They may have just moved to Alaska from another state.
The area of the United States, as here considered, exclusive of Alaska and outlying possessions, occupies a belt nearly twenty degrees of middle latitude in width, and crosses Boundaries sad Area, North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The southern boundary is naturally defined on the east by the Gulf of Mexico; its western extension crosses obliquely over the western highlands, along an irregular line determined by aggressive Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock against Americans of Spanish stock.
His greatest work in this period was the purchase of Alaska from Russia, in 1867.
A " reconnaissance " map of Alaska (on a scale of 1: 250,000) was published in 1908.
The development of Alaska and the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad to the coast (1883) brought a great increase in population.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
harrimani; the last named, like several other animals from Alaska, being the largest of its kind.
25 annually imported into London from Alaska some five-andtwenty years ago.
the north-east extremity of Siberia, and Bering Sea between the land of the Chukchis and Alaska, with the Gulf of Anadyr, are often visited by seal-hunters, and the Commander Islands off Kamchatka are valuable stations for this pursuit.
Coal was produced in 1908 in 30 states out of the 46 of the Union; and occurs also in enormous quantities in Alaska; 690,438 men were employed in this year in the coal mines.
Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.
The people in Alaska who get the checks don't work for them.
In the latter case the United States, after the purchase of Alaska, vainly attempted to assert dominion beyond the three-mile limit.
Similarly, in Alaska, women felt great shame when seen without the plugs they carried in their lips.
It is bounded on the east by Alaska, and on the west by the Siberian and Kamchatkan coast.
the Bay of Biscay, Gulf of Alaska and Gulf of the Lion.
At the census of 1910, while the continental United States population (excluding Alaska) was 91,972,266, the total, including Alaska, Hawaii and Porto Rico, but excluding the Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoa and the Canal Zone, was 93,402,151.
In the year 1867 the United States government had purchased from Russia all her territorial rights in Alaska and the adjacent islands.
The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the " pan handle " of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 14r° to the Arctic Ocean.
It flows first to the north, then to the north-west, passing out of the Yukon territory into Alaska, and then south-west, ending in Bering Sea, the northward projection of the Pacific, 2000 m.
With the exception of the single species of bullfinch already noticed as occurring in Alaska, all the above forms o£ finches are peculiar to the Palaearctic Region.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
The mining laws of most civilized states grant the right of free prospecting over the public lands, protect the rights of the discoverer of the mineral deposit during the period of exploration, and provide for the acquisition of mineral property on favourable terms. Striking examples of the far-reaching effect of such laws is shown in the history of the Rocky Mountain region and western coast of the United States, the colonization and development of Australia, and the development of Alaska.
coast of Norway, in Finmarken amt (county), in 70° 40' 11" N., the latitude being that of the extreme north of Alaska.
In this way Mt Whitney (14,502 ft.) came to be the highest summit in the United States (excluding Alaska).
In the north, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the intricately branching waterways of Puget Sound between the Cascade and the Olympic ranges occupy trough-like depressions which were filled by extensive glaciers in Pleistocene times; and thus mark the beginning of the great stretch of forded coast which extends northward to Alaska.
In 1870 the exclusive rights of killing seals upon these islands was leased by the United States to the Alaska Commercial Company, upon conditions limiting the numbers to be taken annually, and otherwise providing for their protection.
On the 12th of March 1881, however, the acting secretary of the United States treasury, in answer to a letter asking for an interpretation of the words "waters adjacent thereto" in the acts of 1868 and 1873, stated that all the waters east of the boundary line were considered to be within the waters of Alaska territory.
They were condemned by the district judge on the express ground that they had been sealing within the limits of Alaska territory.
The points submitted were as follows: - (t) What exclusive jurisdiction in the sea now known as Bering Sea, and what exclusive rights in the seal fisheries therein, did Russia assert and exercise prior to and up to the time of the cession of Alaska to the United States?
The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States, and Newfoundland, still a separate colony of the British empire.
The highest mountains of the Cordillera in Canada are near the southern end of the boundary separating Alaska from the Yukon Territory, the meridian of 141°, and they include Mount Logan (1 9,54 o ft.) and Mount St Elias (18,000 ft.), while the highest peak in North America, Mount McKinley (20,000 ft.), is not far to the north-west in Alaska.
The range of the common or brown hare, inclusive of its local races, extends from England across southern and central Europe to the Caucasus; while that of the blue or mountain species, likewise inclusive of local races, reaches from Ireland, Scotland and Scandinavia through northern Europe and Asia to Japan and Kamchatka, and thence to Alaska.
groenlandicus) and the Alaska hare (L.
The genus includes about a score of species of guinea-pig-like animals, inhabiting chiefly the mountainous parts of Northern Asia (from 11,000 to 14,000 ft.), one species only being known from South-east Europe and several from the Rocky Mountains and Alaska.
The turnstone (Strepsilas interpres) arrives in the islands in August after breeding in Alaska.
obensis, and in Alaska, by L.
JUNEAU, formerly Harrisburg, a mining and trading town picturesquely situated at the mouth of Gold Creek on the continental shore of Gastineau channel, south-east Alaska, and the capital of Alaska.
In October 1906 the seat of government of Alaska was removed from Sitka to Juneau.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
Africa), Zambezia, Jamaica, British Guiana, British Honduras, Alaska.
He founded missions in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Kamtchatka and throughout Eastern Siberia, and established the Orthodox Missionary Society at Moscow.
