Albania Sentence Examples
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
North-eastern Albania forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Kossovo; the northern highlands are included in the vilayet of Shkodra (Scutari), the eastern portion of central Albania belongs to the vilayet of Monastir, and the southern districts are comprised in the vilayet of Iannina.
The highland region of northern Albania is divided into two portions by the lower course of the Drin; the mountains of the northern portion, the Bieska Malziis, extend in a confused and broken series of ridges from Scutari to the valleys of the Ibar and White Drin; they comprise the rocky group of the Prokletia, or Accursed Mountains, with their numerous ramifications, including Mount Velechik, inhabited by the Kastrat and Shkrel tribes, Bukovik by the Hot, Golesh by the Klement, Skulsen (7533 ft.), Baba Vrkh (about 7306 ft.), Maranay near Scutari, and the Bastrik range to the east.
Southern Albania, again, is almost wholly mountainous, with the exception of the plains of Iannina and Arta; the most noteworthy feature is the rugged range of the Tchika, or Khimara mountains, which skirt the sea-coast from south-west to northeast, terminating in the lofty promontory of Glossa (ancient Acroceraunia).Advertisement
Also, simply having a Facebook friend in Albania will tend to make you more interested in the events of Albania.
The name Albania (in the Tosk dialect Arberia, in the Gheg Arbenia), like Albania in the Caucasus, Armenia, Albany in Britain, and Auvergne (Arvenia) in France, is probably connected with the root alb, alp, and signifies "the white or snowy uplands."
The country to the west of this natural barrier may be divided geographically into three districts - northern, central and southern Albania.
Central Albania differs from the northern and southern regions in the more undulating and less rugged character of its surface; it contains considerable lowland tracts, such as the wide and fertile plain of Musseki, traversed by the river Simen.
The mountains of Albania are said to be rich in minerals, but this source of wealth remains practically unexplored.Advertisement
Tobacco is grown extensively in southern Albania, especially near Berat and in the upper valley of the Viossa, but the quantity exported is small.
The population of Albania may be estimated at between 1,600,000 and 1,500,000, of whom 1,200,000 or, ioo,000 are Albanians.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.Advertisement
Since the time of Ali Pasha, who broke the power of the local chieftains, southern Albania has been subject to the central Turkish power; before that period the mountaineers of Suli and Khimara enjoyed an independence similar to that of the Gheg tribes.
In the vilayet of Scutari they form about 55% of the population; central Albania is almost entirely Moslem; in southern Albania, however, there is a considerable Christian population, whose limits practically coincide with those of the Greek-speaking districts.
In southern Albania there are Greek schools in the towns and a large Greek gymnasium at Iannina.
Albania abounds in ancient remains, which as yet have been little explored.
After the division of the Roman empire, the lands inhabited by the Albanian race became provinces of the Byzantine empire; northern Albania from Scutari to Berat formed the thema or province of Dyrrachium (Durazzo, Albanian Dourtz), southern Albania and Epirus the thema of Nikopolis.Advertisement
In 640 northern Albania was invaded by the Serbo-Croats; it continued with interruptions under Servian rule till 1360.
Southern Albania and Epirus fell once more under Byzantine rule, which, however, was shaken by numerous revolts.
Southern Albania and Epirus remained under Byzantine domination till 1204, when, after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders, Michael Comnenus, a member of the imperial family, withdrew to Epirus and founded an independent sovereignty known as the Despotate of Epirus at Iannina; his realm included the whole of southern Albania, Acarnania and Aetolia.
The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
The northern portion of the "kingdom of Albania," including Durazzo and Kroia, was ruled by the family of Thopia (1359-1392) and afterwards by that of Kastriota, to which Scanderbeg belonged; the southern portion with Berat, by the Musaki (1368-1476).Advertisement
As the power of the Balshas declined, the Venetians towards the close of the 14th century established themselves at Scutari, Budua, Antivari and elsewhere in northern Albania.
