Ages sentence example
They take ages to grow.
This will be a scientific announcement for the ages, more than DNA, cloning, everything!
You.ve been my lover for ages, and I am doing you a favor.
The old ones say this chamber was built ages before man.
It was to see my native village in the light of the Middle Ages, and our Concord was turned into a Rhine stream, and visions of knights and castles passed before me.Advertisement
No darkness lasts the ages.
The restaurant is family-friendly and open to diners of all ages.
Throughout the middle ages, moreover, the word alba was somewhat loosely used.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
All French sailors between the ages of eighteen and fifty must be enrolled as members of the armte de me,.Advertisement
We should live in all the ages of the world in an hour; ay, in all the worlds of the ages.
For the first time in ages, Dusty was falling asleep at his computer.
We did it all the time in the Dark Ages.
Something about the woman made him think of things he'd not thought about in ages.
Hand brake's been busted for ages.Advertisement
They were a well-traveled group for their uniformly young ages.
As a child she had already believed herself to have visions; these now became more frequent, and her records of these "revelations," which were tanslated into Latin by Matthias, canon of Linkoping, and by her confessor, Peter, prior of Alvastra, obtained a great vogue during the middle ages.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
In the later middle ages these courts had jurisdiction over most questions, except indeed the then most important ones, those relating to real property.
The " ordinary " ecclesiastical tribunals of the later middle ages still subsist in England, at least as regards the laity.Advertisement
In the middle ages, meat, eggs and milk were forbidden in Lent not only by ecclesiastical but by statute law; and this rule was enforced until the reign of William III.
In the middle ages the nocturnal vigilia were, except in the monasteries, gradually discontinued, matins and vespers on the preceding day, with fasting, taking their place.
He may be said to have set the pattern which was followed in succeeding ages by the compilers of " political geographies " Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (Leipzig, 1891), Abt.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
Progress Of Geographical Discovery Exploration and geographical discovery must have started from more than one centre, and to deal justly with the matter one ought to treat of these separately in the early ages before the whole civilized world was bound together by the bonds of modern intercommunication.Advertisement
Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
Interesting regions, Close of known only by the scant reports of pilgrims, were made the dark the objects of attention and study; while religious zeal, ages.
The work of Marco Polo is the most valuable narrative of travels that appeared during the middle ages, and despite a cold reception and many denials of the accuracy of the record, its substantial truthfulness has been abundantly proved.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
Oh yes, mon cher, he is the greatest man of the ages past or future.Advertisement
Several of the beefy men living in the house were in the grassy, well-lit courtyard, sparring with swords, knives, and other weaponry that looked like it came straight out of the Middle Ages.
Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
We shall suppose they did it upon great consideration and weighing of the matter, and it would be very strange and very ill if we should disturb and set aside what has been the course for a long series of times and ages."
The Roman emperors recognized it as a free state, and in the middle ages it was called Stampalia, and belonged to the noble Venetian family of Quirini.
In the middle ages Ostia regained something of its importance, owing to the silting up of the right arm of the Tiber.Advertisement
But the most remarkable memorial of the middle ages that exists in all this district is the monastery of Sumelas, which is situated about 25 m.
Gold mines were worked in antiquity in the Drin valley, and silver mines in the Mirdite region were known to the Venetians in the middle ages.
The determination with which this remarkable race has maintained its mountain stronghold through a long series of ages has hitherto met with scant appreciation in the outside world.
Lake Chad is supposed to have been known by report to Ptolemy, and is identified by some writers with the Kura lake of the middle ages.
The higher Australian peaks in the south-east look just what they are, the worn and denuded stumps of mountains, standing for untold ages above the sea.Advertisement
Education is very widely distributed, and in every state it is compulsory for children of school ages to attend school.
The statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to 12 years, in Queensland 6 to II years, and in South Australia 7 to 12 years inclusive.
The only idea of a god known to be entertained by them seems to be that of the Euahlayi and Kamilaori tribe, Baiame, a gigantic old man lying asleep for ages, with his head resting on his arm, which is deep in the sand.
The intelligence was made known in April or May; and then began a rush of thousands, - men leaving their former employments in the bush or in the towns to search for the ore so greatly coveted in all ages.
During the whole of the middle ages Tournai was styled the "seigneurie de Tournaisis," and possessed a charter and special privileges of its own.Advertisement
The schools are open to all children between the ages of 5 and 20, and attendance for twenty-six weeks in each year is made compulsory for those who are between the ages of 8 and 15.
It was a popular opinion in the middle ages that extreme unction extinguishes all ties and links with this world, so that he who has received it must, if he recovers, renounce the eating of flesh and matrimonial relations.