In addition to the nine distinct missions (300 workers) in Siberia and the six (with 50 workers) in European Russia, the Orthodox Church (Russian) has three foreign missions: (1) in China, founded at Pekin 1714, in the face of Jesuit opposition; (2) in Japan, established about 1863 by Bishop Nicolai, a chaplain at Nagasaki; (3) in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the bishop residing 1 See E.
The Russo-Greek Church has a mission in Alaska, dating See J.
- Chaetoderma nitidulum, Limifossor from Alaska.
In North America, the principal region of volcanic activity lay in the west; great thicknesses of igneous rocks occur in the Lower Carboniferous rocks of British Columbia, and from the middle of the period until near its close volcanoes were active from Alaska to California.
The best fur seals are found off the Alaska coast and down as far south as San Francisco.
These are the Hudson's Bay Co., Russian Fur Co., Alaska Commercial Co., North American Commercial Co., Russian Sealskin Co., Harmony Fur Co., Royal Greenland Fur Co., American Fur Co., Missouri Co.
Found in Alaska, Hudson Bay territory, Archangel and Greenland.
The finest skins are found in the East Main and the Esquimaux Bay, in the Hudson's Bay Company's districts, and the poorest in Alaska.
Pribilof Islands, Alaska, north-west coast of America, Copper Island of the Aleutian group near to Kamschatka, Robben Island and Japan.
The clays, which contain layers of good coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the Miocene period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm climate.
Domesticated reindeer have also been introduced into Alaska.
brevirostris, limited to the North Pacific, between Alaska and Kamchatka.
upward, Mount Whitney, 14,502 ft., being the highest summit of the United States, excluding Alaska.
The last is the counter-trade, the all-year wind of Alaska and Oregon; it prevails in winter even off Southern California.
Jesuit missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintaining themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations in Alaska from 1745-1765 did the Spanish government show interest in Upper California.
on the coast of Alaska, travelled over the sea ice to lat.
In July 1920 he arrived at Nome in Alaska having completed the north-east passage.
The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.
The genus Isotoma, for example, has some of its numerous species in regions so remote as Alaska, Franz Josef Land, the Sandwich Islands, the South Orkneys, Graham Land, Kerguelen and South Victoria Land.
In 1883 she was appointed special agent to allot lands to the Omaha tribes, in 1884 prepared and sent to the New Orleans Exposition an exhibit showing the progress of civilization among the Indians of North America in the quarter-century previous, in 1886 visited the natives of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands on a mission from the commissioner of education, and in 1887 was United States special agent in the distribution of lands among the Winnebagoes and Nez Perces.
Among business buildings built since the fire are the Phelan building (costing more than $2,000,000), the buildings of the Bank of California, the Alaska Commercial Company, the First National Bank and the San Francisco Savings Union, and the Chronicle (newspaper) building.
Trade with the Philippine Islands and the Hawaiian Islands and Alaska is important, while the coastwise trade with Pacific ports exceeds all the rest in tonnage.
Thuja gigantea, the red or canoe cedar, a native of north-western America from southern Alaska to north California, is the finest species, the trunk rising from a massive base to the height of 150 to 200 ft.
In America the Russian archbishop, who resides in New York, has (on behalf of the Holy Synod) the oversight of some 152 churches and chapels in the United States, Alaska and Canada.
He is assisted by two bishops, one for Alaska residing at Sitka, one for Orthodox Syrians residing in Brooklyn.
westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the peninsula of Kamchatka; they constitute part of the District of Alaska, U.S.A. The islands, of which an alternative collective name is the Catherine Archipelago, comprise four groups - the Fox, Andreanof, Rat and Near Islands.
The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a S.W.
The summers are much cooler than on the mainland at Sitka, but the winter temperature of the islands and of south-eastern Alaska is very nearly the same.
Sporadic efforts to Christianize the Aleuts were made in the latter half of the 18th century, but little impression was made before the arrival in 1824 of Father Ivan Venyaminov, who in 1840 became the first Greek bishop of Alaska.
ALASKA, formerly called Russian America, a district of the United States of America, occupying the extreme northwestern part of North America and the adjacent islands.
The district of Alaska comprises, first, all that part of the continent W.
Alaska is bounded on the N.
by the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, and on the E.
These three parts will be referred to hereafter respectively, as Continental Alaska, Aleutian Alaska and the " Panhandle."
Of the islands of Alaska the more important are: at the S.E.
are Chicagof, Baranof, Admiralty, Kupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales (the largest of the archipelago and of all the islands about Alaska, measuring about 140 m.
of Alaska Peninsula, consists of the Semidi, Shumagin and Sannak clusters; (2) the Aleutian Islands sweeping 1200 m.
from the end of Alaska Peninsula, W.
Very little was known about Alaska previous to 1896, when the gold discoveries in the Klondike stimulated public interest regarding it.
The orographic features of the Pacific Mountain system trend parallel to the coast-line of the Gulf of Alaska, changing with this at the great bend beyond the N., and of the Panhandle from S.E.
and running through the Alaska Peninsula.
Alaska, which it crosses near the Arctic coast in a broad belt composed of several ranges about 6000 ft.
Out of the Alaska and Nutzotin mountains two great rivers flow southward: the Copper, practically unnavigable except for small boats, because of its turbulence and the discharge of glaciers into its waters; and the Susitna, also practically unnavigable.
It is fed by Alpine glaciers, among them one of the grandest in Alaska, the Seward, which descends from Mt.
- Continental Alaska in the interior is essentially a vast plateau.
