Unlike the African species, the Indian elephant charges with its trunk curled up, and consequently in silence.
The chief African traders are Hausa immigrants.
Cartagena was founded about the year 243 B.C. by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal, and was called Carthago Nova or New Carthage, to distinguish it from the African city of Carthage.
In this respect the Asiatic species differs very widely from its African relative, whose nutriment is largely composed of boughs and roots.
By Dr Paul Matschie several races of the African elephant have been described, mainly, as already mentioned, on certain differences in the shape of the ear.
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
In size the male African elephant often surpasses the Asiatic species, reaching nearly 12 ft.
The exterior walls of the castles and palaces named are little damaged and give to Gondar a unique character among African towns.
The most important of these are the greater tolerance by the African animal of sunlight, and the hard nature of its food, which consists chiefly of boughs and roots.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
African antelope, scientifically known as Cephalophus grimmi; the popular name alluding to its habit of diving into and threading its way through thick bush.
unveiled a fine memorial arch commemorating Royal Engineers who fell in the South African War.
The emu corresponds with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea.
Their form, however, is not sufficiently characteristic to warrant this identification, though it may be noted that the nearest approximation to phallic worship is found amongst the most typical of African peoples, viz.
Imports are mainly from Germany, exports to Germany and to other West African colonies.
Further, the skin is stated to be much less rough, with fewer cracks, while a more important difference occurs in the trunk, which lacks the transverse ridges so distinctive of the ordinary African elephant, and thereby approximates to the Asiatic species.
Both European and African fruit trees grow in the island; there are in places considerable orange groves, especially at Milis, to the north of Oristano.
Numerous objects had been discovered in the course of excavations, but not one of them could be recognized as more than a few centuries old, while those that were not demonstrably foreign imports were of African type.
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharper ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the neck and back.
The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
The Tripoli hinterland, however, was in danger of being absorbed by other powers having large African interests; the Anglo-French declaration of the 21st of March 1899 in particular seemed likely to interfere with Italian activity.
In height it stood about the same as a young individual of the ordinary African elephant when about a year and a half old, the vertical measurement at the shoulder being only 4 ft., or merely a foot higher than a new-born Indian elephant.
Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.
The great interest in connexion with a dwarf West African race of elephant is in relation to the fossil pigmy elephants of the limestone fissures and caves of Malta and Cyprus.
cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.
In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.
It may be added that fossil remains of the African elephant have been obtained from Spain, Sicily, Algeria and Egypt, in strata of the Pleistocene age.
Some of the main differences in the habits of the African as distinct from those of the Asiatic elephant have been mentioned under the heading of the latter species.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat.
Cats of the striped type are no doubt descended from the European and North African wild cats; but the origin of cats exhibiting the blotched pattern appears to be unknown.
Another African breed is the Mombasa cat, in which the hair is reported to be unusually short and stiff.
This work struck de Lesseps's imagination, and gave him the idea of piercing the African isthmus.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
Most of the known rhino species are West African.
m., of which 1,420,800 are Eurasian and 1,513,800 are African.
8 the inclusion of Libyans shows that the enemy was subsequently supposed to be African.
According to Suetonius (Caesar, 56), many authorities considered Oppius to have written the histories of the Spanish, African and Alexandrian wars which are printed among the works of Caesar.
Even insects, as in the case of South African locusts, have been found to be a means of distributing seeds.
African sub-regiou.Western Arabia must be added to th~ African continent, which, with this exception and possibly a formel European connexinn in the far west, has had apparently from a very early period an almost insular character.
It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.
Dipterocarpeae and Nepenthaceae only extend with a few outliers into the African sub-region.
The South African sub-region has a flora richer perhaps in number of species than any other; and these are often extremely local ant restricted in area.
Tropacolum takes the place of the nearly allied South African Pelargonium.
At first sight a South African Euphorbia might be mistaken for a South American Cactus, an Aloe for an A gave, a Senecio for ivy, or a New Zealand Veronica for a European Salicornia.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
Thence he visited the African coast, touching at Mombasa and Quiloa, and then sailed across to Ormuz and the Persian Gulf.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
Before the death of Bruce an African Association was formed, in 1788, for collecting information respecting the interior of that continent, with Major Rennell and Sir Joseph Banks as leading members.
Lacerda left a valuable record of his adventurous journey; but with Mungo Park and Lacerda the history of African exploration in the 18th century closes.
The Royal Geographical Society, which was founded in London in 1830, comes third on the list; but it may be viewed as a direct result of the earlier African Association founded in 1788.
In these African campaigns Sulla showed that he knew how to win the confidence of his soldiers, and throughout his career the secret of his success seems to have been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, whom he continued to hold well in hand, while allowing them to indulge in plundering and all kinds of excess.
This region naturally comprises the African and Indian areas, conformably to be called subregions.
The natural division of the subregion is that into an African and a Madagascar province.
Some of the Malagasy avifauna is certainly ancient, aboriginal, and even points to India; other forms indicate clearly their African FIG.
His African experiences suggested The African Colony (1903), A Lodge in the Wilderness (1906), and Prester John (1910).
Later works include The South African Forces in France (1920), and a biography of Francis and Riversdale Grenfell (1920) .
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
m.) It is at the southern extremity of Liberia, Cape Palmas, that the West African coast from Morocco to the southernmost extremity of Guinea turns somewhat abruptly eastwards and northwards and faces the Gulf of Guinea.
The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.
The other birds are mainly those of Senegambia and of the West African forest region generally.
There is one trogon - green and crimson, a brightly coloured ground thrush (Pitta), numerous woodpeckers and barbets; glossy starlings, the black and white African crow and a great variety of brilliantly coloured weaver birds, waxbills, shrikes and sun-birds.
There are three species of crocodile, at least two chameleons (probably more when the forest is further explored), the large West African python (P. sebae) and a rare Boine snake (Calabaria).
Of the extremely limited Samoan fauna, consisting mainly of an indigenous rat, four species of snakes and a few birds, the most interesting member is the Didunculus strigirostris, a ground pigeon of iridescent greenish-black and bright chestnut plumage, which forms a link between the extinct dodo and the living African Treroninae.
Probably the custom was of African origin, and came from eastern Africa along with the Semitic race.
He was beheaded on the 14th of September 258, the first African bishop to obtain the martyr's crown.
A systematic campaign for the destruction of breedingplaces has been inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging results.
Personally he was not enthusiastic over the African enterprise, as it introduced new and, to him, unaccustomed and unwelcome values into Italian political life; but he realized that public opinion demanded it and he did not care to run counter to the current.
More than l000 English and colonial Jews participated as active combatants in the South African War.
C. McCook in the American genus Myrmecocystus, and by later observers in Australian and African species of Plagiolepis and allied genera.
Baden-Powell's Sketches in Mafeking and East Africa (1907) and Lady Sarah Wilson's South African Memories (1909) deal largely with the siege of Mafeking.
Cystopodiinae, includes 9 genera tropical, but extending into north temperate Asia and South Africa; Eulophia and Lissochilus 'are ' important African genera.
Cagliari is considerably exposed to winds in winter, while in summer it is almost African in climate.
deep. The principal crops are African grains, wheat, onions, cotton, tobacco, indigo, with sugar-cane, cassava, &c. The population is chiefly agricultural, but also commercial and industrial.