It is situated on the canal from Bruges to Sluys (Ecluse), but in the middle ages a navigable channel or river called the Zwyn gave ships access to it from the North Sea.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
In the middle ages Plautus was little regarded, and twelve of his plays (Bacchides - Truculentus) disappeared from view until they were discovered (in the MS. called D) by Nicholas of Troves in the year 1429.Advertisement
The county of Lingen, of which this town was the capital, was united in the middle ages with the county of Tecklenburg.
In the middle ages it was the seat of a large trade in linen.
In the middle ages Teignmouth was a flourishing port, able to furnish 7 ships and 120 mariners to the Calais expedition of 1347, and depending chiefly on the fishing and salt industries.
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
The space thus included was known in ancient times as Venetia, a name applied in the middle ages to the well-known city; the eastern portion of it became known in the middle ages as the Frioul or Friuli.
This constitution of the great mass of the central Apennines has in all ages exercised an important influence upon the character of this portion of Italy, which may be considered as divided by nature into two great regions, a cold and barren upland country, bordered on both sides by rich and fertile tracts, enjoying a warm but temperate climate.
Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain adjoining the Gulf of Tarentum, which in the early ages of history was surrounded by a girdle of Greek cities—some of which attained to almost unexampled prosperity—has for centuries past been given up to almost complete desolation.
This shows a considerable improvement, largely, but not entirely, in the diminution of infant mortality; the expectation of life at birth in 1882, it is true, was only 33 years and 6 months, and at three years of age 56 years I month; but the increase, both in the expectation of life and in its average duration, goes all through the different ages.
The great beauty and fertility of the country, as well as the charm of its climate, undoubtedly attracted, even in early ages, successive swarms of invaders from the north, who sometimes drove out the previous occupants of the most favored districts, at others reduced them to a state of serfdom, or settled down in the midst of them, until the two races gradually coalesced.
Meanwhile, throughout the middle ages, it had been the policy of Venice to refrain from conquests on the Italian mainland, and to confine her energies to commerce in the East.
The chief interest, however, attaching to the Brahmanas is doubtless their detailed description of the sacrificial system as practised in the later Vedic ages; and the information afforded by them in this respect should be all the more welcome to us, as the history of religious institutions knows of no other sacrificial ceremonial with the details of which we are acquainted to anything like the same extent.
Although in later ages its importance was enormously magnified, it differs only in degree, not in kind, from other charters granted by the Norman and early Plantagenet kings.
This feeling was fostered by its many confirmations, and in subsequent ages, especially during the time of the struggle between the Stewart kings and the parliament, it was regarded as something sacrosanct, embodying the very ideal of English liberties, which to some extent had been lost, but which must be regained.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
A closer scrutiny of the writers of all ages who preceded Charles Darwin, and, in particular, the light thrown back from Darwin on the earlier writings of Herbert Spencer, have made plain that without Darwin the world by this time might have come to a.
Isolated examples in the early middle ages of metropolitans dealing with their suffragan bishops by imprisonment in chains were extra-canonical abuses, connected with the perversion of Church law which treated the metropolitan (who originally was merely convener of the provincial synod and its representative during the intervals of sessions) as the feudal " lord " of his comprovincials.
Exempt jurisdictions began with the monasteries and were matter of vehement discussion in the later middle ages.
The French parlements, after the middle ages, discouraged them.
The recursus ad principem, in some form or other of appeal or application to the sovereign or his lay judges, was at the end of the middle ages well known over western Europe.
The few records during the middle ages are borne out by what is known of famines and pestilence.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or the beginning of the middle ages.
Just below Mussaib there has been for all ages a great bifurcation of the river.
Neither island has for ages been in any sense a Norman land, and the tongue which the Norman brought with him into both has not for ages been spoken in either.
In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern.
The fame of Boetius increased after his death, and his influence during the middle ages was exceedingly powerful.
These works formed to a large extent the source from which the middle ages derived their knowledge of Aristotle.
Whether he meant it so or not, the saint's argument became a programme and an apologia for the imperializing of the Western Church under the leadership of Rome during the middle ages.
Moslems and Jews were applying Aristotelian philosophy to rigorously monotheistic faiths; Christianity had been encouraged by Platonism in teaching a trinity of divine persons, and Platonism of a certain order long dominated the middle ages as part of the Augustinian tradition.
The tendency of the later middle ages is to add to the number of the doctrines with which philosophy cannot deal.
Even in the middle ages there were not wanting those - the St Victors, Bonaventura - who sought to vindicate mystical if not moral redemption as the central thought of Christianity.
Deism is, in fact, the Thomist natural theology (more clearly distinguished from dogmatic theology than in the middle ages, alike by Protestants and by the post-Tridentine Church of Rome) now dissolving partnership with dogmatic and starting in business for itself.
Day and night, long processions of all classes and ages, headed by priests carrying crosses and banners, perambulated the streets in double file, reciting prayers and drawing the blood from their bodies with leathern thongs.
