2 1842.
Herz's Albert Ladenburg.
The duchess of Kent and her brothers, King Leopold and the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had always hoped to arrange that the queen should marry her cousin, Albert of Saxe-CoburgGotha, and the prince himself had been made acquainted with this plan from his earliest years.
In 1836 Prince Albert, who was born in the same year as his future wife, had come on a visit.
Lord Melbourne ascertained that the queen's dis- The positions towards her cousin, Prince Albert, were un- queen's changed, and he advised King Leopold, through M.
The government proposed that Prince Albert should receive an annuity of 50,000, but an amendment of Colonel Sibthorpa politician of no great repute - for making the annuity £30,000 was carried against ministers by 262 votes to 158, the Tories and Radicals going into the same lobby, and many ministerialists taking no part in the division.
A statesman of firmer mould than Lord Melbourne would hardly have succeeded so well as he did in making rough places smooth for Prince Albert.
In expectation of the queen becoming a mother, a bill was passed through parliament providing for the appointment of Prince Albert as sole regent in case the queen, after giving birth to a child, died before her son or daughter came of age.
On 10th June 1840, the queen and Prince Albert Attempts on the were driving up Constitution Hill in an open carriage, queen's when Oxford fired two pistols, the bullets from which life.
It was always Prince Albert's opinion that if Oxford had been flogged the attempt of Francis on the queen in 1842 and of Bean in the same year would never have been perpetrated.
After his third capture, in March 1841, he coolly boasted that he had lain under a sofa, and listened to a private conversation between the queen and Prince Albert.
The incident strengthened Prince Albert's hands in trying to carry out sundry domestic reforms which were being stoutly resisted by vested interests.
It took Prince Albert four years of firmness and diplomacy before in 1845 he was able to bring the queen's home under the efficient control of a master of the household.
On Prince Albert's position the change had a marked effect, for in the absence of Melbourne the queen relied more particularly on his advice, and Peel himself at once discovered and recognized the prince's unusual charm and capacity.
One of the Tory premier's first acts was to propose that a royal commission should be appointed to consider the best means for promoting art and science in the kingdom, and he nominated Prince Albert as president.
The International Exhibition of 1851, the creation of the Museum and Science and Art Department at South Kensington, the founding of art schools and picture galleries all over the country, the spread of musical taste and the fostering of technical education may be attributed, more or less directly, to the commission of distinguished men which began its labours under Prince Albert's auspices.
As regards internal politics, it may be remarked that the queen and Prince Albert were much relieved when Peel, who had come in as the leader of the Protectionist party, adopted Free Trade and repealed the Corn Laws, for it closed a dangerous agitation which gave them much anxiety.
We know with how much truth, fulness and decision, and with how much tact and delicacy, the queen, aided by Prince Albert, took a principal part on behalf .of the nation in the painful question of the Spanish marriages."
The queen and Prince Albert were affected in many private ways by the events abroad.
In August 1849 the queen and Prince Albert, accompanied by the little princess royal and the prince of Wales, paid a visit to Ireland, landing at the Cove of Cork, which from /rash trip, that day was renamed Queenstown.
His Anglo-Irish nature was not sympathetic with the somewhat formal character and German training of Prince Albert; and his views of ministerial independence were not at all in accord with those of the queen and her husband.
Prince Albert was costumed as Edward III., the queen as Queen Philippa, and all the gentlemen of the court as knights of Poitiers.
In August 1843 the queen and Prince Albert paid a visit to King Louis Philippe at the château d'Eu.
The queen sadly needed such of Wel a counsellor, for Prince Albert's position was one full of difficulty, and party malignity was continually putting wrong constructions upon the advice which he gave, and imputing to him advice which he did not give.
Eventually, on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at the same time his entire constitutional right to give private advice to the sovereign on matters of state.
From this time it may be said that Prince Albert's position was established on a secure footing.
The British government were on the point of demanding reparation for this act in a peremptory manner which could hardly have meant anything but war, but Prince Albert insisted on revising Lord Russell's despatch in a way which gave the American government an opportunity to concede the surrender of the prisoners without humiliation.
Her letter to the emperor, pervaded with he religious and almost mystic sentiments which predominate in the queen's mind, particularly since the death of Prince Albert, seems to have made a deep impression on the sovereign who, amid the struggles of politics, had never completely repudiated the philanthropic theories of his youth, and who, on the battlefield of Solferino, covered with the dead and wounded, was seized with an unspeakable horror of war."Moreover, Disraeli's two premierships (1868, 1874-80) did a good deal to give new encouragement to a right idea of the constitutional function of the crown.