The question of the suppression of the African slave trade, with which was connected the right of search, was settled by an agreement that each nation should keep in service off the coast of Africa a squadron carrying not fewer than eighty guns, and that the two squadrons should act in concert when necessary.
BAGGARA (" Cowherds"), African "Arabs" of Semitic origin, so called because they are great cattle owners and breeders.
Gournia and Palaikastro fulfilled both these ends: Zakro must have had mainly a commercial purpose, as the starting-point for the African coast.
dpoE, a pickaxe, hence applied to the animal), the scientific name of a group of African antelopes of relatively large size with long straight or scimitar-shaped horns, which are present in both sexes, and long tufted tails.
The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
He appears to have been an African by birth, but of his personal history nothing is known.
These monkeys are the African representatives of the Indo-Malay langurs (Semnopithecus), with which they agree in their slender build, long limbs and tail, and complex stomachs, although differing by the rudimentary thumb.
It is the southernmost and lowest (1880 ft.) of a series of lakes which lie in what appears to be a north-easterly continuation of the great East African rift valley, although this loses its clearly marked character in about 3° N.
In 1822 the London Missionary Society appointed him superintendent of their South African stations.
He misjudged the character both of the colonists and of the natives, his cardinal mistake being in regarding the African as little removed from the European in intellect and capacity.
MARSHBUCK, a book-name proposed for such of the African bushbucks or harnessed antelopes as have abnormally long hoofs to support them in walking on marshy or swampy ground.
This is also the case with the ordinary Indian and African cottons.
The Territory is a member of the South African Customs Union.
The social condition of the people is higher than that of the majority of South African natives.
A book on national customs, the first work in the vernacular by a South African native, was published in 1893.
He was one of the rare instances among the Kaffirs of a leader endowed with intellectual gifts which placed him on a level with Europeans, and his life-work has left a permanent mark on South African history.
The completion in October 1905 of a railway putting Maseru in connexion with the South African railway system proved a great boon to the community.
P. Hillier, South African Studies (London, 1900); James Bryce, Impressions of South Africa (3rd ed., London, 1899).
Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on the Nest African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce.
During this period the revolt of the African prince Gildo was suppressed (398); Italy was successfully defended against Alaric, who was defeated at Pollentia (402) and Verona (403); and the barbarian hordes under the Goth Radagaisus were destroyed (406).
In 1899 another South African mission was started, ultimately locating itself at Mashukulumbwe, and a few years later work was begun in Southern Nigeria.
Bamboorats, of which one genus (Rhizomys) is Indian and Burmese, and the other (Tachyoryctes) East African, differ by the absence of skin over the eyes, the presence of short ears, and a short, sparsely-haired tail.
Saturninus now brought forward an agrarian law, an extension of the African law already alluded to.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
(1914), p. 1 59, ff.; (42) Harvard African Studies, II.; Boston Museum Bulletin, Feb.
In nonArabic-speaking countries it is known by other names, such as Indian or African millet, pearl millet, Guinea corn and Kaffir corn.
The Ptolemies supplied themselves with this arm from the southern coasts of the Red Sea, where they established stations for the capture and shipping of elephants, but the African variety was held inferior to the Indian.
GNU, the Hottentot name for the large white-tailed South African antelope, now nearly extinct, know to the Boers as the black wildebeest, and to naturalists as Connochaetes (or Catoblepas) gnu.
A second and larger species is the brindled gnu or blue wildebeest (C. taurinus or Catoblepas gorgon), also known by the Bechuana name kokon or kokoon; and there are several East African forms more or less closely related to the latter which have received distinct names.
Some zoologists, indeed, include in the same genus the South African thick-tailed hare, but by others this is separated as Pronolagus crassicaudatus.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
The foreign and colonial clubs which are affiliated to the Kennel Club are: the Guernsey Dog Club, the Italian Kennel Club, the Jersey Dog Club, La Societe Centrale (Paris), Moscow Gun Club of the Emperor Alexander II., New South Wales Kennel Club, Nimrod Club (Amsterdam), Northern Indian Kennel Association, Royal St Hubert's Society (Brussels) and the South African Kennel Club (Cape Town).
His services as an abolitionist pioneer are recorded in Clarkson's History of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade.
In December 1901 the mullah was, however, once more raiding in the neighbourhood of Burao, and in May Wars with 1902 Colonel Swayne led another expedition against the Mullah him, the Somali levies being strengthened by the 2nd Mahomme dKing's African Rifles, consisting of Yaos from Nyasa- Abdullah.
Manning, and small numbers of British and Boer mounted infantry, Indian and African troops were employed, while an Abyssinian force held the line of the Webi Shebeli.
Donaldson Smith, Through Unknown African Countries (London, 1897) V.
This excited the cupidity of his fellow-countrymen; and they fitted out a large number of ships for the trade, and built several forts on the African coast.
The African trade of England was long in the hands of exclusive companies; but by an act of the first year of William and Mary it became free and open to all subjects of the crown.
The African Company, however, continued to exist, and obtained from time to time large parliamentary grants.
22 The Spaniards were prevented from forming establishments on the African coast by the Bull of Demarcation (" Inter caetera ") of Pope Alexander VI.
On the 10th of June of the same year Fox brought forward a resolution " that effectual measures should be taken for the abolition of the African slave trade in such a manner and at such a period as should be deemed advisable," which was carried by a large majority.
In 1807 the African Institution was formed, with the primary objects of keeping a vigilant watch on the slave traders and procuring, if possible, the abolition of the slave trade by the other European nations.
That island, which had been ceded by France in 1810, three years after the abolition, had special facilities for escaping observation in consequence of the proximity of the African coast; but it was soon obliged to conform.
(3) There was for long a slave trade from the Portuguese possessions on the East African coast.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
in 5 vols., 1819); Thomas Clarkson, History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament (2 vols., 1808); T.
Fowell Buxton, African Slave Trade (2nd ed., 1838), and The Remedy, a Sequel (1840); Memoirs of Sir T.
For the African slave trade, and Egyptian and Turkish slavery, the Ismailia of Sir S.
Next we have the living African species, representing the subgenus Diceros, in which there are two horns but no front teeth.
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
Milner felt that only the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal would give stability to the South African situation.
Its seems certain that the African element has been holding its own in the population totals since emancipation.
At least as early as 1523 the African slave trade was begun.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
In both cases Turkey eventually yielded; a similar question arose in 1906 with France over the boundaries of the African possessions of the two countries.
AMBRIZ, a West African seaport belonging to Portugal, at the mouth of the Loje River, in 7° 50' S., 13° E., some 70 m.
" Lagos " rubber is the produce of the African rubber tree Funtumia elastica, which is indigenous to Africa from Uganda to W.
African (Ire or Irai or Lagos) rubber tree, which belongs to the Apocynaceae, a natural order which includes the Landolphia vines as well as other rubber producers.
African native name for a rubber tree - " Funtum."
Among these may be mentioned the Landolphia vines, which are still the chief source of African rubber.
Ellis, West African Islands (London, 1885), and the works cited under French Guinea.
In the organization of the African provinces Hadrumetum became a capital of the province of Byzacena.
