In the best days of Greece the agora was the place where nearly all public traffic was conducted.
Angle of the Hellenic Agora towards the Magnesian gate.
On the landward side of the new isthmus was the Agora, in which remains of a colonnade of the Roman period have been found.
On the opposite side of the agora was an extensive Bouleuterion or senate-house.
A portion of the main road leading from the Dipylon to the Agora was discovered.
AGORA, originally, in primitive times, the assembly of the Greek people, convoked by the king or one of his nobles.
(3) The Roman Agora, with its large halls, lying N.W.
West of the acropolis were the palace of Xerxes and the Agora, in or near which is the cavern whence the Marsyas, one of the sources of the Maeander, issues.
Here were the various public buildings, which, when the power of the princes on Agora the citadel was transferred to the archons, formed the offices of the administrative magistracy.
Erected the magnificent Stoa near the Agora, the remains of which were completely laid bare in 1898-1902 and have been identified by an inscription.
The first object was the locating of the agora, or public square, first because Pausanias says that most of the important monuments of the city were either on or near the agora; and secondly because, beginning with the agora, he mentions, sometimes with a brief description, the principal monuments in order along three of the principal thoroughfares radiating from it.
This theatre was, according to Pausanias, on the street leading from the agora towards Sicyon, and so to the west of the agora.
Although a considerable part of the agora has been excavated, none of the statues which Pausanias saw in it have been discovered.
On the street going eastward from the agora nothing is mentioned between it and the city wall.
The agora is of unsymmetrical form; its sides are bordered by porticoes, interrupted by streets, like the primitive agora of Elis as described by Pausanias, and unlike the regular agoras of Ionic type.
The word then came to be used for the place where assemblies were held, and thus from its convenience as a meeting-place the agora became in most of the cities of Greece the general resort for public and especially commercial intercourse, corresponding in general with the Roman forum.
The centre of commercial and civic life of the older group of communities, as of the greater city of the classical age, was the Agora or market.
The representation of plays was perhaps transferred to this spot from the early Orchestra in the Agora at the beginning of the 5th century B.C.; it afterwards superseded the Pnyx as the meeting-place of the Ecclesia.
Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.
For the controversies respecting the Agora, the Enneacrunus and the topography of the town in general, see W.
He then extended the city by including within the fortifications the low ground (or at any rate the western portion of the low ground) between Upper Achradina and the island, and making the Agora there 2; at the same time (probably) he was able to shift the position of the crossing to the island by making a new isthmus in the position of the present one, the old mole being broken through so as to afford an outlet from the Little Harbour on the east (Lupus, p. 91).
Broad, led down from the temple hill into the lower area of the broad pavement, from which access to the agora and the Pirene was easy.
By good fortune the earth here was very deep. On the higher level of the agora and the Apollo temple, where the depth of earth is comparatively slight, there is little hope of important finds.
Traces remain of paved roads both within the agora and leading out of it; but the whole site is now a deserted and feverish swamp. The site is interesting for comparison with Megalopolis; the nature of its plan seems to imply that its main features must survive from the earlier "synoecism" a century before the time of Epaminondas.
21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it.
The north slope of the Areopagus, where a number of early tombs were found, was also explored, and the limits of the Agora on the south and north-west were approximately ascertained.
In 1892 Dorpfeld began a series of excavations in the district between the Acropolis and the Pnyx with the object of determining the situation of the buildings described by Pausanias as existing in the neighbourhood of the Agora, and more especially the position of the Enneacrunus fountain.
14.1), who never deviates without reason from the topographical order of his narrative, mentions the Enneacrunus in the midst of his description of certain buildings which were undoubtedly in the region of the Agora, and unless he is guilty of an unaccountable digression the Enneacrunus which he saw must have lain west of the Acropolis.
Among the monuments of their rule, in addition to the enlarged Agora and the Lyceum.
It required little sagacity to identify it with the street mentioned by Pausanias as leading from the agora towards Lechaeum.