In May 1888 she attended a performance of Sir Arthur Sullivan's Golden Legend at the Albert Hall, and in August she visited Glasgow to open the magnificent new municipal buildings, remaining for a couple of nights at Blythswood, the seat of Sir Archibald Campbell.
Smith on the 2nd of July, expressing, on the one hand, the queen's desire to provide for Prince Albert Victor of Wales, and, Mr Smith, seconded by Gladstone, a select committee was appointed to consider these messages and to to report to the house as to the existing practice and as to the principles to be adopted for the future.
At the beginning of 1892 a heavy blow fell upon the queen in the death of the prince of Wales's eldest son Albert Victor, duke of Clarence and Avondale.
In May 1899, after another visit to the Riviera, the queen performed what proved to be her last ceremonial function in London: she proceeded in "semi-state" to South Kensington, and laid the foundation stone of the new buildings completing the Museum - henceforth to be called the Victoria and Albert Museum - which had been planned more than forty years before by the prince consort.
In Germany the Albert Nursing Society was founded by Queen Carola of Saxony, and the Alice Society by the Grand Duchess Alice of Hesse, both in 1867.
Members of the Albert Society of Saxony, however, spend two years in the wards at Dresden, and a third at Leipzig, attending lectures and demonstrations.
Albert's sons Frederick the Undaunted and Dietrich contested this transaction, and the attempts of Adolph and his successor Albert I.
Frederick defeated Albert decisively and in 1314 was formally invested with Thuringia by the emperor Henry VII.
The chief works relating to Jerome Bonaparte are: Baron Albert du Casse, Memoires et correspondence du roi Jerome et de la reine Catherine (7 vols., Paris, 1861-1866) and Les Rois freres de Napoleon (1883); M.
Albert Bushnell Hart >>
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
1435), daughter of an Augsburg baker, was secretly married about 1432 to Albert (1401-1460),.
Albert then declared she was his lawful wife; and subsequently, during his absence, she was seized by order of Duke Ernest and condemned to death for witchcraft.
On the 12th of October 1435 she was drowned in the Danube near Straubing, in which town her remains were afterwards buried by Albert.
ALBERT SCHWEGLER (1819-1857), German philosopher and theologian, was born at Michelbach in Wurttemberg on the 10th of February 1818, the son of a country pastor.
Maurice's ally, Albert Alcibiades, prince of Bayreuth, was taken prisoner at Rochlitz; and the duke, driven from electoral Saxony, was unable to prevent his own lands from being overrun.
Returning from Hungary the elector placed himself at the head of the princes who were seeking to check the career of his former ally, Albert Alcibiades, whose depredations were making him a curse to Germany.
The rival armies met at Sievershausen on the 9th of July 1553, where after a fierce encounter Albert was defeated.
The Chemical Society, of which he became secretary in 1869 and president in 1883, presented him with its Longstaff medal in 1889, and in 1890 he received the Albert medal of the Society of Arts.
Kidd and Albert Muller, " A List of Gall-bearing British Plants," ib.
(1871), pp. 123, &c.; Albert Muller, " British Gall Insects," The Entomologist's Annual for 1872, pp. 1-22; B.
where John Albert, the third son of Casimir, had Albert, been elected king on the death of his father.
The sole advantage which John Albert reaped from his championship of the Christian cause was the favour of the Curia, and the ascendancy which that favour gave him over the Teutonic Knights, whose new grand-master, Albert of Saxony, was reluctantly compelled to render due homage to the Polish king.
The first sejm to legislate for the whole of Poland was the diet of Piotrkow (1493), summoned by John Albert to grant him subsidies; but the mandates of its deputies were limited to twelve months, and its decrees were to have force for only three years.
John Albert's second diet (1496), after granting subsidies the burden of which fell entirely on the towns and peasantry, passed a series of statutes benefiting the nobility at the expense of the other classes.
Deputies from the towns took part in the election of John Albert (1492), and the burgesses of Cracow, the most enlightened economists in the kingdom, supplied Sigismund I.
The first actual collisions, the Cecora campaign of 1620 and the Khotin War of 1621 (for John Albert's Moldavian raid does not count), were due to the depredations of the Cossacks upon the dominions of the sultan by land and sea, and in all subsequent treaties between the two powers the most essential clause was always that which bound the Republic to keep its freebooters in order.
Albert Sorel's La Question d'Orient au X VIII'.
