Agricultural Sentence Examples
The town has large cattle markets and an agricultural trade.
Clermont is the chief market for the grain and other agricultural produce of Auvergne and Velay.
They naturally take their rise among an agricultural folk.
The town has a large agricultural trade.
Agricultural products require perfecting and fitting for export.Advertisement
Similarly, our agricultural processes aren't so hot.
Although the valleys between the ridges are not always easy of access, they give broad areas of nearly level agricultural land.
In New York State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.
The beet sugar, fruit and other agricultural products of the surrounding and tributary section were valued in 1906 at about $20,000,000.
Rye, on the other hand, one of the least valuable of the cereals, is grown chiefly in the poor agricultural territories of the central plateau and western Brittany.Advertisement
Soap, candles and tobacco are also manufactured, and the town is a centre for local agricultural trade.
But it still retained its importance as a trading and agricultural centre, even in the Roman period, exporting not only agricultural products but textile fabrics and sulphur.
A well-equipped agricultural college near Winnipeg is provided for sons and daughters of farmers.
The climate of the pampas is temperate and healthy, and is admirably suited to agricultural and pastoral pursuits.
The advance made in agricultural industry also is of very great importance.Advertisement
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
In the fat years, agricultural prices are pushed downward by the abundance, often below the cost of harvesting and transporting the crops.
Charlottesville is a trade centre for the surrounding country; among its manufactures are woollen goods, overalls, agricultural implements and cigars and tobacco.
At La Carlota the Spanish government established a station for the study of the culture of sugar-cane; by the American government this has been converted into a general agricultural experiment station, known as "Government Farm."
This part of the river's course, the ancient Assyria, is also a rich agricultural region.Advertisement
Recovery required years, although made easier by the sound and steady development of the pastoral and agricultural industries, which were slightly affected by the crisis; and the steadily increasing volume of exports, mainly foodstuffs and other staples, saved the situation.
The agricultural products are cotton, sugar and tobacco.
To the growth of this tendency the excellent results of the agricultural schools have especially contributed.
North of Buenos Aires, on the Parana river, is the port of Rosario, the outlet for a rich agricultural district, ranking next to the federal capital in importance.
The decline both in imports and in exports of articles of food, which is the most noteworthy fact exhibited in the preceding table, was due to the almost prohibitive tax in the Customs Law of 1892, upon agricultural products.Advertisement
Trade is mainly agricultural, and cattle-fairs are held.
On the south-east of the city lie Moore Park, 600 acres in extent, containing two fine cricket grounds and the show grounds of the agricultural society, and Centennial Park, formerly a water reserve of 768 acres.
The substantial education supplied by the parish schools, of which nearly the whole population could then avail themselves, had diffused through all ranks such a measure of intelligence as enabled them promptly to discern and skilfully and energetically to take advantage of this spring-tide of prosperity, and to profit by the agricultural information now plentifully furnished by means of the Bath and West of England Society, established in 1777; the Highland Society, instituted in 1784; and the National Board of Agriculture, in 1793.
Disillusioned with men and despairing of the future of his country, he spent the rest of his life devoted to agricultural pursuits, and rarely emerged from his retirement; when he did so, it was to fight political and religious reaction.
There is trade in agricultural produce, wine, metals, &c. The canal from the Rhone to the Rhine passes under the citadel by way of a tunnel, and the port of Besancon has considerable trade in coal, sand, &c.
Its chief agricultural products were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer named sabaea.
The closing years of the 17th century were characterized by a gradual transition from the agricultural to the commercial stage of civilization.
Joplin is the trade centre of a rich agricultural and fruit-growing district, but its growth has been chiefly due to its situation in one of the must productive zinc and lead regions in the country, for which it is the commercial centre.
It is the trade centre of a rich and beautiful agricultural region in which tobacco, wheat and Indian corn are the principal crops.
As the soil was fertile and well watered, the township had been agricultural up to this time.
The expenses in a rural parish are defrayed by means of a rate raised with, and as part of, the poor rate, with a qualification to the effect that agricultural land, market gardens and nursery grounds are to be assessed to the rate at one-third only of their rateable value.
Selby is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and its industries include rope and twine making, flax-scutching, boatbuilding, iron-founding, tanning and brewing.
The exports, which are almost wholly of agricultural and pastoral products, increased from $103,219,000 in 1891 to $322,843,841 in 1905.
The chief type of agricultural society is the cornice agricole, an association for the discussion of agricultural problems and the organization of provincial shows.
The trade of Faringdon is agricultural.
Brewing is carried on, but the trade is principally agricultural.
The company formed to execute his project became simply an agricultural concern and by the sinking of artesian wells created an oasis of olive and palm trees.