The advance of the Turks into Albania began with the capture of Iannina in 1431.
In 1502 the Turks captured Durazzo, and in 1571 Antivari and Dulcigno, the last Venetian possessions in Albania.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
A similar agitation on a smaller scale was organized in southern Albania to resist the territorial concessions awarded by the powers to Greece.
In the spring of 1903 serious disturbances took place in north-western Albania, but the Turks succeeded in pacifying the revolted tribesmen, partly by force and partly by concessions.
Similarly, in regard to Albania, Visconti Venosta exchanged notes with Austria with a view to the prevention of any misunderstanding through the conflict between Italian and Austrian interests in that part of the Adriatic coast.
Italian public opinion could not view without serious misgivings the active political propaganda which Austria was conducting in Albania.
In the 10th century bands of Varangians or Russified Scandinavians sailed out of the Volga and coasted along the Caspian until they had doubled the Apsheron peninsula, when they landed and captured Barda, the chief town of Caucasian Albania.
Their opportunity came in 1820, when the Porte was striving to repress the insurrections in Moldavia, Albania and Greece.
So far as geographical description is concerned, the separate articles on Asia Minor, Albania, Armenia, and other areas mentioned below - constituting the Turkish Empire - may be consulted.
It corresponded roughly to ancient Thrace, Macedonia with Chalcidice, Epirus and a large part of Illyria, constituting the present administrative divisions of Stambul (Constantinople, including a small strip of the opposite Asiatic coast), Edirne (Adrianople), Salonica with Kossovo (Macedonia), Iannina (parts of Epirus and Thessaly), Shkodra (Scutari or upper Albania).
The latter years of Murad's reign were troubled by the successful resistance offered to his arms in Albania by Scanderbeg.
England and Holland now urged their mediation, and after negotiations the treaty of Passarowitz (Pozharevats in Servia) was signed (July 21, 1718); Venice ceded the Morea to Turkey but kept the strongholds she had occupied in Albania and Dalmatia; Belgrade, Temesvar and Walachia as far as the Olt were retained by Austria.
Crete being thus removed from the scope of her action, Turkey found ample occupation in the almost constant turbulence of the Yemen, of Albania and of Macedonia.
Most of its members were military officers, prominent among them being Majors Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, who directed the propaganda in Albania and Macedonia.
In Albania serious discontent, resulting in an insurrection (May-September 1909), was caused by the political rivalry between Greeks and Albanians and the unwillingness of the Moslem tribesmen to pay taxes or to keep the peace with their neighbours, the Macedonian Serbs.
This in turn strengthened the hands of the extreme section among the Yugosla y s, who now advanced the full ethnographic claim, involving Trieste and Gorizia as well as Dalmatia and Istria, and at the same time increased their demands against Bulgaria, Austria and Albania.
Thus the advocates of an unscrupulous " deal " on the lines of " Skutari for Fiume " failed to assert themselves, and Yugoslavia pronounced in favour of an independent Albania, merely reserving her right to share the spoils if it came to a general partition.
Yugoslavia's relations with Albania, though simplified by this decision, have been affected by the Albanian counterclaim to Pee, Djakovo and the plain of Kosovo, where since the middle of last century the Albanian element had grown steadily stronger at the expense of the Serbs.
In Albania they were always numerous.
In Armenia they reformed their ranks about 821 at Thonrak (Tendarek) near Diadin, and were numerous all along the eastern Euphrates and in Albania.
In his second campaign (624-26) he penetrated into Armenia and Albania, and beat the enemy in the open field.
Albania, the traditional claim of France to protect Roman Catholics in the Ottoman Empire has been greatly impaired by the non-religious character of the Republic. Like Italy, she is now regarded by Eastern Catholics with distrust as an enemy of the Holy Father.
In the same years, stern military suppression accompanied by much bloodshed was applied in Albania and Macedonia; taxation and conscription were enforced, the national schools closed, and Turkish decreed as the official language.