Macgregor, sometime governor of Lagos, in the African Society's Journal, No.
The order of African missionaries thus founded, for which Lavigerie himself drew up the rule, has since become famous as the Peres Blanes.
It comprised the whole of the portion of the African continent known to the ancients, except Egypt and Ethiopia.
The best hypothesis in the writer's opinion is that maintained by Charles Tissot, who sees in the word " Africa " the name of the great Berber tribe, the Aourigha (whose name would have been pronounced Afarika), the modern Aouraghen, now driven back into the Sahara, but in ancient times the principal indigenous element of the African empire of Carthage (Tissot, Geogr.
African epigraphy has revealed the names of some of their deities: deus invictus Aulisva; the god Motmanius, associated with Mercury; the god Lilleus; Baldir Augustus; Kautus pater; the goddess Gilva, identified with Tellus, and Ifru Augustus (Tissot i.
The fine ruins which have been discovered at the last-mentioned place have earned for it the surname of the African.
African Lily >>
xiii., 1892; Koch, C., Die Arachniden (16 vols., Nuremberg, 1831-1848); Koch, Keyserling and Sorensen, Die Arachniden Australiens (Nuremberg, 1871-1890); Pocock, Arachnida of British India (London, 1900); Idem, " On African Arachnida," in Proc. Zool.
3) by name, and first referred to by the African poet Commodian about A.D.
To this group belong a number of tropical and especially South African genera such as Albuca, Urginea, Drimia, Lachenalia and others.
With the exception of certain South African species, foxes differ from wolves and jackals in that they do not associate in packs, but go about in pairs or are solitary.
famelicus), whose range extends apparently from Egypt and Somaliland through Palestine and Persia into Afghanistan, seems to form a connecting link between the more typical foxes and the small African species properly known as fennecs.
It was held that although generally speaking every sovereign may decide to whom he will accord the right to fly his flag, yet in this case such right was limited by the general act of the Brussels conference of July 1890 relative to the African slave trade, an act which was ratified by France on the 2nd of June 1892; that accordingly the owners and master of dhows who had been authorized by France to fly the French flag before the last-named date retained this authorization TABLE II.
RATEL, or Honey-Badger, the name of certain Indian and African small clumsy-looking creatures of about the size and appearance of badgers, representing the genus Mellivora in the family Mustelidae.
indica), and the African (M.
The two ratels may be distinguished by the fact that the African species has a distinct white line round the body at the junction of the grey of the upper side with the black of the lower, while in the Indian this line is absent; the teeth also of the former are larger, rounder and, heavier than those of the latter.
The introduction of African slaves followed closely upon the development of agricultural industries, and continued nominally until.
His first step was to introduce a regular government among his countrymen; his second, to send to the African coast one of his officers, who took possession of a Portuguese settlement, and thus secured a supply of slaves.
Durban is also in regular and frequent communication by passenger steamers with the other South African ports, as well as Mauritius, Zanzibar, &c., and with India, Australia, the United States and South America.
On this, the normal South African gauge, all the Natal railways, save a few 2-ft.
Bishop Colenso (q.v.), condemned in 1863 on a charge of heresy, ignored the authority of the court of South African bishops and was maintained in his position by decision of the Privy Council in England.
The question of a fairway from ocean to harbour has been a difficult one at nearly every port on the African coast.
The chief concern of the Natal government was to remodel their native policy where it proved inadequate, especially in view of the growth of the movement for the federation of the South African colonies.
3889 (1908); the Report of the South African Native Affairs' Commission, 1903-1905, Cd.
SURICATE, or MEERKAT (Suricata tetradactyla), a small South African mammal.
The country west of the Drakensberg, though part of the main South African tableland, is not uniform in character, consisting of (I) elevated downs, (2) their slopes, (3) the flat " bottom " land.
Thence issue many streams which in their way to the ocean have forced their way through the ranges of hills which mark the steps in the plateau, forming the narrow passes or poorts characteristic of South African scenery.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The South African Primary System includes a complex of rocks as yet little understood.
Of those born outside the Transvaal 2 4.6% came from other British possessions in Africa and 24.92% from Great Britain or British colonies other than African.
With the exception of a few purely local lines they are of the standard South African gauge-3 ft.
Of the imports about 50% comes from Great Britain and about 20% from British colonies (including other South African states).
In May 1903 an inter-colonial council was established to deal with the administration of the railways in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony (known as the Central South African railways), the South African constabulary and other matters common to the Orange River and Transvaal colonies.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
The rest of the province is policed by the South African constabulary, a body 3700 strong, to which is also entrusted customs preventive work, fire brigade work and such like functions.
The name " South African Republic " was adopted as the title of the state, and the new constitution made provision for a volksraad to which members were to be elected by the people for a period of two years, and in which the legislative function was vested.
He had no sooner left the Transvaal than the -old Lydenburg party, headed by Cornelis Potgieter, landdrost of Lydenburg, protested that the union would be much more beneficial to the Free State than to the people of Lydenburg, and followed this up with the contention lions' that it was illegal for any one to be president of the South African Republic and the Free State at the same time.
The immediate followers of Pretorius now became extremely incensed at the action of the Lydenburg party, and a mass meeting was held at Potchefstroom (October 1860), where it was resolved that: (a) the volksraad no longer enjoyed its confidence; (b) that Pretorius should remain president of the South African Republic, and have a year's leave of absence to bring about union with the Free State; (c) that Schoeman should act as president during the absence of Pretorius; (d) that before the return of Pretorius to resume his duties a new volksraad should be elected.
This territory was claimed by the South African Republic, by Barolong and Batlapin Bechuanas, by Koranas, and also by David Arnot, on behalf of the Griqua captain, Nicholas Waterboer.
O'Reilly, on behalf of the South African Republic, and John Campbell on behalf of the other claimants, with Lieutenant-Governor Keate of Natal as referee.
With this view they asked Mr (afterwards Sir John) Brand, president,, of the Free State, to allow them to nominate him for the presidency of the South African Republic. To this President Brand 1872.
On being directly appealed to by Kruger and Joubert, Gladstone however replied that the liberty which they sought might be " most easily and promptly conceded to the Transvaal as a member of a South African Confederation."
This, however, was not immediately available, and on the 13th of December the Boers in public meeting at Paardekraal resolved once more to proclaim the South African Republic, and in the meantime to appoint a triumvirate, consisting of Kruger, Pretorius and Joubert, as a provisional government.
Moreover, Kruger requested that the term " South African Republic " should be substituted for Transvaal State.
Article 4 stated: " The South African Republic will conclude no treaty or engagement with any state or nation, other than the Orange Free State, nor with any native tribe to the eastward or westward of the Republic, until the same has been approved by her Majesty the Queen."
14: " All persons, other than natives, conforming themselves to the laws of the South African Republic (a) will have full liberty, with their families, to enter, travel, or reside in any part of the South African Republic; (b) they will be entitled to hire or possess houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops and premises; (c) they may carry on their commerce either in person or by any agents whom they may think fit to employ; (d) they will not be subject, in respect of their persons or property, or in respect of their commerce or industry, to any taxes, whether general or local, other than those which are or may be imposed upon citizens of the said Republic."