The city possesses also an academy of the fine arts, with a gallery of paintings; and the university a library of 120,000 volumes, a natural history museum, botanical garden and agricultural schools.
There is a trade in agricultural produce, a salmon fishery, sea fisheries and a manufacture of linen.
All North Africa was ravaged by the invaders, who, though unable to found an empire or overthrow the settled government in the towns, forced the agricultural Berbers into the mountains, and, retaining from generation to generation their lawless and predatory habits, made order and prosperity almost impossible in the open parts of the country until its effective occupations by the French.
The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.
The Inca tribes were an agricultural and pastoral people, but the abundance of gold and silver in their possession at the time of the conquest shows that mining must have received considerable attention.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
The Puntis are agricultural and inhabit the valleys, and they make excellent traders.
Munich contains several gymnasia or grammar-schools, a military academy, a veterinary college, an agricultural college, a school for architects and builders, and several other technical schools, and a conservatory of music. The general prison in the suburb of Au is considered a model of its kind; and there is also a large military prison.
In much the same manner Mars takes on in addition to his agricultural character the functions of war-god, which in time completely superseded the earlier idea.
This interruption, due to the practical prohibition of the industry by the United States courts, on the ground that it was injuring, through the deposit of tailings, agricultural lands and navigable streams, was lessened, though not entirely removed, by compromises and regulations which permit, under certain restrictions, the renewed exploitation of the ancient river-beds by the hydraulic method.
In the agricultural economy, virtually everyone was a farmer.
In its earlier history the region was agricultural.
Among agricultural tribes in Africa one day of the week, which varies from place to place, is often a rest-day, visiting the market being the only work allowed.
Millet, however, is still cultivated in the north of Italy, and is used as bread for agricultural laborers, and as forage when mixed with buckwheat (Sorghum saccaratum).
With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.
Large landlords are usually represented by ministri, or factors, who direct agricultural operations and manage the estates, but the estate is often let to a middleman, or mercante di campagna.
The condition of the numerous agricultural laborers (who constitute one-third of the population) is, except in some regions, hard, and in places absolutely miserable.
Much light was thrown upon their position by the agricultural inquiry (inchiesta agraria) completed in 1884.
In Liguria, on account of the comparative rarity of large estates, agricultural laborers are in a better condition.
Agricultural strikes, though less frequent than those in manufacturing industries, have special importance in Italy.
More numerous are the agricultural and viticultural co-operative societies, which have largely increased in number.
The number of agricultural schools has also grown, although the total is relatively small when compared with population.
The law of the 23rd of January 1887 (still in force) extended the dispositions of the Civil Code with regard to privileges, and established special privileges in regard to harvested produce, produce stored in barns and farm buildings, and in regard to agricultural implements.
Loans on mortgage may also be granted to landowners and agricultural unions, with a view to the introduction of agricultural improvements.
An important undertaking, known as the Agricultural Inquiry, brought to light vast quantities of information valuable for future agrarian legislation.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
In June and July 1907 there were again disturbances among the agricultural laborers of Ferrala and Rovigo, and a widespread strike organized by the leg/fe throughout those provinces caused very serious losses to all concerned.
The chief agricultural products are barley, oats, wheat, and in the north-east flax is also grown, and exported to South Holland and Belgium.
Aube is an agricultural department; more than one-third of its surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
But it is worthy of special attention that the mere chemical composition of agricultural and garden soils is, as a rule, the least important feature about them, popular opinion to the contrary notwithstanding.
In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.
The county councils also expend sums varying at their own discretion on instruction in dairy-work, poultry-keeping, farriery and veterinary science, horticulture, agricultural experiments, agricultural lectures at various centres, scholarships at, and grants to, agricultural colleges and schools; the whole amount in 1904-1905 reaching £87,472.1 The sum spent by individual counties varies considerably.
Agricultural labour is very carefully regulated by law, in the enforcement of which the residents and lower officials have wide powers.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
On the fertile low grounds along the margins of rivers or in clearings of forests, agricultural communities naturally take their rise, dwelling in villages and cultivating the wild grains, which by careful nurture and selection have been turned into rich cereals.
The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical in- stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are other examples.
The bone-bed of Axmouth in Devonshire and Westbury and Aust in Gloucestershire, in the Penarth or Rhaetic series of strata, contains the scales, teeth and bones of saurians and fishes, together with abundance of coprolites; but neither there nor at Lyme Regis is there a sufficient quantity of phosphatic material to render the working of it for agricultural purposes remunerative.
The Ohio State University (non-sectarian and co-educational), opened as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1873, and reorganized under its present name in 1878, is 3 m.