A low water-parting divides the Yukon valley from the Kuskokwim, the second river of Alaska in size, navigable by steamers for 600 m.
The Rocky Mountain system in Alaska is higher and more complex than in Canada.
The Panhandle, along with the lisiere (foreland), westward to Cook Inlet might be called temperate Alaska, its climate being similar to that of the N.W.
of Alaska Peninsula the rainfall diminishes to io in.
or less within the Arctic circle; the summer temperature is quite endurable but the winters are exceedingly rigorous.2 East of the mountains in south-eastern Alaska the atmosphere is dry and bracing, the temperature ranging from -14° to 92° F.
But the Alaska summer is the uncertain season; at times the nights are cold into July, at times snow falls and there are frosts in mid-August; sometimes rain is heavy, or again there is a veritable drought.
==Fauna and Flora== The fauna of Alaska is very rich and surprisingly varied.
It is, however, the fish and the fur-bearing animals of its rivers and surrounding seas that are economically most distinctive of and important to Alaska.
of the Alaska Peninsula.
The red fox is widely distributed, and the white or Arctic fox is very common along the eastern coast of Bering Sea; a blue fox, once wild, is now domesticated on Kodiak and the Aleutians, and on the southern continental coast, and a black fox, very rare, occurs in south-eastern Alaska; the silver fox is very rare.
The forests of the coastal region eastward from Cook Inlet, and particularly in south-eastern Alaska, are of fair variety, and of great richness and value.
The balsam fir and in the south the red cedar occur in scant quantities; more widely distributed, but growing only under marked local conditions, is the yellow or Alaska cedar, a very hard and durable wood of fine grain and pleasant odour.
The last is not confined to this part of Alaska, but is the characteristic and universal tree.
from the mouth), along the great tributaries of the Yukon, and, so far as explorations have revealed, along every stream in central Alaska; and the woods of the interior consist almost entirely of spruce.
Bushes are common in western Alaska, but undergrowth is very scanty in the forests.
The thick peat moss or tundra of the undrained lowlands covers probably at least a quarter of Alaska; the ' The trees here grow as large as 10 in.
of the Arctic circle, save along Bering Sea; also that there is little doubt of the practicability of successfully cultivating buckwheat, barley and oats, and possibly also rye and wheat; that grasses for grazing grow generally and often in abundance; and in general that the possibilities of interior Alaska as a live-stock country are very considerable.
It is calculated that a twentieth of south-eastern Alaska is available for agriculture, and that of the entire country 100,000 sq.
The fur and fish resources of Alaska have until recently held first place in her industries.
The second salmon stream is the Nushagak, flowing into Bristol Bay; this bay is the richest fishing field of Alaska, furnishing in 1901, 35% of the total production.
The timber resources of Alaska are untouched 2 280 species of mosses proper, of which 46 were new to science, and 16 varieties of peat moss (Sphagnum) were listed by the Harriman expedition; and 74 species or varieties of ferns.
The value of the total product of Alaska's fish canneries was in 1905 $7,735,7 82, or 29.3% of the total for the United States; in 1900 it was 17.4% of the country's total.
Other gold districts are scattered over the whole interior of Alaska.
The product of gold and silver (of the latter some 1.3% of the total) from 1895 to 1901 was more than $32,000,000 from Alaska proper (not including that from the Canadian Yukon fields) as against a production of $5,000,000 in 1880-1896.
In 1905 the product of gold from Alaska was valued at $15,630,000 (mines report); and from 1880 to 1906 the production of gold, according to the estimate of A.
Coal, and in much larger quantities lignite, have been found in many parts of Alaska.
Most important, because of their location, are deposits along the Alaska Peninsula and between Circle City and Dawson.
As against $7,200,000 paid for Alaska in 1867, the revenues returned to the United States in the years 1867-1903 totalled $9,555,9 0 9 (namely, rental for the Fox and Pribilof Islands, $999, 200; special revenue tax on seal-skins, $7,597,351; Alaskan customs, $528,558; public lands, $28,928; other sources $401,872).
It has been estimated that in the same period the United States drew from Alaska fish, furs and gold to the value of about $150,000,000; that up to 1903 the imports from the states aggregated $100,000,000; and that $25,000,000 of United States capital was invested in Alaska.
The natives of Alaska fall under four ethnologic races: the Eskimo or Innuit - of these the Aleuts are an offshoot; the Haidas or Kaigani, found principally on Prince of Wales Island and thereabouts; the Thlinkits, rather widely distributed in the " Panhandle "; and the Tinnehs or Athapascans, the stock race of the great interior country.
The natives have adopted many customs of white civilization, and on the Aleutians, and in coastal Alaska, and in scattered regions in the interior acknowledge Christianity under the forms of the Orthodox Greek or other churches.
This policy threatens to become a continued necessity throughout much of Alaska.
- Alaska, by an act of Congress approved the 7th of May 1906, received the power to elect a delegate to Congress.
Before this act and the elections of August 1906 Alaska was a governmental district of the United States without a delegate in Congress.
This act extended over Alaska the laws of the state of Oregon so far as they should be applicable, created the judicial district and a land district, put in force the mining laws of the United States, and in general gave the administrative system the organization it retained up to the reforms of 1899-1900.
As the general land laws of the United States were not extended to Alaska in 1884, there was no means, generally speaking, of gaining title to any land other than a mining claim, and so far as any method did exist its cost was absolutely prohibitive.
After partial and inadequate legislation in 1891 and 1898, the regular system of land surveys was made applicable to Alaska in 1899, and a generous homestead law was provided in 1903.