Another Serbian force, uniting with Montenegrins, had occupied northern Albania the end of October.
Within four weeks the Ottoman Empire had lost Macedonia and Albania except the fortress and district of Yanina whose garrison as yet lay outside the area of operations.
The Treaty provided for the cession by Turkey to the allied Balkan sovereigns of all European Turkey west of the line Enos - Midia, but excluding Albania; for the delimitation of Albania's frontiers by the Great Powers; for the cession of Crete to Greece; and for the destination of other;Turkish islands being left to the same Powers.
See also Albania and the authorities there cited.
The two churches of Iberia and Albania at first depended on the Armenian for ordination of their primates or catholici, and in large part owed their first constitution to Armenian missionaries sent by Gregory the Illuminator.
From the 13th century to the 16th Prizren had a flourishing export trade with Ragusa, and it has always been one of the principal centres of commerce and industry in Albania.
In the extreme south of Dalmatia is a small district which had not formed part of the older duchy of Dalmatia, and had not been joined to the Austrian empire till 1814; in former years part of it formed the republic of Ragusa, and the rest belonged to Albania.
Soon, by one means or another, his power was supreme in all central Albania.
Two main barriers still obstructed the realization of his ambition,which now embraced Greece arid Thessaly, as well as Albania, and the establishment in the Mediterranean of a sea-power which should rival that of the dey of Algiers.
His plans in Albania were interrupted by the war against Pasvan Oglu, the rebellious pasha of Widdin, in which Ali once more did good service.
In 1803 the Suliot stronghold fell; and he was undisputed master of Epirus, Albania and Thessaly, while the pashalik of the Morea was held by his son Veli, and that of Lepanto by his son Mukhtar.
It is found in numerous detached settlements in Macedonia, Albania and northern Greece, and in colonies of recent date in Servia and Bulgaria.
The Serbo-Croats of Dalmatia, and Croatia-Slavonia, some of the Gheg tribes in Albania, about 21% of the Bosnians, a still smaller number of Bulgarians in the kingdom and in Macedonia and a few Greeks in the islands belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
In Albania the aboriginal Illyrian element, which preserved its ancient language, maintained itself in the mountains and eventually forced back the immigrant race.
In 1230 Theodore of Epirus, who had conquered Albania, Great Walachia and Macedonia, was overthrown at Klokotnitza by Ivan Asen II., the greatest of Bulgarian monarchs (1218-1241), who defeated Baldwin at Adrianople and extended his sway over most of the Peninsula.
A short period of Servian predominance followed under Stephen Dushan (1331-1355) whose realm included Albania, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly and northern Greece.
The despotate of Epirus succumbed in 1449, the duchy of Athens in 1456; in 1453 Constantinople was taken and the decrepit Byzantine empire perished; the greater part of Bosnia submitted in 1463; the heroic resistance of the Albanians under Scanderbeg collapsed with the fall of Croia (1466), and Venetian supremacy in Upper Albania ended with the capture of Scutari (1478).
The abortive treaty of San Stefano, concluded in that year, reduced the Turkish possessions in the Peninsula to Albania, Epirus, Thessaly and a portion of southern Thrace.
A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
The area was divided into Albania (now Albania and Kosovo), Macedonia (now in Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece) and Thrace (now divided among Greece and Turkey).
He was hampered by the unpaid debt to Russia; by unrest in Bosnia and Albania; above all, by the revolt of the Greek Islands, which had left his navy, deprived of its best sailors, in no condition to dispute the Egyptian command of the sea.
Palmerston, however, did not share Canning's belief in the possible regeneration of Turkey; he held that an isolated intervention of Great Britain would mortally offend not only Russia but France, and that Mehemet Ali, disappointed of his ambitions, would find in France a support that would make him doubly dangerous.1 In the autumn Sultan Mahmud, as a last independent effort, despatched against Ibrahim the army which, under Reshid Pasha, had been engaged in pacifying Albania.