After his release Wakefield seemed disposed for a while to turn his attention to social questions at home, and produced a tract on the Punishment of Death, with a terribly graphic picture of the condemned sermon in Newgate, and another on incendiarism in the rural districts, with an equally powerful exhibition of the degraded condition of the agricultural labourer.
Live-stock and agricultural products are exported; the chief imports are wood and raw silk.
Abingdon has manufactures of clothing and carpets and a large agricultural trade.
In the 13th and 14th centuries Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool, and a famous weaving and clothing manufacture.
Albury is the centre of a sheeprearing and agricultural district; grapes, cereals and tobacco are largely grown, and the wine produced here is held in high repute throughout Australia.
Although an, active guerrilla warfare was waged against the Dutch during a large part of that period, they did much to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, especially under the wise administration of Maurice of Nassau.
It contains a beautiful Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, a handsome new town-hall and an agricultural school.
The chief exports are animal products and agricultural products.
The agricultural plebeian of old Rome and the feudal noble of contemporary Europe were both of them at Venice impossible characters.
In 1845 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wiesbaden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced the Nassau government to establish at that place.
It is situated on the Pruth, and has an active trade in agricultural products.
Frankfort is a trade centre fJr an agricultural and lumbering region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural implements and foundry products.
Sibonga is an agricultural town with a port for coasting vessels, and is served by a railway.
This was owing to the fact that large numbers of the men engaged in agricultural pursuits during the summer temporarily move every year into the large industrial centres for the winter.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
The millions of roubles of redemption money received from the crown have been spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been affected.
The three-field system of cropping a patch of land until its fertility is exhausted, and then allowing it to revert to the primeval condition, is still pursued, and both landowners and peasantry suffer from want of capital and lack of agricultural training.
The winters are less severe, and modern agricultural machinery is generally employed, at all events on the larger estates.
The methods adopted by the zemstvos for improving the condition of agriculture have included the formation of agricultural councils, the appointment of inspectors, and the founding of museums, meteorological stations and depots for the sale of agricultural machinery.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
Development of these lines has been primarily an extension from the large cities in the East to the agricultural districts in the West, but a change of great importance was brought about in 1910 by the completion of the last tunnel on the Argentine Transandine Railway, which serves to connect Santiago, Valparaiso and the other great cities of the west coast with Buenos Ayres, Montevideo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and the other great cities of the east coast.
The leading industries comprise the making of agricultural implements and mineral waters, besides tanning.
For it involved a transition from the simple nomadic relations to those of the agricultural and more highly civilized Canaanite life.
It is in the festivals of the annual calendar that this agricultural impress is most fully manifested.
But when the nomadic clans of Israel came to occupy the settled abodes of the agricultural Canaanites who had a stake in the soil which they cultivated, these conditions evidently reacted on their religion.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
It was the asiph or festival of ingathering, when the agricultural operations were brought to a close, which exhibited these genial features of CanaaniteHebrew life most vividly.
Owing to their great height these three ranges receive heavier rainfall than the surrounding country and are feeders to the northern valleys, which constitute the chief agricultural region of the state.
The melting of the mountain snow-caps in the spring causes severe freshets, which in turn are followed by long seasons of drought at a time when water is most needed for agricultural purposes.
With the growing of grasses as the chief agricultural product, farming in Nevada is necessarily extensive rather than intensive.
An agricultural experiment station and a normal school are conducted in connexion with the university.
The industries embrace the making of cheese, objects in cement, matches, and brushes, the production of silkworms, and printing; and the town is the centre of a rich agricultural district.
The industries are few, the growing of wine, breeding of silkworms, making of agricultural instruments, printing and the manufacture of laces being the chief.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Wichita is a transportation centre for the rich agricultural region surrounding it, and is an important market for broom-corn.
The public buildings include the town hall, a fine and commodious house on the site of the old tolbooth; the Falconer museum, containing among other exhibits several valuable fossils, and named after Dr Hugh Falconer (1808-1865), the distinguished palaeontologist and botanist, a native of the town; the mechanics' institute; the agricultural and market hall; Leanchoil hospital and Anderson's Institution for poor boys.
In 1086 the bishop of Sarum and the monks of Sherborne held the place, which seems to have been of fair size and an agricultural centre.
The prophets address themselves to men living in comfortable abodes with olive-fields and vineyards, suffering from bad seasons and agricultural depression, and though the country is unsettled there is no reference to any active opposition on the part of Samaritans.
Modern schools have been set up in many places, and Palestine has been the scene of a notable educational and agricultural revival, while technical schools - such as the agricultural college near Jaffa and the schools of the alliance and the more recent Bezalel in Jerusalem - have been established.