The German consul at Pretoria at this j uncture as a volatile, sanguine man, with visionary ideas of the important part Germany was to play in the future as the patron and ally of the South African Republic, and of the extent to which the Bismarckian policy might go in abetting an anti-British campaign.
The franchise, again, was an internal affair, in which the convention gave Great Britain no right to interfere, while if Great Britain relied on certain definite breaches of the convention, satisfaction for which was sought in the first place in such a guarantee of amendment as the Uitlander franchise would involve, the Boer answer was an offer of arbitration, a course which Great Britain could not accept without admitting the South African Republic to the position of an equal.
- For the purposes of history the South African War may be conveniently divided into five distinct periods.
On the 30th of November the mobilization of a sixth division was ordered, offers of colonial aid were accepted, and every facility provided for local recruiting in the South African ports.
A wave of military enthusiasm arose throughout the empire, and as the formation of a seventh division practically drained the mother-country of trained men, a scheme for the employment of amateur soldiers was formulated, resulting in the despatch of Imperial Yeomanry and Volunteer contingents, which proved one of the most striking features of the South African campaign.
As a result of this conference articles of peace were signed at Pretoria on the 31st of May, and the South African war was a history of the past.
In this matter the Boer and British sections of the community were in agreement, and they had the support of the Transvaal government and of the other South African colonies.
Leo Weinthal), The Bawenda of the Spelonken (1908); Report on the Census of 1904 (Pretoria, 1906); Reports of the South African Assoc.; Annual Reports of the Transvaal Chamber of Mines (Johannesburg); L.
Buchan, The African Colony (Edinburgh, 1903); L.
P. Hillier, Raid and Reform (1898) and South African Studies (1900); Report of the Trial of the (Johannesburg) Reform Prisoners (1896); Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Jameson Raid, Blue-book (165) of 1897; Report of the Select Committee of the Cape Parliament on the Jameson Raid (Cape Town, 1896); Jameson Trial, Transcript from Shorthand Writers' Notes and Copies of Exhibits (2 vols., 1896); E.
In this category may be placed head-deformation, which reached its extreme development among the Indians of North-West America and the ancient Peruvians; foot-constriction as practised by the Chinese; tooth-chipping among many African tribes; and waist-compression common in Europe at the present day.
Sometimes, however, it was of matting or was seated with leather, or it would take the form of a narrow fringed girdle resembling that of many African tribes.
Terence was by birth an African, and was thus perhaps a fitter medium of connexion between the genius of Greece and that of Italy than if he had been a pure Greek or a pure Italian; just as in modern times the Jewish type of genius is sometimes found more detached from national peculiarities, and thus more capable of reproducing a cosmopolitan type of character than the genius of men belonging to other races.
There is a large admixture of African blood.
By treaty between the South African Republic (then comprising the districts of Potchefstroom, Rustenburg, Pretoria and Zoutpansberg) and the republic of Lydenburg, concluded at Pretoria in 1860, the two republics were united and Pretoria chosen as the capital of the whole state, and in September of that year the Volksraad held its first meeting in the new capital.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
Between the typical West African chimpanzee and the gorilla there is no difficulty in drawing a distinction; the difficulty comes in when we have to deal with the aberrant races, or species, of chimpanzee, some of which are so gorilla-like that it is by no means easy to determine to which group they really pertain.
President Kruger protested in vain against this annexation, Great Britain being determined to prevent another Power establishing itself on the south-east African seaboard.
and it is of the standard South African gauge.
An army of over io,000 men was raised for service in the East African campaign.
Kanchil and napu African Water Chevrotain (Dorcatherium aquaticum).
The second genus, Dorcatherium (or Hyomoschus), is African, and distinguished chiefly by the feet being stouter and shorter, the outer toes better developed, and the two middle metacarpals not welded together.
In the British African possessions the outlook for tobacco cultivation is in several instances favourable.
The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.
Its general type approaches more closely to the African than to that of southern Asia.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
In 1858 the district was united with the republic of Lydenburg, and in 1860, with Lydenburg, became part of the South African Republic. In 1903 it was, with the neighbouring district of Vryheid, annexed to Natal.
SPINY SQUIRREL, a book-name for a group of African ground squirrels, characterized by the spiny nature of the fur of the more typical forms. They form the genus Xerus, which is split up into a number of subgenera; Xerus rutilus of Abyssinia and East Africa belonging to the typical group, while the striped North African X.
In the oases of the Jerid are found several species of tropical African mammals and two or three of Senegalese birds, and the vegetation seems to have as much affinity with tropical Africa as with Europe.
In fact, the country between the Matmata highlands and the strait separating Jerba from the mainland is singularly African in the character and aspect of its flora.
On the other hand, the flora of the shat region, of the south-eastern littoral, and of the Kerkena islands opposite Sfax, is thoroughly Saharan, with a dash, as it were, in places of an African element.
The zorilla, another purely African species, is found in the south of Tunisia.
In the south of Tunisia, especially about the shats, the elephant-shrew (Macroscelides) is found, an animal of purely African affinities.
African Soc. (1903).
But from the fact that the bulk of the Tunisian population belongs to the Iberian section of the Berbers, and to this being no doubt the fundamental stock of most Italian peoples, the intermixture of the Italianized Berber with his African brother has not much affected the physique of the people, though it may have slightly tinged their mental characteristics.
The Latin element in Africa and the Christian faith almost disappeared in a single generation; 1 the Berbers of the [1 The North African Church was not utterly swept away by the Moslem conquest, though its numbers at that time were very greatly diminished, and thereafter fell gradually to vanishing point, partly by emigration to Europe.
For the North African Church after the Moslem conquest, see Migne, Pat.
The African and Asiatic elements furnish only about 2% each of the population.
All the heavy labour in the coast provinces was performed by them down to 1855, when African slavery was abolished.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
TSETSE-FLY (Tsetse, an English rendering of the Bantu nsi-nsi, a fly), a name applied indiscriminately to any one of the eight species of Glossina, a genus of African blood-sucking Diptera (two-winged flies, see Diptera), of the family Muscidae.
The African species use the nasal horns as weapons, with which they strike and toss their assailant, but the Asiatic rhinoceroses employ their sharp lower tusks much as does a boar.
- Black or common African Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros (Diceros) bicornis).
To the third group or genus (Diceros) belong the two African rhinoceroses, which have two horns, the skin without definite folds, and no lower tusks.
GAIUS MARIUS VICTORINUS (4th century A.D.), Roman grammarian, rhetorician and neo-Platonic philosopher, an African by birth (whence his surname Afer), lived during the reign of Constantius II.
Other monthlies are the Indian Magazine (1871); the Irish Monthly (Dublin, 1873); the Gaelic Journal (Dublin, 1882); the African Review (1892) and the Empire Review (1900).
South Africa The earliest magazine was the South African Journal, issued by the poet Pringle and John Fairbairn in 1824.
It was followed by the South African Quarterly Journal (1829-1834), the Cape of Good Hope Literary Gazette (1830-1833), edited by A.
The Eastern Province Magazine was issued at Port Elizabeth in 1861-1862, and the South African Magazine appeared in 1867-1868.
The weekly New Era (1904-1905) was succeeded by the South African Magazine (1906-1907); both were edited by C. H.