During the Russian Dark Ages certain clerical errors had crept into the liturgical books Reforms a nd certain peculiarities had been adopted in the ritual.
There have been several professional photographers (all detected in fraud sooner or later) who made it their business to take photo complaints, to certain epidemics of the middles ages,' and to phenomena that have occurred at some religious revivals.
The interest in spiritualism, apart from scientific curiosity and mere love of the marvellous, is partly due to the belief that trustworthy information and advice about mundane matters can be obtained through mediums - to the same impulse in fact which has in all ages attracted inquirers to fortune-tellers.
An English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest Henderson's Select Documents of the Middle Ages (Bohn series, 1896).
Lastly, the rite of circumcision, which the Hebrews practised in common with their Semitic neighbours as well as the Egyptians, belonged to ages long anterior to the time of Moses.
Some attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing one of the principal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a Hercules to cleanse this vast city from the accumulated filth of ages of neglect.
The earliest remains near the site go ' For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger, The Instruments of the Orchestra, part ii., and especially chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.
Gibbon's verdict on the history of the middle ages is contained in the famous sentence, " I have described the triumph of barbarism and religion."
Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.
A poll tax is required of all males between the ages of 21 and 60 years, one half of which goes to the county in which it is collected and the rest to the state.
The condensation of a nebula could be followed in the same manner as we can study the growth of the trees in the forest, by comparing the trees of various ages which the forest contains at the same time.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
The problem cannot be approached from modern preconceptions because there was much associated with the worship of Yahweh which only gradually came to be recognized as repugnant, and there was much in earlier ages and in other lands which reflects an elevated and even complex religious philosophy.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
But though this defensive zeal led to active persecution, still in theory Judaism was a tolerated religion wherever the Church had sway, and many papal bulls of a friendly character were issued throughout the middle ages (Scherer, p. 32 seq.).
Again and again these ordinances were repeated in subsequent ages, and intolerance for infidels is still a distinct feature of Mahommedan law.
So, too, the greatest Jew of the middle ages, Maimonides, was a Spaniard.
In the " dark ages " Jews enjoyed neither rights nor privileges; in the 18th century they were still without rights but they had privileges.
In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the early Middle Ages.
The Grand Gulf group, of formations of different ages, consisting of sands, sandstones and clays, and showing a few fossil plants, but no marine fossils, extends southward from the last to within a few miles of the coast, and is 750-800 ft.
The working of children under twelve years of age in any factory or manufacturing establishment is unlawful, the working of children between the ages of twelve and thirteen in such places is allowed only on condition that they be employed as apprentices and have attended school for at least four months during the preceding year; and no boy or girl under fourteen is to work in such places during night time.
In the counties there is a board of education and there is also a local school committee of three in each township. The compulsory attendance at school of children between the ages of eight and fourteen for sixteen weeks each year by a state law is optional with each county.
Such a mitre appears on a seal of Archbisho p Thomas Becket (Father Thurston, The ?P allium, London, 1892, p. 17), The custom was, however, .already growing up of setting the horns over the front and back of the head instead of the sides (the mitre said to have belonged to St Thomas Becket, now at Westminster Cathedral, is of this type), 1 and with this the essential character of the mitre, as it persisted through the middle ages, was established.
Hezekiah (c. 1040) was the last Babylonian exilarch, though the title left its traces in later ages.
His followers held a progressive revelation of God in the ages of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Clerical immunities, of course, differed largely at different times and in different countries, the extent of them having been gradually curtailed from a period a little earlier than the close of the middle ages.
David's character must be judged partly in the light of the times in which he lived and partly in connexion with the great truths which he represents, truths whose value is not impaired should they prove to be the convictions of later ages.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
During the middle ages the Friday market and fair in Whit week, granted by the first charter, were centres for the sale of yarn and cloth called "Dunsters," made in the town.
As the last capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary and religious centres of the south, the city is full of interesting associations.
He was not only one of the most learned, but also one of the most statesmanlike sovereigns of the earlier middle ages.
This " intensive " culture in a more or less developed form was practised by the great nations of antiquity, and little decided advance was made till after the middle ages.
The nomads of the patriarchal ages, whilst mainly dependent upon their flocks and herds, practised also agriculture proper.
Under the later empire agriculture sank into a condition of neglect, in which it remained throughout the Dark Ages.
During the middle ages cattle and sheep were the chief farm animals, but the intermixture of stock consequent on the common-field system was a barrier to improvement in the breed and conduced to the propagation of disease.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
It is his contact with the Jews which has chiefly interested later ages, and he is doubtless the monarch described in the pseudoprophetic chapters of Daniel.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
From the very nature of the records in which we study the town life of the middle ages, it follows that we obtain from them only a onesided view.
Thus the study of the economic life of the middle ages is one of the most complicated subjects which can engage the attention of man.