He has left The Game of Chess, an imitation of Vida, and Proporzec albo hold pruski (The Standard or Investiture of Prussia), where he describes the fealty done by Albert of Brandenburg to Sigismund Augustus.
He was born in Great Poland, and was at first a Roman Catholic priest in Posen, but afterwards embraced the Protestant faith and was invited by Duke Albert as a preacher to Konigsberg, where he died in 1578.
ALBERTUS MAGNUS (ALBERT OF COLOGNE, ?
Albert's works (published in twenty-one folios by the Dominican Pierre Jammy in 1651, and reproduced by the Abbe Borgnet, Paris, 1890, 36 vols.) sufficiently attest his great activity.
Albert's activity, however, was rather philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism).
Albert's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age accurate.
For Albert's life see J.
Paul Albert Besnard >>
A structure akin to cleavage, often exemplified by slates especially when they have been somewhat contorted or gnarled, is the Ausweichungsclivage of Albert Heim.
JOHN ALBERT (1459-1501),), king of Poland, third son of Casimir IV.
The loss of revenue consequent upon the secession of Lithuania placed John Albert at the mercy of the Polish Sejmiki or local diets, where the szlachta, or country gentry, made their subsidies dependent upon the king's subservience.
Primarily a warrior with a strong taste for heroic adventure, John Albert desired to pose as the champion of Christendom against the Turks.
of Muscovy, while, as suzerain of Moldavia, John Albert was favourably situated for attacking the Turks.
At the conference of Leutschau in 1494 the details of the expedition were arranged between the kings of Poland and Hungary and the elector Frederick of Brandenburg, with the co-operation of Stephen, hospodar of Moldavia, who had appealed to John Albert for assistance.
In the course of 1496 John Albert with great difficulty collected an army of 80,000 men in Poland, but the crusade was deflected from its proper course by the sudden invasion of Galicia by the hospodar, who apparently - for the whole subject is still very obscure - had been misled by reports from Hungary that John Albert was bent upon placing his younger brother Sigismund on the throne of Moldavia.
The insubordination of the szlachta seems to have been one cause of this disgraceful collapse, for John Albert confiscated hundreds of their estates after his return; in spite of which, to the end of his life he retained his extraordinary popularity.
When the new grand master of the Teutonic order, Frederic of Saxony, refused to render homage to the Polish crown, John Albert compelled him to do so.
A valiant soldier and a man of much enlightenment, John Albert was a poor politician, recklessly sacrificing the future to the present.
C. Buell in Kentucky had likewise drilled his troops to a high state of efficiency and was preparing to move against the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston, whose reputation was that of being the foremost soldier on either side.
Albert Grevy (March 1879 to November 1881 J ï¿½ Y (79) Tirman (November 1881 to April 1891), Jules Cambon (April 1891 to September 1897), Louis Lepine (September 1897 to August 1898), E.
Albert Richard Smith >>
Around the city lie five great parks - Royal Park, in which are excellent zoological gardens; Yarra Park, which contains the leading cricket grounds; the Botanical Gardens, sloping down to the banks of the river; Albert Park, in which is situated a lake much used for boating; and Studley Park on the Yarra river, a favourite resort which has been left in a natural state.
Semper came to London at the time of the Great Exhibition of 1831, and Prince Albert found him an able ally in carrying out his plans.
In 1128 his brother-in-law, Henry II., margrave of the Saxon north mark, died, and Albert, disappointed at not receiving this fief, attacked Udo, the succeeding margrave, and was consequently deprived of Lusatia by Lothair.
For three years he was occupied in campaigns against the Wends, and by an arrangement made with Pribislaus, duke of Brandenburg, Albert secured this district when the duke died in 1150.
of his Saxon duchy, which was given to Albert.
It was possibly at this time that Albert was made arch-chamberlain of the Empire, an office which afterwards gave the margraves of Brandenburg the rights of an elector.
A feud with Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, was followed, in 1158, by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and in 1162 Albert accompanied the emperor Frederick I.
In 1164 he joined a league of princes formed against Henry the Lion, and peace being made in 1169, Albert divided his territories among his six sons, and died on the 13th of November 1170, and was buried at Ballenstadt.
Albert III of Brandenburg >>
James Adams Weston Ezekiel Albert Straw.
Charles Albert Busiel George Allen Ramsdell Frank West Rollins.
To the west there are the Broadstone station, Dominion Street, and beyond this the large workhouse, prison, asylum and other district buildings, while the Royal barracks front the river behind Albert Quay.