There are some thriving Jewish agricultural colonies in the same dominion.
The principal imports are grain and agricultural produce, timber and coal, and the exports cement and fish.
The mountainous country, ill-suited for agricultural purposes, was well adapted for these hardy warriors,whose training was Spartan in its simplicity and severity.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Imports in 1904 were valued at £549, 66 5, including agricultural products (mainly flour and corn), value £162,535, and textiles, £129,349.
Improved communications are much needed for the transport of agricultural produce, but the state of the treasury does not admit of more than a nominal expenditure on road-making and other public works.
The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.
The city is situated in a rich agricultural region, and is a market for grain, neat cattle, horses and swine.
A considerable amount of personal property, including furniture, a small library, provisions, tools, agricultural implements, livestock and the proceeds of a life insurance policy, is also exempt from seizure for the satisfaction of debts.
The two agricultural and mechanical colleges were founded by the sale of public lands given by Congress under the Morrill Act of 1862.
An agricultural experiment station established in 1887 under the Hatch Act, is at Agricultural College; and there are branch experiment stations at McNeill, Pearl River county (1906), near Holly Springs, and at Stoneville, near Greenville.
The state government, through its Department of Agriculture, takes an active interest in the introduction of modern agricultural methods, and in the promotion of diversified farming; in 1899 it established the Edgecombe and in 1902 the Iredell test farm.
From the Khingan ranges to the Pacific, south of the Amur, stretch the rich districts of Manchuria, a province which connects Russia with the Korea by a series of valleys formed by the Sungari and its affluents - a land of hill and plain, forest and swamp, possessing a delightful climate, and vast undeveloped agricultural resources.
Dereham is an important agricultural centre with works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron foundries and a malting industry.
The city's manufactures include glass, brick, tile, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, pianos and organs and cigars.
There is a large agricultural trade, and linen and leather manufactures and the quarries also employ a considerable number of persons.
Printing works, malting, brick and tile, and agricultural implement works are the chief industries.
The agricultural products are corn, flax, tobacco, grapes and various other fruits.
Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.
They carry on agriculture wheat-growing on a large scale - with the aid of modern agricultural machines, and breed cattle and horses.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.
Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.
It is not, however, necessary to deal with the agricultural evolution of continental Europe, the gradual progress of agriculture as a whole being well enough typified in the story of its development in England, which indeed has led the way in modern times.
Sir Richard Weston's Discourse on the Husbandry of Brabant and Flanders was published by Hartlib in 1645, and its title indicates the source to which England owed much of its subsequent agricultural advancement.
The first half of the 17th century was a period of agricultural activity, partly due, no doubt, to the increase of enclosed farms. Marling and liming are again practised, new agricultural implements and manures introduced, and the new crops more widely used.
The enlargement of farms, and in Scotland the letting of them under leases for a considerable term of years, continued to be a marked feature in the agricultural progress of the country until the end of the century, and is to be regarded both as a cause and a consequence of that progress.
The years 1830-1833 are especially memorable for a disastrous outbreak of sheep-rot and for agrarian outrages, caused partly by the dislike of the labourers to the introduction of agricultural machines.
During this period of depression, which lasted till the 'forties, want of confidence prevented any general improvement in agricultural methods.
Meanwhile much had been done in the organization of agricultural knowledge.
The Highland Society having early extended its operations to the whole of Scotland, by and by made a corresponding addition to its title, and as the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland gradually extended its operations.
This society early began td hold a great show of live stock, implements, &c. In 1842 certain Midlothian tenant-farmers had the merit of originating an Agricultural Chemistry Association (the first of its kind), by which funds were raised for the purpose of conducting such investigations as the title of the society implies.
After a successful trial of a few years this association was dissolved, transferring its functions to the Highland and Agricultural Society.
In England the Agricultural Society was founded in 1838, with the motto " Practice with Science," and shortly afterwards incorporated by royal charter.
In 1845 the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester was incorporated.
A fall in rents was the necessary sequel of the agricultural distress, to inquire into which a royal commission was appointed in 1879, under the chairmanship of the duke of Richmond and Gordon.
Its report, published in 1882, testified to " the great extent and intensity of the distress which has fallen upon the agricultural community.
The owner in fee and life tenant, the occupier, whether of large or of small holding, whether under lease, or custom, or agreement, or the provisions of the Agricultural Holdings Act - all without distinction have been involved in a general calamity."
The legislative outcome of the findings of this royal commission was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, a measure which continued in force in its entirety till 1901, when a new act came into operation.
The great losses arising from spoilt hay crops served to stimulate experimental inquiry into the method of preserving green fodder known as ensilage, with the result that the system eventually became successfully incorporated in the ordinary routine of agricultural practice.