The coast of Alaska offers exceptional facilities for smuggling, and liquor has always been very plentiful; juries have steadily refused to convict offenders, and treasury officials have regularly collected revenue from saloons existing in defiance of law.
The governor has represented the president without possessing much power; the department of war has had ill-defined duties; the department of justice has, in theory, had charge of the general law; the department of the interior has administered the land law; the agents of the bureau of education have superintended the stocking of Alaska with reindeer; the United States Fish Commission has investigated the condition of marine life without having powers to protect it.
The region now known as Alaska was first explored by the Russian officers Captain Vitus Bering and Chirikov in 1741.
In 1864 authority was granted to an American company to make explorations for a proposed Russo-American company's telegraph line overland from the Amur river in Siberia to Bering Strait, and through Alaska to British Columbia.
In 1854 a Californian company began importing ice from Alaska.
Since its acquisition by the United States the history of Alaska has been mainly that of the evolution of its administrative system described above, and the varying fortunes of its fisheries and sealing industries.
Baker, " List of Charts, Maps, and Publications relating to Alaska," in United States Pacific Coast Pilot, 1879; Monthly Catalogue United States Public Documents, No.
Bancroft, Alaska 1730-1885, pp. 59560 9; and various other bibliographies in titles mentioned below, especially in Brooke's The Geography and Geology of Alaska.
- United States Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance, July 1903, "Commercial Alaska, 1867-1903.
Merriam, editor, Harriman Alaska Expedition (New York, 1901-1904, 3 vols.).
United States Department of War, Explorations in Alaska, 1869-1900 (Washington, 1901); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports since 1897 - " The Geography and Geology of Alaska: A Summary of Existing Knowledge," by Alfred H.
Baker; United States Post Office, " Map of Alaska " (1901); United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Bulletins and maps; Bulletin American Geographical Society, February 1902, F.
Schrader, " Work of the United States Geological Survey in Alaska "; Journal of Franklin Institute, October and November 1904, W.
Abercrombie - " The Copper River Country of Alaska "; I.
- United States Census, 1880, Ivan Petroff, Report on the Population, Industries and Resources of Alaska; United States Census, 1890 and 190o; on reindeer, Fifteenth Annual Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, by Sheldon Jackson (Washington, 1906); on agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, Experiment Stations, Bulletin Nos.
(1898-1900); Seal and Salmon Fisheries and General Industries of Alaska, 1868-1895 (Washington, 1898) (United States Treasury, also 55 Congress, i Session, House Document 92, vols.
Bancroft, Alaska, 1730-1885 (San Francisco, 1886); W.
Dall, " Alaska as it was and is, 1865-1895," in Bulletin of the Philadelphia Society of Washington, xiii.; Governor of Alaska, Annual Report to the Secretary of the Interior; Fur Seal Arbitration, Proceedings (Washington, 1895, 16 vols.); also Great Britain, Foreign Office Correspondence, United States, Nos.
Childe, The Thlinkeets of South-Eastern Alaska (Chicago, 1896).
The excellent harbour, and the fact that Bellingham is nearer to the great markets of Alaska than any other city in the states, make the port an important shipping centre.
The city is served by the Port Townsend Southern railway (controlled by the Northern Pacific, but operated independently) and by steamship lines to Victoria (British Columbia), San Francisco, Alaska and Oriental ports.
Lyman's History of Oregon (4 vols., New York, 1903), the best complete history of the state; Joseph Schafer's "Pacific Slope and Alaska," vol.
canadensis stonei), while this is replaced in Alaska by the nearly pure white 0.
SITKA (formerly New Archangel), a city and historically the most notable settlement of Alaska, on the W.
Sitka is the see of a Greek Catholic and of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. In_ its early history it was the leading trading post of Alaska.
The formal transfer of Alaska from Russian to American possession took place at Sitka on the 18th of October 1867.
During the next ten years Alaska was governed by the department of war, and Sitka was an army post.
It was the seat of government of Alaska until 1906, when Juneau became the capital.
Dall, Alaska, p. 423 (1870).
The connexion of this system with that of the Rocky Mountains, which has been pointed out by many writers, has received much support from the discovery of the extensive eruptions of granite during Tertiary times, extending from the southern extremity of South America to Alaska.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.
(Cretaceous-Tertiary) (Tertiary, Alaska); (Cretaceous-Tertiary); (Jurassic); (Jurassic, Spitsbergen); (Jurassic. Franz Josef Land).
During his term of office the wealth of Alaska was made more accessible by the construction of a Government railway.
It is rather curious that there's that piece of the United States, called Alaska, tucked up in the top left hand corner.
Enjoy a walk on the arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic regions.
Experimental studies of ornaments in crested auklets (Alaska) and Australian finches, with reference to mate choice and species isolation.
Carbon dates show that bison were present throughout Alaska from 45 to 5 Kyr, including the 11,000 year period of human occupation.
Anchorage sits on a high bluff at the base of the Chugach Mountains along the coast of Cook Inlet in south central Alaska.
anchorage sits on a high bluff at the base of the chugach mountains along the coast of cook inlet in south central alaska.
boredom sets in, she flies up to Alaska for low glacier hiking.
Enhance your Alaska vacation by exploring any of Alaska's scenic byways.
confluence of 6 rivers, Alaska fishing does not get any better.
continental shelfdes the Russian Far East, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, linking continental shelves, and adjacent oceans.
destructive tsunami in Alaska.