Meanwhile we can illustrate the economic life of the middle ages, describe its main features, indicate the more important measures of public policy and draw attention to some of the main lines of development.
From the close of the middle ages until the middle of the 18th century thousands of pamphlets and other works on economic questions were published, but the vast majority of the writers have little or no scientific importance.
It is not unlike the procedure of the canonists and casuists of the middle ages with regard to the doctrine of usury, by which the doctrine was to all appearances preserved intact while in reality it was stripped of all its original meaning by innumerable distinctions " over-curious and precise."
He died, probably in the year 254 (consequently under Valerian), at Tyre, where his grave was still shown in the middle ages.
Towards the 6th century the legend of the woman with the issue of blood became merged in the legend of Pilate, as is shown in the writings known in the middle ages as Cura sanitatis Tiberii and Vindicta Salvatoris.
One land, however, has eclipsed all others in the Aegean by the wealth of its remains of all the prehistoric ages, viz.
We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
The romantic life of Alexander, the basis of all the Alexander legends of the middle ages, originated during the time of the Ptolemies, but in its present form belongs to the 3rd century A.D.
The port was important throughout the middle ages, and was required to furnish four ships for the French war in 1334.
Alger's History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, as it has prevailed in all Nations and Ages (1862), and published separately in 1864.
In later ages the representations of birds of one sort or another in Egyptian paintings and sculptures become countless, and the bassi-rilievi of Assyrian monuments, though mostly belonging of course to a subsequent period, are not without them.
Henceforward it was to be the serious study of the workings of nature in producing the beings we see around us from beings more or less unlike them, that had existed in bygone ages and had been the parents of a varied and varying offspring - our fellow-creatures of to-day.
The burlesque ritual which characterized the Feast of Fools throughout the middle ages was now at its height.
This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
This naive temper of the middle ages is nowhere more conspicuously displayed than in the Feast of the Ass, which under various forms was celebrated in a large number of churches throughout the West.
Various efforts were made during the middle ages to abolish the Feast of Fools.
The substratum of the plain is a bed of boulders, covered during the lapse of ages by a deposit of rich alluvial soil.
During the middle ages the walls of Venetian buildings were constructed invariably of brick.
Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen.
The incubus and succubus of the middle ages are sometimes regarded as spiritual beings; but they were held to give very real proof of their bodily existence.
But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796.
Arab geographers and travellers of the middle ages speak in high terms of the gardens of Nisibis, and the magnificent returns obtained by the agriculturist.
It is certain that in previous geological ages Lake Baikal had a much greater extension.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
Probably by unconscious selection of surviving plants through long ages this type has been evolved in Guatemala, and experiments have been made to develop weevil-resistant races in the United States.
Petroleum was collected for use in the most remote ages of which we have any records.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
The creative thought of the middle ages is clerical thought.
We can only say that we have the text of Ibelin which was used in Cyprus in the later middle ages.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.
He depreciates unduly the Western civilization of the early middle ages, and exalts the civilization of the Arabs; and starting from these two premises, he concludes that modern civilization is the offspring of the Crusades, which first brought East and West together.
The ages were not dark in which Christianity could gather itself together in a common cause, and carry the flag of its faith to the grave of its Redeemer; nor can we but give thanks for their memory, even if for us religion is of the spirit, and Jerusalem in the heart of every man who believes in Christ.
His book thus begins to be a real authority only from the date of the Second Crusade onwards; but the perfection of his form (for he is one of the greatest stylists of the middle ages) and the prestige of his position conspired to make his book the one authority for the whole history of the first century of the Crusades.
This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
All those who in the middle ages denied the substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians.
In the middle ages it was divided into upper, or black, Quercy, and lower, or white, Quercy, the capital of the former being Cahors and of the latter Montauban.
The mines were already worked during the middle ages.
During the middle ages it was an important centre of commerce between Germany and Italy.
But " alchemy " was something more than a particularly vain and deluded manifestation of the thirst for gold, as it is sometimes represented; in its wider and truer significance it stands for the chemistry of the middle ages.
The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.
His organizing genius, even more than his missionary zeal, left its mark upon the German church throughout all the middle ages.
Other minerals found here are graphite, alum, potter's clay and roofing-slate, and, besides, famous silvermines were worked at Iglau during the middle ages.
The notices of Athens during the earlier middle ages are scanty in the extreme.
The Parthenon, the Erechtheum, the " Theseum " and other temples were converted into Christian churches and were thus preserved throughout the middle ages.
These, said to have been unearthed, for the most part, near the Kirk Geuz spring above the modern town, are now in Constantinople and America, and include an inscribed lion, once built into the wall of the citadel known in the middle ages as al-Marwani, and several stelae.
What perhaps is its greatest interest as we first see it is its expression of the popular mind about the close of the middle ages.