The African Monthly (Grahamstown, 1907) and the State of South Africa (Cape Town, 1909) are monthly reviews, while the South African Railway Magazine (1907) is of wider interest than its name denotes.
Mendelssohn, South African Bibliography (2 vols., 1910); and P. E.
They are the tropical American Elaps, the Indian Callophis, the African Poecilophis and the Australian Vermicella.
All the Viperidae are very poisonous and all, except the African Atractaspis, are viviparous.
Cornelius Fronto (c. Ioo-175), a native of Cirta, marks the beginning of an African influence.
The reaction was shortlived; but the same affectation of antiquity is seen in the writings of Apuleius, also an African, who lived a little later than Fronto and was a man of much greater natural parts.
His style shows the African revolt of which we have already spoken, and in its medley of archaisms, Graecisms and Hebraisms reveals the strength of the disintegrating forces at work upon the Latin language.
In the next century we have Velius Longus's treatise De Orthographia, and then a much more important work, the Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, and (c. 200) a treatise in verse by Terentianus, an African, upon Latin pronunciation, prosody and metre.
In Arum the blade is simple, as also in the so-called arum-lily (Richardia), a South African species common in Britain as a greenhouse plant, and in Caladium, a tropical South American genus, and Alocasia (tropical Asia), species of which are favourite warm-greenhouse plants on account of their variegated leaves.
Since 1887 the management of the town had been entrusted to a nominated sanitary board, under the chairmanship of the mining commissioner appointed by the South African Republic. In 1890 elected members had been admitted to this board, but at the end of 1897 an elective stadsraad (town council) was constituted, though its functions were strictly limited.
They also pushed their fortunes by fighting for, or murdering and supplanting, the native African princes.
Rhodesia produced £386,148 in 1900 and £722,656 in 1901, in spite of the South African War; the product for 1905 was valued at £1,480,449, and for 1908 at L2,526,000.
The departments of the Foreign Office are the African, American, commercial and sanitary, consular, eastern (Europe), far eastern, western (Europe), parliamentary, financial, librarian and keeper of the papers, treaties and registry.
Tertullian calls the creed the " token " which the African Church shares with the Roman (de Praescr.
36): " The Roman Church has made a common token with the African Churches, has recognized one God, creator of the universe, and Christ Jesus, of the Virgin Mary, Son of God the Creator, and the resurrection of the flesh."
We find " suffered " in the creed of Milan, " descended into hell " in the creed of Aquileia, the Danubian lands and Syria; the words " God " and " almighty " were shortly added to clause 7 in the Spanish creed; " life everlasting " had stood from an early date in the African creed.
Public monuments are few, but include a statue of Queen Victoria (1903) and a South African War memorial (1905) in front of the city hall; the Albert Memorial (1870), in the form of a clock-tower, in Queen Street; a monument to the same prince in High Street; and a statue in Wellington Place to Dr Henry Cooke, a prominent Presbyterian minister who died in 1868.
The Maltese joined the Spaniards in a disastrous raid against Gerbi on the African coast in 1432.
The African Arabs under Selim Pasha in 1551 ravaged Gozo, after an unsuccessful attempt on Malta, repulsed by cavalry under Upton, an English knight.
After the conquest of Egypt `Amr carried his conquests eastward along the North African coast as far as Barca and even Tripolis.
The surrounding region has been overrun by Arabs and Swahili from the East African coast.
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
The greater part of the trade with Tanganyika is done by the African Lakes Corporation by the Shire-Nyasa route, but the Germans have opened up overland routes from Dar-es-Salaam.
of the African coast, belonging to the Sicilian province of Trapani.
Their posts on the African coast were captured and New Amsterdam (now New York) taken.
The existence of the latter, which extends to the African continent, was announced by Sir Wyville Thomson in 1876 as a result of his discussion of the deep-sea temperature observations of the " Challenger " expedition, though the fact was not confirmed by soundings until many years later.
The North African Basin has several deeps with more than 3300 fathoms to the northwest and the south-west of the Cape Verde Islands, but the South African Basin is less deep. In the South Atlantic there is no connexion between the Central Rise and the Antarctic Shelf, for the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin stretches from near the South Sandwich Islands towards Kerguelen with depths exceeding 2500 fathoms and reaching in places 3100.
With this mention Prester John ceases to have any pretension to historical existence in Asia (for we need not turn aside to Mandeville's fabulous revival of old stories or to the barefaced fictions of his contemporary, John of Hese, which bring in the old tales of the miraculous body of St Thomas), and his connexion with that quarter of the world gradually died out of the memory of Europe.(fn 3) When next we begin to hear his name it is as an African, not as an Asiatic prince; and the personage so styled is in fact the Christian king of Abyssinia.
154 seq.), we have an evident jumble in the writer's mind between the Asiatic and the African location of Prester John; among other matters it is stated that Prester John and the Nubians dug a chapel out of the rock under Calvary in honour of the three kings: "et vocatur illa capella in partibus illis capella Nubiyanorum ad reges in praesentem diem, sed Sarracini..
Although now exclusively African, the family (of which all the representatives may be included in the single genus Hippopotamus, with several subgeneric groups) is represented in the Pliocene of Europe and the Lower Pliocene of northern India.
GERMAN EAST AFRICA, a country occupying the eastcentral portion of the African continent.
The western frontier coincides with part of the eastern wall of another depression, the Central African or Albertine rift-valley, in which lie Tanganyika, Kivu and other lakes.
When at the beginning of the 16th century the Portuguese obtained possession of the towns along the East African coast, they had been, for periods extending in some cases fully five hundred years, under Arab dominion.
Although disposed at first to divide the various documents into three classes, he finally adopted a classification into two - the African or older family of documents, and the Asiatic, or more recent class, to which he attached only a subordinate value.
Government Avenue contains, on the east side, the Houses of Parliament, government house, a modernized Dutch building, and the Jewish synagogue; on the west side are the Anglican cathedral and grammar schools, the public library, botanic gardens, the museum and South African college.
Busoga and the western part of the Elgon district in this province have a regular West African climate - hot, moist and not over-healthy.
Its greatest altitude - the Duke of the Abruzzi's Mt Stanley (Margherita Peak) - is 16,816 ft., and therefore the third highest point on the African continent.
Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.
Busoga and the Elgon district the flora is very West African in character.
The fauna also has many West African affinities in the hot, forested regions.
In the Kisumu province of East Africa even, there are several West African mammals such as the broad-horned tragelaph and the forest pig.
As a rule, however, the fauna of the Upper Semliki valley, of parts of Ankole, Buganda and Unyoro, of the Northern, Rudolf and Eastern provinces, is of that " East African," " Ethiopic " character which is specially the feature of South and East Africa and of the Sudan right across from Abyssinia to the river Senegal.
The birds are more West African than the mammals, and include the grey parrot, all the genera of the splendidly-coloured turacoes, the unique " whale-headed stork," and the ostrich.