I'm a police dispatcher in Alaska and it's amazing the similar issues we face.
Wanted: Treadmill for an elephant Maggie, the 22 year-old African elephant, has been a resident of the Alaska Zoo since 1983.
benign myalgic encephalomyelitis (Iceland Disease) in Alaska.
farewell dinner is served followed by the Chefs Baked Alaska Parade.
fjord scenery with the Alaska leaders.
In Alaska, the Exxon Valdez runs aground and spills 11 million gallons of oil.
Are the real go-getters all up in Alaska, mowing their snow twice a week and learning actionscript at an advanced rate?
The earthquake occurred as a result of a northward thrust of the Pacific Ocean sea floor beneath the continental landmass of Alaska.
Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis ): Canada, Alaska, Rocky Mountains.
junipers manzanita or pines what's really going in alaska he her saris her.
And cruise mediterranean travel there are to Alaska pacific.
The PSA sighted Alaska as the cruise hot spot for 2004 with an increase of nearly 70 per cent in cruise passengers.
permafrost thaw comes about, " It will change the face of southern Alaska, " says Tom Osterkamp.
For some reason the sky above Alaska seems strangely receptive to images of Bristol.
Travel the Chena and Tanana Rivers for 3.5 hours on the only authentic sternwheeler riverboat operating in Alaska.
By this time we also had a pet skunk which is not native to Alaska.
An airplane norwegian sojourn through the expanse alaska cruise hawaii of ocean a thatched teahouse.
theater mask Alaska board shore excursions club with kayaks.
A few years ago Alaska had five time zones.
The site contains information about the Alaskan earthquake of 1964 which generated a destructive tsunami in Alaska.
Enjoy a walk on the arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic regions.
In the latest test, to destroy a dummy warhead fired from Alaska, the interception missile never even got off the ground.
Norway defies the ban while some indigenous peoples in Greenland, Siberia and the US state of Alaska are allowed traditional subsistence whaling.
coast of Norway, in Finmarken amt (county), in 70Ã‚° 40' 11" N., the latitude being that of the extreme north of Alaska.
63Ã‚° N., and Alaska, and extending south to the parallel of 35Ã‚° but at the present time is almost exterminated in the settled parts of the United States east of the Mississippi.
Alaska, in lat.
The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the " pan handle " of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 14rÃ‚° to the Arctic Ocean.
The highest mountains of the Cordillera in Canada are near the southern end of the boundary separating Alaska from the Yukon Territory, the meridian of 141Ã‚°, and they include Mount Logan (1 9,54 o ft.) and Mount St Elias (18,000 ft.), while the highest peak in North America, Mount McKinley (20,000 ft.), is not far to the north-west in Alaska.
From Labrador it ranges to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay and to those of the Great Bear Lake, and to the valley of the Yukon and the coast of Alaska, forming with the aspen, the larch, the balsam poplar, the banksian pine, the black and white spruces and the balsam fir, the great subarctic transcontinental forest; and southward it ranges through all the forest region of the Dominion of Canada and the northern states."
Stefansson, with two companions and a dog team, left Martin Point, Alaska, on March 22 1914, reached lat.
or less within the Arctic circle; the summer temperature is quite endurable but the winters are exceedingly rigorous.2 East of the mountains in south-eastern Alaska the atmosphere is dry and bracing, the temperature ranging from -14Ã‚° to 92Ã‚° F.
The Soil of Alaska seems to be in itself rich, and quite capable of agricultural development; the great impediment to this is in the briefness of the summer.
Dall, Alaska and its Resources (Boston, 1870); C. Summer, Speech on "Cession of RussianAmerica to the United States," in Works, vol.
45), with various maps (see National Geographic Mag., May 1904, for a map embodying all knowledge then known); " Altitudes in Alaska " (Bulletin 169, by H.
Each year a payment is made to each resident of Alaska.
Anchorage, Alaska, just opened its first two roundabouts at a major intersection.
Seward, Alaska is a seacoast town 128 miles south of Anchorage.
Theater mask alaska board shore excursions club with kayaks.
Going from snowy Alaska to sunny Hawaii on the same trip made for an odd juxtaposition during the family's vacation.
My cousins were told that they would prosper if they moved to remote Alaska, but in reality they are struggling to get by.
They include Alaska, Georgia, Colorado, Hawaii, California, Kentucky, Iowa, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Tennessee, Vermont, Utah, New York, Wyoming and Washington.
They do not ship out of the country or to Alaska or Hawaii.
The stories in the series are intriguing from his incredible memory of his birth the delivery room to his outrageous decision to run away to Alaska because wearing plastic fangs is accepted.
Alaska Airlines Platinum Plus: Travel reward points earned with this card can be used to acquire travel rewards through Alaska Airlines.
Alaska state divorce statutes can be cumbersome, but some knowledge of them is necessary to get through the process as easily as possible.
If you are the petitioner, you must be a legal resident of Alaska at the time of filing.
Military members stationed in Alaska for 30 or more days are also considered residents for this purpose.
According to the Alaska state divorce statutes, you must have proper grounds to file for divorce.
Alaska is an equitable distribution state, with all marital property being distributed to the parties in an equitable fashion.
Alaska uses a Percentage of Income method that takes a percentage of the non-custodial parent's income based upon the number of children that need to be supported.
For more specific information, visit our Alaska Child Support page.
These are some of the issues that you and your spouse will have to deal with as you and your attorney navigate your way through Alaska's divorce system.