In the middle ages Zutphen was the seat of a line of counts, which became extinct in the 12th century.
The markets of Hartlepool were important throughout the middle ages.
It is the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins.
Those who have believed in Christ are the present representatives and result of this purpose; and a clear knowledge of the purpose itself, the secret of the ages, has now been revealed to men.
In the middle ages Narni was under the papal power.
It is not impossible that the question may yet be raised again whether the Eurasian after all is the heir of the ages.
But in spite of his errors the scientific method pursued by Ptolemy was correct, and though he was neglected by the Romans and during the middle ages, once he had become known, in the 15th century, he became the teacher of the modern world.
It never again obtained a footing there; for, although, late in the middle ages, the book of Revelation - by what means we cannot tell - did recover its authority, the Church was by that time so hopelessly trammelled by a magical cultus as to be incapable of fresh developments.
The Apocalypse of Hermas was much read till far through the middle ages, and has also kept its place in some Bibles.
At various periods in the history of the middle ages we encounter sudden outbreaks of millennarianism, sometimes as the tenet of a small sect, sometimes as a far-reaching movement.
There were pure evangelical forces at work in it; and many Anabaptists need not shun comparison with the Christians of the apostolic and post-apostolic ages.
At any rate it was a notable trading-place and emporium as early as the Stone Age, and continued to enjoy its importance as such through the Bronze and Iron Ages, as is proved, inter alia, by the large number of Arabic, Anglo-Saxon and other coins which have been found on the island..
He may be reckoned the most illustrious pope since Benedict XIV., and under him the papacy acquired a prestige unknown since the middle ages.
As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.
It was popular in the middle ages, hexameter abridgments being current under the names of Theodericus and Petrus Diaconus.
The islands, though seldom visited by foreigners, are for the most part highly interesting and picturesque, notwithstanding their somewhat barren appearance when viewed from the sea; many of them bear traces of the feudal rule of Venetian families in the middle ages, and their inhabitants in general may be regarded as presenting the best type of the Greek race.
Far more interesting as explaining the diffusion and the religious and social importance of his doctrine is his conception of the second and third ages.
During the middle ages it was the chief town of the district of Beauce, and gave its name to a countship which was held by the counts of Blois and Champagne and afterwards by the house of Chatillon, a member of which in 1286 sold it to the crown.
Among the mountains, gold and silver were worked by the Romans, and, in the middle ages, by the Ragusans.
Education for boys and girls between the ages of seven and fifteen is free, but not compulsory.
The later middle ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepee and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac, on Owing to the scarcity of authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the events of the next three centuries.
In the middle ages the population was about io,000.
In virtue of the enactments of May 1880, of November 1886, of February 1888 and of December 1903, military service had been obligatory on all Mussulmans, Christians having been excluded but under obligation of paying a " military exoneration tax " of T50 for 135 males between the ages of 15 and 75.
The duties are estimated to produce £T393,107; other professional duties £T110,887 - together £T503,994 A " Military Exoneration tax " is levied on male Ottoman subjects between the ages of 15 and 75 to the amount of £T50 for 135 persons - certain exceptions such as priests, religious orders, &c., are allowed.
Though clad, armed and organized in European fashion, the soldiers retained in a marked degree the traditions of their Mongolian forerunners, their transport wagons were in type the survival of ages of experience, and their care for their animals equally the result of hereditary habit.
This view claims to determine the respective ages and relative chronological position of the various passages in which the Passover is referred to in the Pentateuch, and assumes that each successive stratum represents the practice in ancient Israel at the time of composition, laying great stress upon omissions as implying non-existence.
Finally, at the close of the middle ages, the lower part of the crook was bent outwards so that the actual volute came over the middle of the knob, the type that remained dominant from that time onwards (8).
In the middle ages Romford was rather a meetingplace for merchants than an industrial centre.
It was abandoned during the middle ages; its inhabitants took posession of the promontory of Minoa, turned it into an island, and built and fortified thereon the city of Monembasia, which became the most flourishing of all the towns in the Morea, and gave its name to the well-known Malmsey or Malvasia wine.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.
It should be noted that this name occurs again in the middle ages in Burgundy, not far from Dijon; in all probability a detachment of this people had settled in that spot in the 5th or 6th century.
Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
The chasuble and the rest, whatever their origin, had become associated during the middle ages with certain doctrines the rejection of which at the Reformation was symbolized by their disuse.
Hevea and Castilloa, the resin is present in large proportion in the latex derived from young trees, and diminishes in amount as the tree ages.
Moreover, in the middle ages, it was not lawful for the Jews to admit proselytes.
Towards the close of the middle ages it appears several times at the head of leagues of the Swabian towns.
Weak health, however, caused him from early days to devote himself to research, mainly on church history in the later middle ages, and his literary reputation rests on the important books he produced on this subject.