In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.
Its worst effects were seen upon the light land farms of England, and so deplorable was the position that a royal commission on agricultural depression was appointed in September of that year under the chairmanship of Mr Shaw Lefevre (afterwards Lord Eversley).
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
In the majority report it was stated " that, in order to place agricultural lands in their right position as compared with other ratable properties, it is essential that they should be assessed to all local rates in a reduced proportion of their ratable value."
The Agricultural Rates Act 1896 gave effect to this recommendation.
Its objects were to relieve agricultural land from half the local rates, and to provide the means of making good out of imperial funds the deficiency in local taxation caused thereby.
The other measure arising out of the report of the royal commission of 1893 was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1900.
A further act was passed in 1906 (the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906) which improved the tenant's position in respect of freedom of cropping, disposal of produce and compensation for disturbance.
In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.
The year 1900 saw the passing of a Workmen's Compensation Act, which extended the benefits of the act of 1897 to agricultural.
He cannot afford to ignore the results that have been gradually accumulated - the truths that have been slowly established - at the agricultural experiment stations in various parts of the world.
Gilbert, in about 130 separate papers or reports, many of which were published, from 1847 onwards, in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England.'
It is related that a visitor from the United States, talking to Sir John Lawes, said, " Americans have learnt more from this field than from any other agricultural experiment in the world."
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
The conclusion arrived at was that our agricultural plants do not themselves directly assimilate the free nitrogen of the air by their leaves.
Such deviations from the practice of merely selling grain and meat off the farm have much extended in recent years, and will probably continue to do so under the altered conditions of British agriculture, determined by very large imports of grain, increasing imports of meat and of other products of stock-feeding, and very large imports of cattle-food and other agricultural produce.
The society holds annual shows, publishes annually the Shire Horse Stud Book and offers'_gold and silver medals for competition amongst Shire horses at agricultural shows in different parts of the country.
Prizes are offered by the society at various agricultural shows where Hampshire Down sheep are exhibited.
The exhibition of pigs at agricultural shows has to be abandoned, in consequence of swine fever regulations.
It is the custom of the Royal Agricultural Society of England to invite competitions at its annual shows in specified classes of implements, and an enumeration of these will indicate the character of the appliances which were thus brought into prominence in the latter years of the 19th and the early years of the 10th century.
The awards here summarized are quite distinct from those of silver medals which are given by the society in the case of articles possessing sufficient merit, which are entered as " new implements for agricultural or estate purposes."
In 1887, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, a prize of 200 went to a compound portable agricultural engine, one of £loo to a simple portable agricultural engine, and lesser prizes to a weighing-machine for horses and cattle, a weighing-machine for sheep and pigs, potato-raisers and one-man-power cream separators.
In 1901, at Cardiff, competition was invited in portable oil engines, agricultural locomotive oil engines and small ice-making plant suitable for a dairy.
In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.
A large number of agricultural labourers were thus only in partial employment, and their withdrawal from the land was of minor importance as compared with the shrinkage in the number of those permanently employed.
The number of " agricultural labourers and shepherds," which affords a more precise index, declined in a still more marked degree.
The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
In Great Britain agricultural education as a whole lacks the scope and co-ordination which it has in some continental countries.
Centres at which higher agricultural education is given are, however, numerous.
In the year 1904-1905 £10,600 was devoted by the Board of Agriculture to agricultural instruction and experiments.
In some instances colleges are supported entirely by one county, as is the Holmes Chapel College, Cheshire; in others a college is supported by several affiliated counties, as in the case of the agricultural department of the University College, Reading, which acts in connexion with the counties of Berks, Oxon, Hants and Buckingham.
The organization and supply of county agricultural instruction is often carried out through the medium of the institution to which the county is affiliated.
The facilities for intermediate are far inferior to those for higher agricultural education.
Occasionally grammar schools have agricultural sides, and in evening continuation schools agricultural classes are sometimes held.
In Ireland agricultural education is under the supervision of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, founded in 1899.
Higher education is given at the Royal College of Science, Dublin; the Albert Agricultural College, Glasnevin; and the Munster Institute, Cork, for female students, where dairying and poultry-keeping are prominent subjects.
In Great Britain little attention is paid to this important branch of agricultural science, but in America and the British colonies the case is different.
Nearly every state in America has its official economic entomologists, and nearly every one of the British crown colonies is provided with one or more able men who help the agricultural community to battle against the insect pests.
At the Cape excellent works and papers are prepared and issued by the government entomologist, Dr Lounsbury, under the auspices of the Agricultural Department; while from India we have Cotes's Notes on Economic Entomology, published by the Indian Museum in 1888, and other works, especially on tea pests.