Alaska is a state where things are a bit different when it comes to division of property.
Under the provisions of The The Alaska Community Property Act, couples may elect to have some or all of their marital property considered community property.
Areas like Alaska that goes days without sunlight could not rely on solar energy as a main power source.
A guide to the Midwest won't do you much good if you're in Alaska!
The company offers adventure travel ski clinics in all parts of the globe, including Chamonix and Val D'Iserre France, helicopter skiing in Valdez, Alaska, summer skiing in Portillo or Valle Nevado, Chile and powder skiing in Switzerland.
Getting married on a cruise ship off the coast of Alaska is best during the spring and summer months.
Arctic Adventure: If you're up for adventure and you can fend off the chill with your new spouse, you may want to consider a cruise headed for Alaska of the Antarctic.
Try your hand at dog sledding in Alaska, or set foot on the Antarctic continent itself, view spectacular ice burgs, and visit with the Penguins.
Cruises-These can include the Caribbean, South Pacific, and even Alaska!
Whether you want to enjoy the tropical brilliance of the Caribbean or the majestic glaciers of Alaska, a cruise offers couples the chance to visit several ports and enjoy a bounty of food.
The couple was married in October 2004 on Kauai and honeymooned in Alaska.
"I don't even know if there's any black people in Alaska.
There's not even no crackheads in Alaska!
Crime rate - According to the U.S. Census, even though Alaska rates as the 48th state in population, its crime rate is the 22nd highest in the United States.
Yes, crimes are committed, even in Alaska.
The commission accredits colleges and universities in Alaska, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Montana.
Alaska's Grand Canyon University has two Master of Education programs for reading and literacy, one for elementary education and one for secondary education.
For many people, an Alaskan cruise is a once-in-a-lifetime vacation: what better way to make the most of the getaway than to take an Alaska cruise tour?
A popular part of many packages, these additional tours are the perfect way to see not only the tremendous coast and ports of Alaska, but also to experience the wild beauty of the interior.
Alaska cruise tours often involve visits to different cities, unique natural features, and explorations of Denali National Park.
Holland America Cruise Line offers the most extensive selection of Alaska options, with more than two dozen tours ranging from eleven to nineteen total days, including the time spent onboard the ship (typically seven days).
Different tours offer a variety of features, though all of them provide passengers a glimpse of the awesome wildlife and natural beauty of Alaska.
Alaska cruise tours are not covered in the standard cost of a cruise vacation; instead, they are an additional fee based on the length of the tour and the scheduled attractions.
Not only will visitors experience the luxury of a cruise but by experiencing the additional wonders in Alaska's interior they can truly say they have visited this fine state.
Alaska is a vast state and most visitors only brush the fringes of the wonders it offers.
By adding Alaska cruise tours onto standard seven-day cruise vacations, travelers can explore the state's interior and come face to face with many natural delights, including wolves, caribou, moose, bears, and more.
These are particularly popular in Hawaii and Alaska, giving passengers rare insights into the unique cultures and natural beauty of the destinations.
Fortunately, Celebrity ships visit a wide range of cruise destinations, including Alaska, the Caribbean, and Europe.
Ring of Fire cruises spanning the volcanic region from Alaska to Japan.
In the past these cruises have made their way to Alaska but in 2010 the Gaither Homecoming Cruise will sail for Hawaii for the first time.
Besides the Gaither Vocal Band, will there be other musicians on the voyage to Alaska?
For a printable packing list of what to take on an Alaskan cruise, visit Alaska Cruises.com.
There is no debating the fact that Alaska has gorgeous scenery, but seldom do people think first of this destination as the ideal place to have a wedding.
Alaska has some particularly stunning locations where couples can hold wedding ceremonies, although some locations may be a little harder to reach than others.
Couples should also keep in mind the obvious caution: Alaska can get cold.
Alaska is definitely a breathtaking place to spend a first vacation as a married couple.
Kodiak Alaska Dinner Cruises offers one-day wedding cruises for couples who do not want to include a longer length cruise to the event.
Cruise lines strive to make the cruise as romantic as possible for guests wanting to celebrate their love, and Alaska's gorgeous scenery lends itself nicely to the occasion.
Wedding ceremonies conducted within the state of Alaska can be conducted anywhere and by anyone, as long as the person applies for a one-day marriage commissioner's licence.
This means that your friend can receive permission through Alaska to conduct your wedding ceremony, and the ceremony is legally binding.
This option makes many couples look to Alaska as an ideal location for their wedding.
While Alaska is a beautiful destination, it also has the real potential to be an expensive one for a wedding, so it's a good idea to save money where you can.
The ships sail to exotic locations around the world including the Caribbean, Bermuda, the Mexican Riviera, Alaska, Europe, and Hawaii.
Besides being able to winter in the Bahamas and summer in Alaska, cruise line employment offers numerous benefits.
In addition, the company has offices in Seattle and Ft. Lauderdale, as well as field offices located throughout Alaska and parts of southwest Canada.
During the busy summer months, Princess Cruise Line provides land transportation services for its tour divisions in Alaska and Canada.
Private Alaska cruises are ideal for travelers looking to take intimate voyages along pristine waterways, which boast breathtaking views and phenomenal fishing.
If you are a fan of gigantic cruise ships that feature dozens of onboard activities, massive buffets and unlimited libations, then a private Alaska cruise may not be for you.
Custom scheduling: Forget about keeping time according to a stringent cruise itinerary; most private cruises of Alaska cater to your schedule.