In1814-1815it again appeared in Egypt, and once more invaded the continent of Europe in Albania and Bosnia.
In 1676 he died in obscurity in Albania.
From 1870 to 1874 he was in the service of the governor of northern Albania, had adopted a Turkish name (though not that by which he afterwards became so widely known), and was practically naturalized as a Turk.
Further, Serbia was determined to carve for herself a way to the Adriatic through northern Albania.
A minor Greek force in the Epirus theatre, and the Montenegrins in northern Albania, were similarly to absorb the attention of the Turkish garrisons (3 independent divisions) and to conquer territory.
To penetrate Albania and gain the desired foothold on the coast, the III.
Operations in Macedonia and northern Albania therefore came to an end.
Not only was the Balkan league on the point of internal explosion, but the Concert of Europe was trying to create the new state of Albania in the midst of a three-cornered diplomatic contest between Austria-Hungary, Italy and Russia.
By the Christians of both churches in Albania he is to this day venerated as a saint.
He took from the Greeks Albania and Macedonia excepting Salonica, Kastoria and Iannina.
Derbent is usually identified with Albana, the capital of the ancient Albania.
The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Servia, Bulgaria and Albania.
No sooner had he regained Hungary than he received tempting offers from the pope, represented by the legate Cardinal Cesarini, from George Brankovic, despot of Servia, and George Castriota, prince of Albania, to resume the war and realize his favourite idea of driving the Turk from Europe.
One line goes north to Nish in Servia, where it meets the main line (Paris-Vienna-Constantinople) of the Oriental railways; another, after following the same route as far as Uskiib in Macedonia, branches off to Mitrovitza in Albania; the extension of this line to Serajevo in Bosnia was projected in 1908 in order to establish direct communication between Austria and Salonica.
Aid workers accuse the government of mistreating refugees as part of an effort to get them to resettle in camps in Albania.
Some clearly articulated the need for Albania to put its own house in order.
A monitoring system using the database developed with the Mother Theresa Society for relief distributions in Kosovo is to be implemented countrywide in Albania.
The state Supreme Audit Institution has its own seal which presents the state emblem of the Republic of Albania and its name.
The refugees, severely traumatized, began entering Albania through the Morina border crossing near Kukes in the early morning of April 28.
Notwithstanding the primitive condition of agriculture, the deficiency of communications and the damage caused by frequent inundations, Albania furnishes almost the entire corn supply of the Dalmatian coast and islands.
Servian settlements exist in various parts of northern Albania; there is a strong Bulgarian colony in the neighbourhood of Dibra and Ochrida; farther south, Mount Zygos and the Pindus range - the "Great Walachia" of the middle ages - are inhabited by Vlachs or Tzintzars, who possibly number 70,000.
In all parts of Albania the vendetta (gydk, jak) or blood-feud, the primitive lex talionis, is an established usage; the duty of revenge is a sacred tradition handed down to successive generations in the family, the village and the tribe.
Meanwhile Durazzo, with Berat and Central Albania, had passed into the hands of the Sicilian kings of the house of Anjou, who ruled these regions, which they styled the "Kingdom of Albania," from 1271 to 1368, maintaining a constant warfare with the Byzantine emperors.
A portion of Upper Albania was ruled by the Balsha dynasty (1366-1421), which, though apparently Servian by descent, assimilated itself with its Albanian subjects and embraced the faith of Rome.
The movement, which was instigated by the Porte with the object of evading the provisions of the treaty, was so far successful that the restoration .of Playa and Gusinye to Albania was sanctioned by the powers, Montenegro receiving in exchange the town and district of Dulcigno.
At this stage the Yugoslav delegation committed a grave tactical blunder, * Trumbic's views being overridden by the Balkan imperialistic aims of Pasic., While pleading for a plebiscite against Italy and doing lip service to an independent Albania within the frontiers of 1913, it added that in the event of any revision of those frontiers Yugoslavia would claim Skutari and all territory north of the river Drin (Drim).