It was practically certain that by following up this pavement to its point of intersection with the road from Sicyon the agora would be discovered.
The plan of the agora and adjacent buildings has been recovered, and the walls have been completely investigated.
They had in all probability taken place originally in the Agora, but were later transferred to the neighbouring building known as the Skias (Paus.
(2) The Hellenistic Agora, a huge square, surrounded by porticoes, lying S.W.
The site was excavated in 1894, and traces of a sacred agora with porticoes and other buildings, as well as the temple, have been found.
Curtius places the original Prytaneum south of the Acropolis in the Old Agora, speaks of a second identical with the Tholos in the Cerameicus, and regards that of Pausanius as a building of Roman times (Stadtgeschichte, p. 302).
3) we know that the Prytaneum was the official residence of the Archons, but, when the new Agora was constructed (by Peisistratus ?), they took their meals in the Thesmotheteum for the sake of convenience.
A way across the curving trench leads to an open space, where the Agora may have been situated: beyond it lay the town, the remains of which are scanty, though the line of the walls can be traced.
The site of the primitive Agora (apXaia etyopa) was probably in the hollow between the Acropolis and the Pnyx, which formed a convenient meetingplace for the dwellers on the north and south sides of the fortress as well as for its inhabitants.
In the time of the Peisistratids the Agora was enlarged so as to extend over the Inner Ceramicus on the north-west, apparently reaching the northern declivities of the Areopagus and the Acropolis on the south.
The Agora was commonly described as the " Ceramicus," and Pausanias gives it this name; of the numerous buildings which he saw here scarcely a trace remains; their position, for the most part, is largely conjectural, and the exact boundaries of the Agora itself are uncertain.
It is now generally agreed that the Agora of classical times covered the low ground between the hill of the " Theseum," the Areopagus and the Pnyx; and Pausanias, in the course of his description, appears to have reached its southern end.
The excavations revealed a main road of surprisingly narrow dimensions winding up from the Agora to the Acropolis.
In the centre was the Agora of Hippodamus; on the western margin of the Cantharus harbour extended the emporium, or Digma, the centre of commercial activity, flanked by a series of porticoes; at its northern end, near the entrance to the inner harbour, was another Agora, on the site of the modern market-place, and near it the µa?cp l OTOa, the corn depot of the state.
To his time may be referred many of the buildings around the Agora (probably rebuilt on the former sites) and elsewhere, and the passage, or 8p4uos, from the Agora to the Dipylon flanked by long porticos.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
One of the principal monuments of Hadrian's munificence was the sumptuous library, in all probability a vast rectangular enclosure, immediately north of the New Agora, the eastern side of which was explored in 1885-1886.
Of the paved road and close up against the agora itself, only at a much lower level, was found, buried under 35 ft.
It is said that the shadow of Mount Athos fell at sunset on a bronze cow in the agora of Myrina.
The agora, the theatre, an odeum, a temple of Dionysus, a temple of the Muses, a temple of Aphrodite and a great number of minor buildings have been identified, and the general plan of the city has been very clearly made out.
At Athens the agora of classical times was adorned with trees planted by Cimon; around it numerous public buildings were erected, such as the council chamber and the law courts (for its topography, see Athens).
A beautiful woman, it is said, by name Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens.
The people met, not as usual in the Pnyx, but in the Agora, in the presence of the Archons, and recorded their votes by placing in urns small fragments of pottery (which in the ancient world served the purpose of waste-paper) (ostraca) on which they wrote the name of the person whom they wished to banish.
Part of the Agora was laid open to Humann, but his trenches have fallen in.
The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altis which had the Porch of Echo on the east, the Altar of Zeus on the west, the Metroum on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus on the south-west.
These images stood at the northern side of the Agora, in a row, which extended from the north-east angle of the Metroum to the gate of the private entrance from the Altis into the Stadium.
Agora nouamete feita per hu fidalgo Deluas.