Private tours of Alaska's picturesque natural surroundings are plentiful.
What's more, the Discovery's size enables it to access Alaska's remote and intimate waterways, which allows you to see unprecedented views of the state's wilderness.
Alaska Yacht Adventures specializes in extreme vacations.
The all-inclusive private charters travel along Alaska's crystal clear protected waters in Sitka and Juneau.
The company's most popular itinerary includes fishing for King and Silver Salmon, Halibut, Ling Cod and other bottom fish offshore of Alaska's Inside Passage.
Alaska Sea Adventures customizes its cruises for small groups and families.
Each vessel travels to Alaska's remote southeast region and gives passengers the chance to explore the grandeur found within the state's rugged Inside Passage.
Archaeology expeditions, which feature tours of ancient sites once inhabited by Alaska's maritime cultures.
Alaska Northwest Charters provides luxury accommodations onboard stylish yachts for up to 10 passengers.
While there are many benefits to taking private cruises of Alaska, one of the drawbacks of experiencing such luxury is price.
However, many passengers who have taken private cruises of Alaska's stunning Prince William Sound, Resurrection Bay and other awe-inspiring local waterways will tell you that the experience is priceless.
You might sail to Mexico, Bermuda, Hawaii, Europe, the Caribbean or Alaska.
Alaska is one of the most popular cruise destinations in the world for good reason.
If you are looking to explore nature at its finest, then navigating the waters off Alaska should be at the top of your to-do list.
If you calculate the cost of seeing Alaska by land versus water, you'll quickly realize that booking a cruise is a true money saver.
Reduced rate voyages to Alaska do not include tips for wait staff or cabin stewards.
Alaska is home to some of America's most unspoiled frontiers.
Holland America offers special packages in Alaska and Northern Canada that it refers to as CruiseTours.
Alaska cruises are cheaper between May and September.
Finding an Alaska cruise senior special is easier than ever.
With its stunning natural beauty and unprecedented access to unique wildlife, Alaska is a popular cruise destination for senior citizens.
Alaska's popularity among vacationing senior citizens is one of the reasons cruise lines offer reduced rates to those age 55 and older.
In some cases seniors can save up to 50 percent on cruises to Alaska as long as they provide proof of age prior to boarding.
The savings on these sailings to Alaska are so spectacular it's no wonder so many mature cruisers are taking advantage of the age discount.
Alaska cruise last minute specials are easier to find than ever before.
Alaska has always been one of the most popular cruise destinations in the world.
An Alaska cruise affords you unprecedented views of breaching whales, gigantic grizzlies grazing along the shore, and endangered eagles soaring above rugged coastlines.
Cruises to Alaska are undoubtedly memorable, but access to all that breathtaking scenery often comes with a hefty price tag.
That's why many savvy cruisers wait a bit before booking so that they can take advantage of Alaska cruise last minutes specials.
While most Alaska cruises fill up early, there are some that don't completely sell out in the time frame that cruise lines would like, hence the last minute cruise deals.
Nothing beats saving hundreds of dollars on an Alaska cruise.
The following are some factors to consider before booking a last minute voyage to Alaska:Timing: Timing is everything when trying to score a sensational Alaska cruise last minute special.
Flexibility: Realistically, you are unlikely to find a last minute deal on an Alaska cruise that sails during the Christmas season.
In addition, many cruise lines offer last minute bargains to Alaska in May and September.
The weather in the region is cooler, and fish, animals and flowers are less abundant at these times, but you'll still be treated to unbelievable view of Alaska's natural wonders, including the Aurora Borealis.
Before paying for your Alaska cruise, read the last minute offer very carefully.
In regards to destinations, Christian cruises sail to Alaska, the Caribbean, Canada, the Mediterranean, Hawaii, New England, and more.
Bargain cruises to Alaska are readily available, if you know where to look for them.
If you have been looking for a way to squeeze a cruise to Alaska into your limited budget, or just want to save some money, there are a few things you should do before booking.
Alaska is one of the more popular cruise options in North America.
A variety of cruise lines will travel up the Canadian coast to Alaska and back.
To save on your next sailing to Alaska, consider the following tips.
For example, cruise lines will move Alaskan cruise ships down the coastline during the winter months when it becomes difficult to travel to Alaska.
Another way to save significantly on cruises to Alaska is to wait to book your cruise until the last minute.
Even during the high season, cruise ships have to market their cruises to Alaska to get people interested in choosing their cruise line over another.
As you look for bargain cruises to Alaska, take into consideration what makes one cruise more expensive than another.
Shop Around: To get bargain cruises to Alaska, consider shopping around.
There are a host of factors to consider when selecting a cruise to Alaska.
If you fail to inform a cruise line of your vegetarian diet prior to departing on your Alaska cruise, there's no reason to jump ship.
Most major cruise lines that sail to Alaska offer a variety of meatless options as part of their standard meal service.
The majority of cruise lines that sail to Alaska state whether or not they serve vegetarian meals right on their websites.
Alaska last minute cruises are your ticket to view some of America's most awe-inspiring sights, from glimmering glaciers and rich forests to towering mountains and exotic wildlife, at drastically reduced prices.
An Alaska cruise is a once in a lifetime, dream vacation for travelers from all walks of life.
However, getting up close and personal with the spectacular natural treasures that call Alaska home can be costly.
The key to scoring inexpensive Alaska cruises is to take advantage of last minute deals.
In some cases, it is possible to book an Alaska cruise just two days before the ship sets sail and save between 50 and 70 percent off rack rates in the process.