They then reigned over the two dioceses of Lescar and Oloron; but their capital was Morlaas, where they had a mint which was famous throughout the middle ages.
In Germany, the great preachers of the middle ages were Franciscans, such as Brother Bertold of Regensburg (1220-1272), or Dominicans, such as Johann Tauler (1290-1361), who preached in Latin.
They belong to the earliest ages, for they are mentioned by Eusebius, H.E.
It was on this spot, on the Appian way, that was built the basilica of St Sebastian, which was a popular place of pilgrimage in the middle ages.
In the middle ages it fell into the hands of the Venetians, who fortified it so strongly that in 1477 it successfully resisted a four months' siege by a Turkish army thirty thousand strong; in 1499, however, it was taken by Bayezid II.
The cunning and stratagem of the fox have been proverbial for many ages, and he has figured as a central character in fables from the earliest times, as in Aesop, down to "Uncle Remus," most notably as Reynard (Raginohardus, strong in counsel) in the great medieval beast-epic "Reynard the Fox" (q.v.).
It suffered considerably in the various wars of the middle ages, but generally managed to maintain its independence.
The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.
In the middle ages they were cited to justify the claim of the papacy to be the supreme court of appeal.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
The present population of Adalia, which includes many Christians and Jews, still living, as in the middle ages, in separate quarters, the former round the walled mina or port, is about 25,000.
They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").
It consists of a series of plateaus formed of sedimentary rocks which mainly belong to three formations of widely separated ages, and which rest on a platform of granitic and metamorphic rocks.
Prantl says that there is no such thing as philosophy in the middle ages; there are only logic and theology.
The fact that the channels of thought during the middle ages were determined in this way is usually expressed by saying that reason in the middle age is subject to authority.
Or, according to the phrase which recurs so often during the middle ages, " universale intelligitur, singulare sentitur."
It was the excitement caused by their attempt, and the heterodox conclusions which were its first result, that lifted these Scholastic disputations into the central position which they henceforth occupied in the life of the middle ages.
Originality was at no time the strong point of the middle ages, but in the later period it was almost of necessity buried under the mass of material suddenly thrust upon the age, to be assimilated.
By far the greatest disciple of Aquinas is Dante Alighieri, in whose Divina Commedia the theology and philosophy of the middle ages, as fixed by Saint Thomas, have received the immortality which poetry alone can bestow.
The union of philosophy and theology is the mark of the middle ages, but in Occam their severance is complete.
By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years.
Since 1891 infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state.
They brought from their native Italy a thorough knowledge of the science of government as the middle ages understood it, and the decimation of the Hungarian magnates during the civil wars enabled them to re-create the noble hierarchy on a feudal basis, in which full allowance was made for Magyar idiosyncracies.
It continued to be a place of some importance, the situation being favourable and the region fertile, and does not seem to have been wholly abandoned till the middle ages.
Its manufactures include cardboard, glue, oils, colours, fertilizers, chemical products, perfumery, &c. During the middle ages and till modern times Aubervilliers was the resort of numerous pilgrims, who came to pay honour to Notre Dame des Vertus.
The "High Church" view, now predominant, is practically identical with that of the Gallicans and Febronians, and is based on Catholic practice in those ages of the Church to which, as well as to the Bible, the formularies of the Church of England make appeal.
The motive was avowedly the same which in the Middle Ages led a medixval garrison to drive the civil population of a town into the camp of its would-be deliverers.
The real dawn of zoology after the legendary period of the middle ages is connected with the name of an Englishman, Edward Wotton, born at Oxford in 1492, who practised Wotton.
In many respects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle, whose teaching, with various fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the middle ages.
The first post-Darwinian systematists naturally and without reflexion accepted of' the idea that existing simpler forms represent stages i n the gradual progress of development - are in fact survivors from past ages which have retained the exact grade of development which their ancestors had reached in past ages.
Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
A complex of igneous rocks of different ages covers immense areas in the central Transvaal.
Attendance at school between the ages of 7 and 14 is, with certain exceptions, compulsory.
At the same census 95% of the white population over 21 were able to read and write; of the whites between the ages of 5 and 14 59% could read and write.
The undoubted abuses which grew up, especially during the middle ages, raised up, at the time of the Reformation, fresh adversaries of the cult of the saints.
The crusaders found them everywhere in Syria and Palestine, and corrupted their name to Publicani, under which name, often absurdly conjoined with Sadducaei, we find them during the ages following the crusades scattered all over Europe.
Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial dress - the apparel Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam).
If Terence was born in 185, he published his six plays between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five.
Ranking as a papal cathedral, this became a much-favoured place of assembly for ecclesiastical councils both in antiquity (313, 487) and more especially during the middle ages.