The languages spoken in the Uganda Protectorate belong to the following stocks: (1) Hamitic (Murle and Rendile of Lake Rudolf); (2) Masai (Bari, Elgumi, Turkana, Suk, &c.); (2a) Sabei, on the northern slopes of Elgon and on Mt Debasien; (2b) Nilotic (Acholi, Aluru, Gang, &c.); (3) Madi (spoken on the Nile between Aluru and Bari, really of West African affinities); (4) Bantu (Lu-ganda, Runyoro, Lu-konjo, Kuamba, Lihuku, the Masaba languages of west Elgon and Kavirondo, &c.); and lastly, the unclassified, isolated Lendu and Mbuba spoken by some of the pigmy-prognathous peoples.
Appeals for help were sent to Frederick John Jackson (subsequently lieutenant-governor of British East Africa), who had arrived on the east of the lake with a caravan of some Soo rifles, sent by the newly-formed East African Chartered Company.
Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire (1893); G.
Ansorge, Under the African Sun (1899); Count Teleki and Lieut.
Thruston, African Incidents (2900); J.
Austin, With Macdonald in Uganda (1903) and Among Swamps and Giants in Equatorial Africa (1902); Winston Churchill, My African Journey (1908); Bishop Tucker, Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa (1908); articles on ethnology by the Rev. H.
MEALIE, the South African name for Indian corn or maize.
To these he also adds the genus Promerops, 3 composed of 2 species of South African birds, of very different appearance, whose affinity to the rest can as yet hardly be taken as proved.
In the South African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30° right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round laying could really satisfy the requirements.
He was a lifelong advocate of international peace, and made a remarkable declaration as to the Christian standard of national action when the Free Church Federation met at Leeds during the South African War in 1900.
In contrast with the splendid fertility of Valencia or the south of France, the landscape of this region, like the rest of central Spain, seems almost a continuation of the north African desert area.
In the following year several African synods, held under the influence of Maximus, declared for orthodoxy.
The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic;'group. They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations of species and races.
The first group, or Tragelaphinae, is represented by the African elands (Taurotragus), bongo (Boocercus), kudus (Strepsiceros) and bushbucks or harnessed antelopes (Tragelaphus), and the Indian nilgai (Boselaphus).
The South African blauwbok (H.
In the South African gemsbuck (Oryx gazella), fig.
3, the East African beisa or true oryx (0.
beatrix) the horns are straight, but in the North African white oryx or algazel (0.
The one to which the North African G.
In the group represented by the African G.
The South African springbuck (Antidorcas euchore) is nearly related to the gazelles, from which it is distinguished by the presence on the middle line of the loins of an evertible pouch, lined with long white hairs capable of erection.
The East African gerenuk, or Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), of which two races have been named, is a very remarkable ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly elongated neck and limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form of the very massive horns of the bucks, the dense structure and straight profile of the skull, and the extreme slenderness of the lower jaw.
A still more aberrant gazelle is a small North-East African species known as the beira (Dorcatragus melanotis), with very short horns, large hoofs and a general appearance recalling that of some of the members of the subfamily Neotraginae, although in other respects gazelle-like.
With the palla, or impala(A epyceros melampus), we reach an exclusively African genus, characterized by the lyrate horns of the bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, and the presence of a pair of glands with black tufts of hair on the hind-feet.
The Neotraginae (or Nanotraginae) form an exclusively African group of small-sized antelopes divided into several, for the most part nearly related, genera.
pygmaeus) of Guinea; Hylarnus includes one species from Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest; while Nesotragus comprises the East African suni antelopes, N.
In size and several structural features it approximates to the more typical Cervicaprinae, as represented by the reedbuck (Cervicapra), and the waterbucks and kobs (Cobus or Kobus), all of which are likewise African.
Of the smaller forms or kobs, C. maria and C. leucotis of the swamps of the White Nile are characterized by the black coats of the adult bucks; the West African C. cob, and its East African representative C. thomasi, are wholly red antelopes of the size of i?(/> FIG.
The last section of the true antelopes is the Bubalinae, represented by the hartebeest, Bubalis, blesbok and sassaby (Damaliscus), and the gnu or wildebeest (Connochaetes, also called Catoblepas), all being African with the exception of one or two hartebeests which range into Syria.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.
SCILLITAN MARTYRS, a company of early North African Christians who suffered under Marcus Aurelius in A.D.
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
KUDU (koodoo), the native name for a large species of African antelope, with large corkscrew-like horns in the male, Male Kudu.
Italy had long shown designs on Tripoli, the remaining African province of the Ottoman Empire.
IVORY COAST (Cote d'Ivoire), a French West African colony, bounded S.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
The northern boundary was fixed in 1899 on the division of the middle Niger territories (up to that date officially called the French Sudan) among the other French West African colonies.
New colonies, however, seem to have followed from time to time, and, according to the Periplus (§ 16), some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the Sabaeo-Himyaritic period; the district of Azania was held for the Sabaean monarch by the governor of Maphoritis (Ma`afir), and was exploited by a Sabaean company.
The railways are state owned and of the standard South African gauge-3 ft.
The African Methodist Episcopal (Ethiopian) Church had 4110 members, of whom only two were whites.
At the time of the first annexation of the Transvaal the Free State declined Lord Carnarvon's invitation to federate with the other South African communities.
The deputation also urged the Transvaal to join the South African Customs Union.
These decisions were the result of an agreement to bring before the parliaments of the various colonies a resolution advocating the closer union of the South African states and the appointment of delegates to a national convention to frame a draft constitution.
The experiences of his African journey were recorded by Mr Roosevelt in a volume entitled African Game Trails: The Wanderings of an American Hunter Naturalist.
His African Game Trails, the record of his scientific hunting expedition in Africa in 1909-10, is much more than a narrative of adventures on a wild continent.
The volume of his African and European addresses, published in the autumn of 1910, not only presents an epitome of his political philosophy, but discloses the wide range of his interest in life and the methods by which he had striven to bring public opinion to his point of view.
Clowes; The Rough Riders (1899); Oliver Cromwell (1901); the following works on hunting and natural history, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman (1886), Ranch Life and Hunting Trail (1888), The Wilderness Hunter (1893), Big Game Hunting in the Rockies and on the Plains (1899; a republication of Hinting Trips of a Ranchman and The Wilderness Hunter), The Deer Family (1902), with other authors, and African Game Trails (1910); and the essays, American Ideals (2 vols., 1897) and The Strenuous Life (1900); and State Papers and Addresses (1905) and African and European Addresses (1910).
It is still more at variance with the facts in these days when a few great states predominate, and when the contact of western states with African and Asiatic states or communities gives rise to relations of dependence falling short of conquest.
- The status of certain states, such as Bulgaria and Rumania and the late South African Republic, were peculiar.
544) A closely allied species, Piper Clusii, produces the African cubebs or West African black-pepper, the berry of which is smoother than that of common cubebs and usually has a curved pedicel.
But if the South African War proved more The serious than had been anticipated, it did more to weld the empire together than years of peaceful last year.
He has been called the African Varro.
In the South African War of1899-1902it was even suggested that female nurses should replace orderlies at the front.
SAMUEL ADJAI CROWTHER (1809?-1891), African missionary-bishop, was born at Ochugu in the Yoruba country, 1 The duchy of Lancaster, which was the private property of Henry IV.
(3) African bdellium is from B.
Sayce has found graffiti concerning him, and prescriptions exist for consulting Besas in dreams. It has been held that Bes was of non-Egyptian origin, African, as Wiedemann, or Arabian or even Babylonian, as W.
the African coast of the Red Sea; his effigy occurs also on Greek coins of Arabia.