The Canadian government did their best to facilitate the immigration, and allotted land to the Doukhobors in the provinces of Assiniboia near Yorktown and of Saskatchewan near Thunder Hill and Prince Albert.
In the general confusion following on Charles Albert's defeat on the Mincio and his retreat to Milan, where the people rose against the unhappy king, Fanti's courage and tact saved the situation.
Smith, The Spirit of American Government: A Study of the Constitution, its Origin, Influence and Relation to Democracy (New York, 1907); Albert Shaw, Political Problems in American Development (New York, (1907); D.
Famous houses no longer standing were Campden House, in the district north-west of the parish church, formerly known as the Gravel Pits; and Gore House, on the site of the present Albert Hall, the residence of William Wilberforce, and later of the countess of Blessington.
The Victoria and Albert, commonly called the South Kensington, Museum contains various exhibits divided into sections, and includes the buildings of the Royal College of Science.
The greater part of the gardens, however, with the Albert Memorial, erected by Queen Victoria in memory of Albert, prince consort, the Albert Hall, opposite to it, one of the principal concert-halls in London, and the Imperial Institute to the south, are actually within the city of Westminster, though commonly connected with Kensington.
Graduating from West Point in 1856, he was appointed to the 2nd Cavalry, which was commanded by Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, and in which his uncle, Robert E.
Charles Albert Berry >>
It contains the Albert Memorial Hall and the barracks for the sovereign's bodyguard, used when the king is in residence at Balmoral.
The Premature Death Of Regiomontanus Caused The Design To Be Suspended For The Time; But In The Following Century Numerous Memoirs Appeared On The Subject, Among The Authors Of Which Were Staler, Albert Pighius, Johann Schbner, Lucas Gauricus, And Other Mathematicians Of Celebrity.
In the market square are the medieval Rathaus, the government buildings, and a statue of Prince Albert (consort of Queen Victoria), by William Theed the younger (1804-1891).
Among various places of interest in the vicinity are the ducal residences of Callenberg and Rosenau, in the latter of which Albert, Prince Consort, was born in 1819; the castle of Lauterburg; and the village of Neuses, with the house of the poet J.
"ALBERT MENSDORFF-POUILLY-DIETRICHSTEIN, Count Von (1861-), Austro-Hungarian diplomatist, was born at Lemberg Sept.
Andreas (1514-1559) was a physician of some repute, but through his influence with Albert of Brandenburg, last grandmaster of the Teutonic order, and first Protestant duke of Prussia, became an outstanding figure in the controversy associated with Andreas Osiander whose daughter he had married.
He distinguished himself by his conciliatory disposition, earned the special confidence of Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg, and took a leading part in 1552 in drawing up the constitution of the Mecklenburg church.
In 1553 Duke Albert of Prussia, anxious to heal the differences in the Prussian church caused by the discussion of Osiander's doctrines, invited him to Konigsberg, and in the following year appointed him professor of divinity and president of the Samland diocese.
Other parks are at Seedley, Albert and Buile Hill; the last contains a museum, the contents of which have been transferred from Peel Park.
(Birmingham, 1888); Albert J.
King Charles Albert and other kings and princes of the Savoy dynasty are buried in the crypt.
The principal intellectual institution is the Royal Institution, a fine classical building opened by Albert, prince consort, in 1854, and containing a museum and large library.
East of the Hull lie the Victoria dock and extensive timber ponds, and west of the Humber dock basin, parallel to the Humber, is Albert dock.
Arte del vasajo, by the potter Piccolpasso, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Shortly afterwards Kelly and Dee were introduced by the earl of Leicester to a Polish nobleman, Albert Laski, palatine of Siradz, devoted to the same pursuits, who persuaded them to accompany him to his native country.
Owing to this attitude the German imperial government refused to allow him to take possession of the duchy of Brunswick, which he inherited on the extinction of the elder branch of his family in 1884, and again in 1906 when the same subject came up for settlement on the death of the regent, Prince Albert of Prussia.
Up-stream are the two modern Albert and Konigin Carola bridges, and, down-stream, the Marien and the Eisenbahn (railway) bridges.
The Briihl palace, built in 1737 by Count Briihl, the minister of Augustus II., has been in some measure demolished to make room for the new Standehaus (diet house), with its main facade facing the Hofkirche; before the main entrance there is an equestrian statue (1906) of King Albert.
The doctrine, however, is not new, having already been enunciated a century before by Alexander Hamilton and reiterated since then by several American statesmen, such as Albert Gallatin, William L.
It possesses a famous university, the Ludovica Albertina, founded by Albert VI., archduke of Austria, in 1457, and attended by about 2000 students.