The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
The two narrative poems which succeeded the early lyrics, Jocelyn and the Chute d'un ange, were, according to Lamartine's original plan, parts of a vast "Epic of the Ages," some further fragments of which survive.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
It lived and flourished far beyond this time, when transplanted to Rome, not less than in its native Alexandria, and appears to be recognizable even up to the beginning of the middle ages.
The methodic school lasted certainly for some centuries, and influenced the revival of medical science in the middle ages, though overshadowed by the greater reputation of Galen.
Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
His reputation lasted through the middle ages, and was not less in the Arabian schools than in the West.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
Certain writings of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle ages in Europe, and were printed in the 16th century.
A continuous thread of learning and practice must have connected the last period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of science in the middle ages.
The origin of this, the most important source of medical knowledge in Europe in the early middle ages, is involved in obscurity.
The best-known is the rhyming Latin poem on health by Joannes de Meditano, Regimen sanitatis Salerni, professedly written for the use of the "king of England," supposed to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation in the middle ages, and was afterwards many times printed, and translated into most European languages.
A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate.
During the early middle ages the bank of the Rhine formed the most cultured part of Germany, basing its civilization on its Roman past.
The Rhine was the classic river of the middle ages; and probably the Tiber alone is of equal historical interest among European rivers.
Quicherat, he developed a strong inclination to the study of the middle ages.
To his own age Voltaire was pre-eminently a poet and a philosopher; the unkindness of succeeding ages has sometimes questioned whether he had any title to either name, and especially to the latter.
Cyprus was for centuries famous for their manufacture, and they were still known in the middle ages by the names of pastils or osselets of Cyprus.
In the middle ages there was a constant succession of pageants, processions and tournaments.
The former, visits paid in accordance with a vow, were very frequent in the middle ages, and were under the special protection of the pope, who put the ban upon any who should molest pilgrims "who go to Rome for God's sake."
Some of the Roman artificers in glass no doubt migrated to Constantinople, and it is certain that the art was practised there to a very great extent during the middle ages.
Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, - a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a resort of pirates, and, in the middle ages, led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders.
This left the Tour Burbant as its sole relic of the middle ages.
The Apocalyptic literature of Judaism and Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries following the exile down to the close of the middle ages.
In the middle ages it was always plain.
In the middle ages, owing to various causes, the better wines of France and Germany could not be obtained in England except at prohibitive prices; but when this state of things ceased, and foreign wine could be imported, the English consumers would no longer tolerate the inferior productions of their own vineyards.
The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.
In the middle ages Venice was the great European centre of the sugar trade, and towards the end of the 15th century a Venetian citizen received a reward of ioo,000 crowns for the invention of the art of making loaf sugar.
It was for some time during the middle ages an independent republic, but was subdued by the Venetians in 1405.
It became the capital of the pagus Constantinus (Cotentin), and in the middle ages was the seat of a viscount.
The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants.
The same needs produce in different ages associations which have striking resemblances, but those of each age have peculiarities which indicate a spontaneous growth.
They are important because they played a prominent role in the social life of England, especially as eleemosynary institutions, down to the time of their suppression in 1547 Religious gilds, closely resembling those of England, also flourished on the continent during the middle ages.
Much evidence has been produced to show that gild and borough, gildsmen and burgesses, were originally distinct conceptions, and that they continued to be discriminated in most towns throughout the middle ages.
While in most towns the name and the old organization of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole municipal corporation.
In the middle ages Ivrea was the capital of a Lombard duchy, and later of a marquisate; both Berengar II.
We have traced a definite line of descent for feudal institutions from Roman days through the Merovingian and Carolingian ages to the 10th century.
The variety and seeming confusion which reign in feudal society, under uniform controlling principles, rule also in the ages of beginning.
At the moment, however, when feudalism was disappearing as the organization of society, it gave rise to results which in a sense continued it into after ages and even to our own day.
The Versus practically reproduce in outline Bwda's account of Ca dmon's dream, without mentioning the dream, but describing the poet as a herdsman, and adding that his poems, beginning with the creation, relate the history of the five ages of the world down to the coming of Christ.
The Versus, considered in themselves, might very well be supposed to relate to Ca dmon; but the mention of the five ages of the world in the concluding lines is obviously due to recollection of the opening of the Heliand (lines 46-47).
Delisle was undoubtedly the most learned man in Europe with regard to the middle ages; and his knowledge of diplomatics, palaeography and printing was profound.
For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character.
It was very popular during the middle ages, and was used by Ordericus Vitalis for his Historiae ecclesiasticae; by William archbishop of Tyre, for his Belli sacri historia; and by Vincent of Beauvais for his Speculum historiaae.
In 1003 we find records of a war between Pisa and Lucca, which, according to Muratori, was the first waged between Italian cities in the middle ages.