He was president of the Highland and Agricultural Society, the Society of Antiquaries and of the British Association.
Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
Kralyevo is a garrison town, with a prefecture, court of first instance, and an agricultural school.
It is situated on the summit of the Great Dividing Range, and is the centre of the rich pastoral and agricultural district of Darling Downs.
Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleveland in women's clothing.
An active trade is carried on with Austria, especially through the Isakovets and Gusyatin custom-houses, corn, cattle, horses, skins, wool, linseed and hemp seed being exported, in exchange for wooden wares, linen, woollen stuffs, cotton, glass and agricultural implements.
Trade is in agricultural products, and especially in cheeses named after the town.
Rice and cocoanuts are the principal agricultural products of the town.
The industry includes sugarrefining, brewing, the manufacture of cotton and woollen stuffs, leather goods and agricultural implements.
In the absence of express agreement or custom or statutory provision (such as is made by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883), a tenancy from year to year is determinable on half a year's notice expiring at the end of some current year of the tenancy.
An agricultural tenant may not contract himself out of his statutory right to compensation, but " contracting out " is apparently not prohibited with regard to the right given him by the acts of 1883 and 1900 to remove fixtures which he has erected and for which he is not otherwise entitled to compensation, after reasonable notice to the landlord, unless the latter elects to purchase such fixtures at a valuation.
The Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 conferred upon every tenant (with slight exceptions) entire freedom of cropping and of disposal of produce, notwithstanding any custom of the county or explicit agreement to the contrary.
Section 47 of the act gives the tenant the same rights to compensation as if his holding had been a holding under the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908 (vide supra).
Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.
The important sections of these acts were incorporated in the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908, s.
This enactment applies to leases of agricultural subjects, houses, mills, fisheries and whatever is fundo annexum; provided that (a) the lease, when for more than one year, must be in writing, (b) it must be definite as to subject, rent (which may consist of money, grain or services, if the reddendum is not illusory) and term of duration, (c) possession must follow on the lease.
An agricultural lease does not, apart from stipulation, confer any right to kill game, other than hares and rabbits (as to which, see the Ground Game Act 1880, and Game Laws) or any right of fishing.
A tenant is not entitled, without the landlord's consent, to change the character of the subjects demised, and, except under an agricultural lease, he is bound to quit the premises on the expiration of the lease.
Agricultural leases usually contain special provisions as to the order of cropping, the proper stocking of the farm, and the rights of the incoming and outgoing tenant with regard to the waygoing crop. Where the rent is in money, it is generally payable at Whitsunday and Martinmas - the two " legal terms."
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
Under the law of Scotland down to 1880, a landlord had as security for rent due on an agricultural lease a " hypothec " - i.e.
The industries include the manufacture of tobacco, cigars, machinery, vinegar, soap and bricks, and there is a considerable trade by water in agricultural produce.
Cairo is a shipping-point for the surrounding agricultural country.
The history of no agricultural product contains more of interest and instruction for the student of economics than does that of cotton seed in the United States.
These facts indicate that we have here an agricultural product the market price of which is still far below its value as compared, on the basis of its chemical composition, either with other feeding stuffs or with other fertilizers.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
Estimates are published of the area under cotton cultivation, and conditions of the American crop are issued by the American agricultural bureau at the beginning of the months of June, July, August, September and October of each year.
Prominent buildings are St Joseph's Cathedral and the buildings of the Berkshire Life Insurance Company, the Agricultural National Bank and the Berkshire County Savings Bank.
Across the river is Rock Falls (pop. in 1900, 2176), practically a suburb of Sterling, with foundries and machine-shops and manufactories of agricultural implements, barbed wire and bolts and rivets.
But considerable success has been achieved in inducing the Syrian Arabs to settle and in supplying a counteracting influence to their unrest by the establishment of agricultural colonies, e.g.
The period of warfare over, the Basuto turned their attention more and more to agricultural pursuits and also showed themselves very receptive of missionary influence.
The principal occupation is agriculture, in which 44% of the labouring population was engaged in 1900, but only 12.6% of the total land surface was enclosed in farms, of which only 34.6% was improved, and the total agricultural product for 1899 was valued at $18,309,104.
But the unusual severity of the winters of 1887, 1894 and 1899 (the report of the Twelfth Census which gives the figures for this year being therefore misleading) destroyed three-fourths of the orange trees, and caused an increased attention to stockraising, and to various agricultural products.