After Giolitti's renunciation of a mandate in Albania the claim to Skutari became untenable, and at last in 1921 the Supreme Council sanctioned the frontiers assigned to Albania in 1913.
The inhabitants of this part, who chiefly belonged to the Greek Church, still kept up a close connexion with Albania and with Montenegro, and Austrian authority was maintained with difficulty.
He knew, however, how to retain the confidence of the sultan, who not only confirmed him in the possession of the whole of Albania from Epirus to Montenegro, but even in 1799 appointed him vali of Rumelia, an office which he held just long enough to enable him to return to Iannina laden with the spoils of Thessaly.
The other mountain-systems display great complexity of formation; beginning with the Dinaric Alps and the parallel ranges of Bosnia, they run, as a rule, from north-west to south-east; the great chain of Rhodope traverses the centre of the Peninsula, throwing out spurs towards the Black Sea and the Aegean; farther west are the lofty Shar Dagh and the mountains of Montenegro and Albania, continued by the Pindus range and the heights of Acarnania and Aetolia.
For full details as to the physical features, natural products, population, customs, trade, finance, government, religion, education, language, literature, antiquities, history, politics, &c., of the Balkan lands, see Albania, Bosnia And Herzegovina,Bulgaria,Croataslavonia, Dalmatia, Dobrudja, Greece, Illyria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Novibazar, Servia and Turkey.
In the 7th the Serbo-Croats invaded the north-western regions (Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro and northern Albania); they expelled or assimilated the Illyrian population, now represented in Dalmatia by the slavonized Morlachs or Mavro-Vlachs, and appropriated the old Roman colonies on the Adriatic coast.
Internal difficulties, low transport capabilities, and the necessity of garrisoning almost all parts of Albania and Macedonia to prevent local risings, added to the customary slackness in administration and training and the customary dishonesty in supply and equipment matters, resulted in the putting into the field of two armies which were numerically inferior, unequally trained, and poorly equipped - possessing indeed few assets beyond the solid fighting-worth of the individual Mahommedan Turk .2 With all this, however, the prestige of a great Power facing a group of small states, whose mutual hatred and rivalries had only just been composed, stood high, especially in Germany where the positive effects of the Turkish army reforms initiated by von der Goltz and others were overrated.
Montenegro's aims were limited to local expansion southward into Albania and eastward into the Sanjak of Novibazar and northern Macedonia; in both of these directions some conflict of interest with the Serbian Government might arise.
But already Montenegro was under naval blockade by the Great Powers, who had decided that Scutari should belong to the new state of Albania, and on May 6 King Nicholas yielded and withdrew his troops.
A similar suffix article is retained in Albanian, which almost certainly represents the original language of the Thraco-Illyrian tribes (see Albania); and these tribes belonged to the same ethnical and linguistic group as the Daco-Moesians represented by the Vlachs.
Prince Michael organized the national army, armed it and drilled it, and entered into understandings with Greece, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Albania, for an eventful general rising against the Turks.
For instance, if you have a Facebook friend Abigail in Albania whom you only met once at a rock-paper-scissors competition years ago, you will generally regard Abigail's first-hand account as authoritative, even though you don't really know Abigail all that well.
It then moves on to describe the factors which defined Albania 's foreign relations with the USSR and the West.
If Turkey falls apart, all hell will break loose between Muslim separatists and Slavic nationalists in what 's left of Yugoslavia and Albania.
Tony Dovolani began dancing at the age of 3 in Kosova, Albania.
Autumnal Snowdrops Octobrensis - Lord Walsingham, when travelling in Albania about the year 1875, collected some bulbs on one of the mountains and sent them to the late Rev.
Countries in which you'll find Vodafone operating under their own name include Albania, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and -- naturally -- the United Kingdom.