In addition to lower rates, some Alaska last minute cruises offer bonus incentives, such as onboard credits, which can be used at the ship's spa, shops or restaurants.
While there is an almost endless amount of Alaska cruise itineraries to choose from, most last minute options sail to either the Inside Passage or to glacier colonies.
The majority of last minute cruise deals to Alaska tour the state's breathtaking Inside Passage, are seven nights long, and typically begin and end in either Vancouver or Seattle.
Alaska's famed Inside Passage is a stunning narrow waterway nestled between towering mountains, quaint waterfront communities, and the Pacific Ocean.
Unlike an Alaska Inside Passage cruise, an Alaska Glacier Cruise does not return to its original departure port.
The Alaska cruise season begins in late April and continues through September.
Consequently, summer is one of the best times to find last minute voyages to Alaska, as cruise companies try to attract as many passengers as possible to fill the extra vessels they have based in the state during the high season.
In order to score Alaska last minute cruises you need to be diligent, quick, and know where to look.
If you're the adventurous type, a traditional relaxing cruise will not satisfy your lust for life, so why not try Alaska active cruises?
Keep in mind that smaller ships will give you a more up-close, arguably more active, look at Alaska, but may cost more than a cruise on a major cruise line.
Alaska active cruises aren't without luxury accommodations and amenities.
Your ideal cruise time will depend on what you hope to see or experience while you're in Alaska.
Taking advantage of the best Alaska cruise family deals is a terrific way to save money on voyages to one of the most breathtaking spots on the planet.
Alaska has long been a top cruise destination for families.
Kids and nature go hand in hand, and Alaska has no shortage of natural treasures to explore.
Another reason families flock to Alaska is that an increasing number of cruise lines are catering to pint-sized passengers.
Finding the best Alaska cruise family deals is especially desired in these tough economic times.
Timing: Most family cruise deals to Alaska are offered during the summer months when kids are off from school.
You are more likely to find a family cruise deal on three or four-day sailings to Alaska than you would on a 10-day voyage.
Group rates: Early bird and last-minute cruises to Alaska can score you big savings.
Cabins: Another way to snag a deal on a family cruise to Alaska is to select a cabin that best fits your budget.
If you are traveling with a very large family, then you might consider contacting a travel agent to help find the best cruise deal to Alaska.
Going on an Alaska bluegrass cruise is a great way to spend a week of your summer.
Norwegian Cruise Lines offers an bluegrass cruise to Alaska once a year, departing from Seattle.
Day One - Inside Passage: Cruise along the Inside Passage, which separates mainland Alaska from its barrier islands near Ketchikan.
Day Three - Juneau: Explore Alaska's capital city, take a walk up Mendenhall Glacier and engage in one of many shore excursions.
If you'd like to book an Alaska bluegrass cruise, contact Cottage Music at 1-888-509-8163.
In addition, it's a good idea to book early as the Alaska bluegrass cruise often sells out quickly.
You should also dress in layers as the temperatures in Alaska can be quite unpredictable.
Alaska cruises from Seattle are generally round-trip and last about a week, though some end in Vancouver, and others last 10 to 14 days.
You can generally expect to take a week-long vacation when you book Alaska cruises from Seattle, so prepare for loads of relaxation and glacier sightings.
Typical cruises from Seattle to Alaska are round-trip with stops in Juneau, Ketchikan, and Skagway.
Quite a few cruise lines offer Alaska cruises from Seattle.
Hubbard Glacier: It is a 75-mile long, 300-foot wall of ice jutting out of the ocean and still thickening and advancing into the Gulf of Alaska rather than thinning like most others.
While on your sail from Alaska to Seattle you'll see wildlife, glaciers and learn about history and culture.
A 5 night Alaska cruise gives you plenty of time to see animals, glaciers and amazing landscapes during your trip.
Booking for less than five nights may not provide you with enough time to see all Alaska has to offer.
An Alaska cruise offers numerous things to see and do.
The Alaska cruise season starts in mid-May and continues through mid-September, depending on weather conditions.
One option for a five-night, six-day cruise to Alaska is Carnival Cruise Lines.
The company offers a six-day cruise from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada to Alaska.
This cruise also takes you to Alaska's Inside Passage where you will see wildlife, glaciers and mountains.
The benefit to these voyages is the smaller ships can move into waterways that larger cruise ships cannot, allowing you to see Alaska's natural beauty up close.
The cruise to Alaska sails into smaller waterways where you can see tidewater glaciers, icebergs and fjords.
Princess Cruises has several cruise ships that sail to Alaska on a regular basis during the cruise season.
Royal Caribbean offers a 10 to 14- night cruise that is one of the best options for extensive exploration of Alaska.
In addition to these cruise lines, you may find other 5 night Alaska cruise options at local tour companies in Alaska.
Instead of traveling on an ocean liner to explore "The Last Frontier," you may wish to take an Alaska small ship cruise.
Alaska offers no shortage of opportunities to travel on a small ship, which is usually defined as a vessel that holds 300 passengers or less.
This upscale line offers small ship cruises to Alaska from Vancouver and San Francisco.
This line offers cruises in Alaska's Glacier Bay aboard a 36, 22 or a 12-passenger vessel.
If you're looking for an educational voyage, then consider booking an Alaska small ship cruise with Linblad Expeditions.
While it may sound like a shipbuilder, the Boat Company is actually a fairly well known cruise provider in Alaska.
This is not an exhaustive list of all of the small ship cruises available in and around Alaska.