Before 1905 the state provided for higher education by the Florida State College, at Tallahassee, formerly the West Florida Seminary (founded in 1857); the University of Florida, at Lake City, which was organized in 1903 by enlarging the work of the Florida Agricultural College (founded in 1884); the East Florida Seminary, at Gainesville (founded 1848 at Ocala); the normal school (for whites) at De Funiak Springs; and the South Florida Military Institute at Bartow; but in 1905 the legislature passed the Buckman bill abolishing all these state institutions for higher education and establishing in their place the university of the state of Florida and a state Agricultural Experiment Station, both now at Gainesville, and the Florida Female College at Tallahassee, which has the same standards for entrance and for graduation as the state university for men.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
Among the manufactures are furniture, hosiery and knit goods, agricultural implements, foundry and machine-shop products, saddlery and harness, &c. The total value of all factory products in r905 was $15,276,129.
From the earliest time Dunstable has been an agricultural town.
The Federal government has an agricultural experiment station at Mayaguez.
The village manufactures agricultural implements, vinegar, evaporated fruit, and canned fruit and vegetables, and has two large coldstorage houses.
Cedar Rapids is in a rich agricultural country.
More than one-fourth of the value of its manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements.
The festival is certainly an agricultural one, and is so termed in the Pentateuch.
In 1633 the first buildings were erected, and for more than a century the Hook was occupied by a small agricultural and trading community.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.
There is a quay here where large vessels can discharge, and agricultural produce is exported.
Education, trade, religious toleration, the emancipation of the agricultural population from feudal burdens - all had her approval up to a certain point.
So great a success was scored that other shows were held in the same year at Birmingham and Edinburgh; while the Cleveland Agricultural Society also established a show of foxhounds at Redcar, the latter being the forerunner of that very fine show of hounds which is now held at Peterborough every summer and is looked upon as the out-of-season society gathering of hunting men and women.
Among the other agricultural products are barley, hemp, flax and various vegetables, including good asparagus.
The manufactures include boots and shoes, glass and agricultural implements.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity.
Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material - the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here - lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers.
It will thus be seen that the agricultural capabilities of the Athabasca and Peace river districts, not yet fully known, are full of promise.
It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.
The slaves were employed either in domestic service - as household managers, attendants or personal escorts - or in work of other kinds, agricultural or urban.
Those employed in workshops, whose overseers were themselves most commonly of servile status, had probably a harder lot than domestics; and the agricultural labourers were not unfrequently chained, and treated much in the same way as beasts of burden.
The district is in part agricultural, but contains limestone quarries, some coal-mines and iron-works.
There has been no agricultural advance corresponding to that which has taken place in Orkney, mainly owing to the poverty and insufficiency of the soil.
It is the centre of a thriving agricultural district and has a considerahle trade in wool, grain, cattle and horses with Basutoland, Pondoland and the neighbouring regions of Natal.
The district is agricultural and has no manufactures of importance.
Alluvial soil and bluff, the location of which has been indicated, are of primary agricultural importance.
Hundreds of varieties have been tested by the state and federal agricultural experiment stations.
The berries are of fine quality, and despite the competition of Brazil there is no (agricultural) reason why the home market at least should not be supplied from Cuban estates.
Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest importance - bananas (which are planted about once in three years), pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges, &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa, threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well.
A central agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.
The civil wars were probably more disastrous to it than to any other agricultural interest of the island.
In Havana, also, there is a school of painting and sculpture, a school of arts and trades, and a national library, all of which are supported or subventioned by the national government, as are also a public library in Matanzas, and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas.
They live chiefly by pasturage - rearing camels, of which their chief agricultural stock consists, and horses of a fine breed, which fetch good prices.
Seed is distributed, and agricultural machinery lent, by the government.
The surrounding district is mainly agricultural and pastoral, producing oats, maize, cotton, olive oil, cattle, sheep, skins, hides and butter.
Wheat, maize, oats, barley and rye are the chief agricultural products.
The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
In this are included the expenses of the administration of both the central and provincial departments of the finance ministry, the mint, charitable allowances, expenses and presents in connexion with the holy cities (£T121,410), pension funds of state officials (£7628,038), administrative allowance made to the agricultural bank (ET225,380) and various other expenses.
Any one can obtain a gratuitous permit to clear and cultivate such lands; the laws governing ordinary agricultural lands then apply to them.
Reverting to the origin and the meaning of the feast, modern criticism draws attention to the different nature of the two observances combined with the name Passover, the pastoral sacrifice of the paschal lamb and the agricultural observance of a seven days' abstention from unleavened bread.
There is, further, the objection that no distinctive crisis in the agricultural era can be associated with the date of the Passover.
As before remarked, there seems no direct connexion between the paschal sacrifice and what appears to be essentially an agricultural festival; the Hebrew tradition, to some extent, dissociates them by making the sacrifice on the 14th of Nisan and beginning the Feast of Unleavened Bread on the 15th.