Now military service is obligatory for all Peruvians between the ages of 19 and 50, who are divided into four classes, first and second reserves (19 to 30, and 30 to 35 years), supernumeraries (those who have purchased exemption from service in the regular army), and the national guard (35 to 50 years).
Another explanation, which appears first in Jewish authors of the middle ages and has found wide acceptance in recent times, derives the name from the causative of the verb; He (who) causes things to be, gives them being; or calls events into existence, brings them to pass; with many individual modifications of interpretation - creator, lifegiver, fulfiller of promises.
The Speculum Majus, the great compendium of all the knowledge of the middle ages, as it left the pen of Vincent, seems to have consisted of three parts only, viz.
To the men of the middle ages, in any case, St Catherine was very real; she was ranked with the fourteen most helpful saints in heaven, and was the constant theme of preachers and of poets.
It was a university town in the middle ages, but most of its chairs have now been suppressed.
In the later middle ages he is represented as fighting with giants, dragons and dwarfs, and finally disappears on a black horse.
However this may be, remnants of their primitive superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry, into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types - for the most part - of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the medieval poets.
Tristan (Tristram), the ideal lover of the middle ages, whose name is inseparably associated with that of Iseult.
Of these the most important are Alexander of Macedon and Charlemagne, while alongside of them Priam and other heroes of the Trojan war appear during the middle ages in strangely altered guise.
This book was one of the most significant and influential Jewish works of the middle ages.
Sword-blades have been made here since the early middle ages, and tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by smiths from Damascus.
During the later middle ages it was the seat of several diets, that of 1184 being of unusual size and splendour.
The Archbishopric Of Mainz, one of the seven electorates of the Holy Roman Empire, became a powerful state during the middle ages and retained some of its importance until the dissolution of the empire in 1806.
Abulwalid's works mark the culminating point of Hebrew scholarship during the middle ages, and he attained a level which was not surpassed till the modern development of philological science in the 19th century.
If there are four chairs, he argued, devoted to the history of philosophy, that is to say, the minute study of all sorts of dreams and aberrations through the ages, surely there ought to be at least one to explain the formation and progress of our real knowledge?
When religion has be come positive, and society industrial, then the influence of the church upon the state becomes really freeandindependent,which was not the case in the middle ages.
Under an act of the 12th of April 1883, as amended on the 4th of April 1902, education is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fifteen, but the maximum limit is reduced to thirteen for children who are employed at lawful labour.
On an isolated rock between the town and the river stands a ruined castle, the Diz-i-siyah (black castle), the residence of the governor of the district (then called Samha) in the middle ages, and, with some modern additions, one of them consisting of rooms on the summit, called Felek ul aflak (heaven of heavens), the residence of the governors of Luristan in the beginning of the 19th century.
In the middle ages Verona gradually grew in size and importance.
Founded in the 10th century as Lowenwold, Uelzen became in the middle ages an active member of the Hanseatic League.
Aubin is the centre of important coal-mines worked in the middle ages, and also has iron-mines, the product of which supplies iron works close to the town.
The distinction continued throughoutthe ages.
During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.
By his collection of flints Boucher de Perthes had been the first to attempt to establish the existence of man in remote ages; but it had been objected that if the flints were indeed the work of man, human remains would have been found in association with them.
During the middle ages the fortunes of Dijon followed those of Burgundy, the dukes of which acquired it early in the 11 th century.
It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.
With the object of providing for the transmission of divine and human knowledge to later ages, and of securing it against the tide of barbarism which threatened to sweep it away, he founded two monasteries - Vivarium and Castellum - in his ancestral domains at Squillace (others identify the two monasteries).
He wrote Addresses on the Kingdom of God (1827), History of the Alton Riots (1837), Statement of Anti-Slavery Principles (1837), Baptism, its Import and Modes (1850), The Conflict of Ages (1853), The Papal Conspiracy Exposed (1855), The Concord of Ages (1860), and History of Opinions on the Scriptural Doctrine of Future Retribution(1 878).
It is not necessary in illustration of the second type of heresy - that which arises when the contents of the Christian faith are being defined - to refer to the doctrinal controversies of the middle ages.
On the one hand there were during the middle ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual members within it, had no influence on church doctrine."
Greece, Persia and probably Babylon, knew of four such ages. ?
The Priestly Writer in the Pentateuch also a p pears to be acquainted with this doctrine; it is the first of four ages which begins with the Creation and ends with the Deluge.
The Mexicans, however, are said to have assumed five ages called " suns."
They retained the belief that the germs of all things slept for ages within the dark flood, personified as Min or NU.
A far more probable explanation of their name "Chretiens" is to be found in the fact that in medieval times all lepers were known as pauperes Christi, and that, Goths or not, these Cagots were affected in the middle ages with a particular form of leprosy or a condition resembling it.