African War, 1899; he was reelected, however, in 1900 and in 1904.
Thus, the Lent lily is Narcissus Pseudonarcissus; the African lily is Agapanthus umbellatus; the Belladonna lily is Amaryllis Belladonna (q.v.); the Jacobaea lily is Sprekelia formosissima; the Mariposa lily is Calochortus; the lily of the Incas is Alstroemeria pelegrina; St Bernard's lily is Anthericum Liliago; St Bruno's lily is Anthericum (or Paradisia) Liliastrum; the water lily is Nymphaea alba; the Arum lily is Richardia africana; and there are many others.
This other evidence consists partly of letters from Nestorius, preserved among the works of those to whom they were written, some sermons collected in a Latin translation by Marius Mercator, an African merchant who was doing business in Constantinople at the time of the dispute, and,other material gathered from Syriac manuscripts.
Among other important conferences in which Lambermont took a leading part were those of Brussels (1874) on the usages of war, Berlin (1884-1885) on Africa and the Congo region, and Brussels (1890) on Central African Affairs and the Slave Trade.
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.
In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
3 It is right to state, however, that the African examples of this bird are said to be distinguishable from the Asiatic by their somewhat shorter wings and weaker bill, and hence they are considered by some authorities to form a distinct species or subspecies, P. docilis; but in thus regarding them the difference of locality seems to have influenced opinion, and without that difference they would scarcely have been separated, for in many other groups of birds distinctions so slight are regarded as barely evidence of local races.
The grounds are beautifully laid out and the collection is particularly rich in African animals, to which the climate is well adapted.
The nearest equivalent in the ancient Church was the local and temporary African practice of restoring lapsed Christians to communion at the intercession of confessors and prospective martyrs in prison.
Algeria had in 1906 a population of 5,231,850, consisting of a medley of European, Eastern and African races.
The purely " African " Jew is now found only in the oases in the extreme south of the country.
The capitals of the columns have disappeared, but their design is preserved among the drawings of James Bruce, the African traveller.
Both historically and geographically, Africa Minor belongs much more to the Mediterranean world than to the African.
Of Branchiopsyllus (Sars, 1897) the male is not yet known, but in his genera of the same date, the Siberian Artemiopsis and the South African Branchipodopsis (1898), there is no such appendage.
We can distinguish two main types, African and European.
The African version is best represented in the gospels by cod.
It is still a disputed point whether Tertullian's quotations may be regarded as evidence for a Latin version or as independent translations from the Greek, nor is it certain that this version is African in an exclusive sense; it was undoubtedly used in Africa and there is no evidence that it was known elsewhere originally, but on the other hand there is no proof that it was not.
The main problem in connexion with the history of the African and European versions is whether they were originally one or two.
If one of the two is the original it is probably the African, for which there is older evidence, and of which the style both in reading and rendering seems purer.
or versions, but it may be said with some truth that group 2 used the European Latin version, group 3 the African Latin, and group 6 the Diatessaron in the gospels and the Old Syriac elsewhere, while group I has much in common with cod.
For the first time an attempt was made to group the MSS., which were divided into African and Asiatic. The former group contained the few old MSS., the latter the many late MSS., and preference was given to the African.
Semler (who in 1764 reprinted Wetstein's Prolegomena, and in comments of his own took over and expounded Bengel's views), collated many MSS., and distinguished three main groups: - the Alexandrian or Origenian (which roughly corresponded to Bengel's African), found in Abcl, the Egyptian version and Origen; the Western, found in D and Latin authorities; and the Constantinopolitan (Bengel's Asiatic), found in the later MSS.
The Old Latin, if we take the African form as the oldest, as compared with the Neutral text has a series of interpolations and a series of omissions.
In all essentials they agree with the African type: such variations as there are, for example, the more developed eyebrow ridges, narrower, often prominent nose, and somewhat higher narrower skull, obviously owing their existence to crossing with the Malay or the Polynesian races.
Whether the two families have a common ancestor in the negritos of Malaysia and the Indian archipelago, or whether Papuan and Negrito are alike branches of an aboriginal African race, is a problem yet to be solved.
During the South African crisis of 1899-1902 he was specially vehement in opposition to Mr Chamberlain, and took the "pro-Boer" side so bitterly that he was mobbed in Birmingham during the 1900 election when he attempted to address a meeting at the Town Hall.
A second group is formed by the few American Xantusiidae, the numerous American Tejidae, and the burrowing, degraded American and African Amphisbaenidae.
A third group comprises the cosmopolitan Scincidae, the African and Malagasy Gerrhosauridae which in various features remind us of the Anguidae, and the African and Eurasian Lacertidae which are the highest members of this group. Anelytropidae and perhaps also Dibamidae may be degraded Scincoids.
hardwicki) is mainly herbivorous; the African U.
Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.
African leopards, again, to one of which the name F.
p. leopardus is applicable, show a decided tendency to a breaking-up of the spots; West African animals being much darker-coloured than those from the east side of the continent.
Settegast, Halle, 1881) based on the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the commentaries of Caesar (on the Civil War) and his continuators (on the Alexandrine, African and Spanish wars).
member of the South African Customs Union.
In 1891 the South African Customs Union was extended to British Bechuanaland, and in 1895 the country was annexed to Cape Colony.
Pratt's Leading Points in South African History (London, 1900); and Cecil Rhodes, His Political Life and Speeches, by Vindex (London, 1900).
Added to this, in many works on the subject we find reliance placed, especially for the African facts, on reports of travellers who were merely visitors to the regions on which they wrote.
In 1894 (Sir) David Bruce discovered the celebrated South African parasite (T.
The other variety is met with along the White Nile, in Lower Egypt, and at various points on the African coast of the Mediterranean.
Cyprian (Ep. 63) affirms (c. 250) that his predecessors on the throne of Carthage had used water, and that many African bishops continued to do so, " out of ignorance," he says, " and simplemindedness, and God would forgive them."
by the African Montanists in the 2nd century.
Similar doubts have also been entertained with regard to the African bush-pigs or river-hogs, but from geographical considerations alone these are but regarded as representing a separate genus, Potamochoerus, although they are nearly allied to the verrucosus group of Sus.
In the African wart-hogs (Phacochoerus), which take their name from the large warty lobes projecting from each side of the face, the teeth are remarkably modified.
The outbreak of the South African war in 1899 furnished an occasion for a practical display of Canadian loyalty to imperial interests.
1797), the hydrographer; Malcolm Laing (1762-1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms; Mary Brunton (1778-1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels; Samuel Laing (1780-1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway; Thomas Stewart Traill (1781-1862), professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Samuel Laing (1812-1897), chairman of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile; Dr John Rae (1813-1893), the Arctic explorer; and William Balfour Baikie (1825-1864), the African traveller.
The elements of this Christian Latin language may be enumerated as follows: - (i.) it had its origin, not in the literary language of Rome as developed by Cicero, but in the language of the people as we find it in Plautus and Terence; (ii.) it has an African complexion; (iii.) it is strongly influenced by Greek, particularly through the Latin translation of the Septuagint and of the New Testament, besides being sprinkled with a large number of Greek words derived from the Scriptures or from the Greek liturgies; (iv.) it bears the stamp of the Gnostic style and contains also some military expressions; (v.) it owes something to the original creative power of Tertullian.