When the Israelites settled in Canaan they found there an agricultural festival connected with the beginnings of the barley harvest, which coincided in point of date with the Passover and was accordingly associated with it.
Through its excellent water communication it affords an outlet for the agricultural produce of the district, and forms an entrepot of trade between Bordeaux and Toulouse.
Agen is the market for a rich agricultural region.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
Cleveland thus was connected with the interior of the state, for whose mineral and agricultural products it became the lake outlet.
The city is situated in an agricultural and cotton-raising region, and has cotton compresses and gins, cotton mills, cotton-seed oil refineries, foundries and machine shops, and furniture and wagon factories.
The town has manufactures of bricks and tiles, and a considerable agricultural trade.
Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
As compared with other states of the Union Minnesota ranked third in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in lumber; sixth in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in cheese, butter and condensed milk; eighth in 1900 and in 1905 in agricultural implements; and fourteenth in 1900 and eighth in 1905 in planing-mill products.
It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal agricultural colony.
They are an agricultural people, but made a gallant resistance to the Spaniards for nearly two centuries.
An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
The town is a centre for the local agricultural and timber trade.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
It is estimated that about one-half of the Russian agricultural population supplement their income by engaging in non-agricultural pursuits, but not more than 18 to 22% carry on domestic trades, the others finding occupation in the carrying trade - which is still important, even since the construction of the railway - in hunting (chiefly squirrel-hunting) and in work in the mines.
Stanislau is an important railway junction„ and has a considerable trade, principally in agricultural produce.
The industries include brewing, flour milling, and the export of agricultural produce, chiefly corn and cider.
The principal manufactures are cordage and twine, agricultural implements, engines, pianos, boots and shoes, cotton and woollen goods, carpets and rugs, rubber goods, flour and machinery.
The total factory product in 1905 was valued at $13,420,863; of this $2,890,301 was the value of agricultural implements, in the manufacture of which Auburn ranked fifth among the cities of the United States.
During much of the 16th century it was one of the most important agricultural and commercial settlements of the island.
It is situated in a rich agricultural region which abounds in oil and natural gas.
Among the manufactures are cut glass, stoves and ranges, kitchen furniture, guns, thread-cutting machines, brooms and agricultural implements.
Agricultural products, fruit and wool from the surrounding country are shipped in considerable quantities.
The agricultural trade is extensive, and there are iron, brass and agricultural machine works.
Hamilton is situated in a productive agricultural region, and has a large trade in hops; among its manufactures are canned vegetables, lumber and knit goods, There are several valuable stone quarries in the vicinity.
Occupations.-The pre-war growth of industries, especially in Riga and Libau, tended to reduce the percentage of the agricultural population, but agriculture is still the chief occupation, and the redivision of the rural population was the outstanding feature after 1918.
Of the agricultural proletariat two-thirds were employed by small owners and one-third by the owners of large estates.
Both industry and commerce were largely dependent on foreign (German, Baltic and Russian) capital, and agriculture on large and small agricultural enterprise constantly and rapidly growing.
Resources.-The natural resources of Latvia are mainly timber and agricultural produce.
The local trade is mainly agricultural.
The weekly Saturday market is well attended, and affords interesting scenes of modern Welsh agricultural life.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
Pamplona has a flourishing agricultural trade, besides manufactures of cloth, linen stuffs, flour, soap, leather, cards, paper, earthenware, iron and nails.
It is situated in a rich agricultural and mining district, and contains county and railway buildings and numerous mills andfactories.
The introduction of African slaves followed closely upon the development of agricultural industries, and continued nominally until.
Although an agricultural country, Brazil does not produce all its own bread and meat, and the imports of wheat, wheat flour, rice, fish, jerked beef and preserved meats, lard, butter, beans, potatoes, packed fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and other food-stuffs, are surprisingly large.
The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
Brazil is essentially an agricultural country.
Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.
A fruitful cause of disaster has been the practice of issuing agricultural and industrial loans under government authorization.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
After the coup d'etat of 1851 he settled with his family in Jersey, where he pursued agricultural experiments and wrote his socialist poem La Greve de Samarez.
By means of an Agricultural Bank it affords assistance to farmers.
Textiles, largely cotton goods, hardware, mining and agricultural machinery, tobacco and foodstuffs form the bulk of the imports.
The Agricultural Journal, a government publication issued fortnightly, is of great service in the promotion of agricultural knowledge.
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
As a manufacturer, and with the circumstances of his own day before him, he considered that it was "natural" for Great Britain to manufacture for the world in exchange for her free admission of the more "natural" agricultural products of other countries.