See Schreiber, Geschichte and Beschreibung des Miinsters zu Freiburg (1820 and 1825); Geschichte der Stadt and Universitat Freiburgs (1857-1859); Der Schlossberg bei Freiburg (1860); and Albert, Die Geschichtsschreibung der Stadt Freiburg (1902).
The immediate result of the congress was a combined attack by the Magyars and Poles upon the emperor Louis and his ally Albert of Austria, which resulted in favour of Charles in 1337.
On receiving Blount's report to the effect that the revolution had been accomplished by the aid of the United States minister and by the landing of troops from the " Boston," President Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis (1843-1897) of Kentucky to Honolulu with secret instructions as United States minister.
(1855-1856); Hermann Dierks, Houdons Leben and Werke (Gotha, 1887); Albert Terrade, Autour de la statue de Jean Houdon (Versailles, 1892); P. E.
The town was burned by Albert of Mecklenburg's party in 1389, by an accidental conflagration in 1665, and by the Russians in 1719.
He was knighted in 1904, and in 1908 he was awarded the Albert medal of the Society of Arts.
The Rev. Albert Clayton, the secretary of the fund, lavished his strength on his vast task and the total income exceeded I, 073,782.
The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.
(In the Victoria and Albert Museum.) u _ FIG.
(In the Victoria and Albert Museum) VII.
(In the Victoria and Albert Museum.) FIG.
(In the Victoria and Albert Museum.) FIB.
ALBERT AUGUSTE GABRIEL HANOTAUX (1853-), French statesman and historian, was born at Beaurevoir in the department of Aisne.
It was again described by Albert le Grand in the 13th century and by Raimon Lull, who prepared it by heating nitre and clay and called it "eau forte."
In June he sailed for France, leaving 26 volunteers under Captain Albert de la Pierria.
The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, which was instituted in 1862, is a purely court distinction.
The Order of Albert the Bear, a family order or Hausorden, was founded in 1836 by the dukes Henry of Anhalt-Kothen, Leopold Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau and Alexander Charles of Anhalt-Bernburg.
in 1494, dates historically from its institution in 1729 by the elector Charles Albert, afterwards the emperor Charles VII.
Other Saxon orders are the military Order of St Henry, for distinguished service in the field, founded in 1736 in one class; since 1829 it has had four classes; the ribbon is sky blue with two yellow stripes, the gold cross bears in the centre the effigy of the emperor Henry II.; the Order of Albert, for civil and military merit, founded in 1850 by Frederick Augustus II.
in memory of Duke Albert the Bold, the founder of the Albertine line of Saxony, has six classes; the Order of Civil Merit, was founded in THE ST Andrew (Russia).
For ladies there are the Order of Sidonia, 1870, in memory of the wife of Albert the Bold, the mother (Stamm-Mutter) of the Albertine line; and the Maria Anna Order, 1906.
That religious order having been suppressed at the time of the French Revolution, King Charles Albert decreed in 1840 that the Carthusian church of Collegno should be the chapel of the order.
The statutes were published in 1816, by which date the order had lost its military character; it was reformed first by Charles Albert (1831), and later by Victor Emmanuel II., king of Italy (1868).
The Civil Order of Savoy, founded in 1831 by Charles Albert of Sardinia, is of one class, and in statutes of 1868 is limited to 60 members.
On the west, Unyoro includes nearly all the eastern shores of Albert Nyanza and a strip of territory - incorporated in Belgian Congo in 1910 - west of that lake.
Its next white visitors were Sir Samuel and Lady Baker, who in 1864 discovered the Albert Nyanza.
There are two complete editions in French of his works, both printed at Leiden, one in 1608, the other in 1634 by Albert Girard.
in 1904, see Coolidge above); Albert Smith, The Story of Mont Blanc (1853); G.
"ALBERT SIDNEY BURLESON (1863-), American lawyer and politician, was born at San Marcos, Tex., June 7 1863.
and Albert I., ruled over Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing respectively, and when Stephen died in 1375 his portion of Bavaria was governed jointly by his three sons.
In 1392, when all the lines except those of Stephen and Albert had died out, an important partition took place, by which the greater part of the duchy was divided among Stephen's three sons, Stephen III., Frederick and John II., who founded respectively the lines of Ingolstadt, Landshut and Munich.
Albert's duchy of Bavaria-Straubing passed on his death in 1404 to his son William II., and in 1417 to his younger son John, who resigned the bishopric of Liege to take up his new position.
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