The only other monument - a South African War memorial - is outside and almost opposite Peel Park.
SPRINGBUCK, or Springbok (Antidorcas euchore), an aberrant South African gazelle inhabiting the country south of the Zambezi, but ranging north-westwards to Mossamedes.
Mommsen thinks that he had incurred the displeasure of Augustus by his conduct as praetor, and that his African appointment after so many years was due to his exceptional fitness for the post.
In 18 951896 he examined part of the African coast of the Red Sea, finding there the ruins of a very ancient gold-mine and traces of what he considered Sabean influence.
COMORO ISLANDS, a group of volcanic islands belonging to France, in the Indian Ocean, at the northern entrance of the Mozambique Channel midway between Madagascar and the African continent.
Of African species, the Egyptian Hare (L.
It is the residence of the commissioner of the protectorate and the headquarters of the Somaliland battalion of the King's African Rifles.
African coast, lying between the Syrtis Major and Marmarica, the western limit being Arae Philaenorum, and the eastern a vague line drawn inland from the head of the gulf of Platea (Bomba).
The second genus, Heliosciurus, includes arboreal African squirrels, typified by H.
pyrrhopus is a well-known example, is also African and allied to Xerus, but has a still longer skull and soft fur.
- The next section, according to Prof. Max Weber's arrangement, is that of the Anomaluroidea, typified by the rodents commonly called African flying-squirrels (Anomaluridae), but better designated scale-tailed squirrels, or simply "scaly-tails," since one member of the family has no parachute.
Winge affiliates the African jumping-hares.
Idiurus, as represented by the West African I.
The grounds for referring the African jumpinghares (Pedetidae) to the Anomaluroidea rest largely on the evidence of certain Tertiary rodents from Europe, such as Issiodoromys.
The family is represented by the South African Pedetes caller, which is as large as a hare, and the smaller East African P. surdaster.
avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.
Alactaga, ranging over Russia and Western and Central Asia, inclusive of Persia and Baluchistan, has smaller ears and a shorter nose; by some naturalists it is taken to include the North African A.
In the bamboo-rats, Rhizomys, from the Indo-Malay countries, China and Tibet, as well as in the closely allied East African Tachyoryctes, the eyes are, however, functional, and the head is rounded.
A distinct sub-family, Lophiomyinae, is represented by the Central African arboreal spiny rats, Lophiomys, of which there are two or three species.
- African Spiny Rat (Lophiomys imhausi).
Among other important genera Cricetomys and Eosaccomys (both African) stand apart by the possession of cheek-pouches: C. gambianus being a very large species.
Dasymys is an allied African genus; while Arvicanthis includes the African striped mice.
The large-eared African Otomys and the allied Oreomys (Oreinomys), often made the type of a distinct sub-family, may be included in this section; as well as the small African tree-mice, Dendromys, allied to which is Deomys, peculiar in the circumstance that only the first molar has three rows of cusps, the other two having only a couple of such rows, as in cricetines.
Other allied African genera are Steatomys and Lophuromys, which include several species of small mouse-like rodents, with the habits of dormice generally, though some burrow in cornfields.
Gerbillus (or Tatera), with a large number of species, has a range coextensive with that of the sub-family; Pachyuromys, with two African species, has a short club-shaped tail and enormous auditory bullae; while the remaining members of the group, which are confined to North Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia, are arranged in the genera Meriones, Psainmomys and Rhombomys, the latter represented only by R.
All the Bathyergidae are African, and adapted to a burrowing life, having minute ears and eyes, a short tail and the thumb armed with a large claw.
The three remaining families of the Hystricoidea, of which one is African while the other two are chiefly South American, are very closely allied and often brigaded in a single family group. In the Capromyidae, which includes only the South American and West Indian hutias, the South American coypu and the African cane-rats, the tympanic bulla of the skull is hollow, the par-occipital process straight, the lachrymal small, and the cheekteeth rooted, with deep enamel-folds; the first front toe Leing occasionally absent.
The African cane-rats, Thryonomys, are large terrestrial rodents, ranging from the centre of the continent to the Cape, easily recognized by their deeply fluted incisors.
The North African gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi and Ct.
vali) are the types of an African family, which also includes the genera Massoutiera, Pectinator and Petromys.
Certain resins are obtained in a fossilized condition, amber being the most notable instance of this class; African copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are also procured in a semi-fossil condition.
Where an intending borrower breaks his agreement to borrow, specific performance will not be granted, and the damages recoverable must be measured by the loss sustained through the breach and not by the sum agreed to be lent (The South African Territories, Limited v.
These diplomatic successes were probably due to Maio; on the other hand, the African dominions were lost to the Almohads (1156-1160), and it is possible that he advised their abandonment in face of the dangers threatening the kingdom down from the north.
In matters of general interest it has frequently called conferences to which the minor states have been invited, such as the West African Conference in Berlin in 1885, and the Anti-Slavery Conference at Brussels in 1889-1890, and the Conference of Algeciras in 1906.
Whatever value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the British race should have founded practically independent states like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand.
The first of a comprehensive character was the general act adopted at the South African Conference at Berlin in 1885, which laid down the principle, which has since become of still wider application, that " any Power which henceforth takes possession of a tract of land on the coast of the African continent outside of its present possessions or which, being hitherto without such possessions, shall acquire them ...
Like most of the South African bays it does not afford good anchorage.
Thus a West African native who wants a suhman takes a rudely-cut wooden image or a stone, a root of a plant, or some red earth placed in a pan, and then he calls on a spirit of Sasabonsum ("a genus of deities, every member of which possesses identical characteristics") to enter the object prepared, promising it offerings and worship. If a spirit consents to take up its residence in the object, a low hissing sound is heard, and the suhman is complete.
Kingsley, West African Studies (London, 1901), and Notes on the Folklore of the Fjort (London, 1898); W.
The new prime minister came into power practically at the same moment as the king's coronation (see Edward Vii.) and the end of the South African War '(see' Transvaal).
The earliest African tradition, on the other hand, preserved by Tertullian l (De pudicitia, c. 20), but certainly not invented by him, ascribed the epistle to Barnabas.
HYRACOIDEA, a suborder of ungulate mammals represented at the present day only by the Syrian hyrax (Procavia syriaca), the "coney" of the Bible, and its numerous African relatives, all of which may be included in the single genus Procavia (or Hyrax), and consequently in the family Procaviidae.
After Cyprian the African episcopate, in proportion as it perfected its organization, seemed to feel less and less the need for close relations with the apostolic see.
In the 4th century the Donatist party was in open schism; the orthodox party had the upper hand in the time of Aurelius and Augustine; the regular meeting of the councils further increased the corporate cohesion of the African Episcopal body.
The progress of these African Mussulmans into Spain and their incessant piracies in Italy were perhaps the occasional cause that determined Urban II.
In 1882 he was elected to parliament and proved an active worker on committees, speaking frequently and well on foreign and colonial affairs, railway, agricultural, social and fiscal problems. In 1891, as member of the committee of inquiry on Eritrea, he opposed the African policy of both the Crispi and the Rudini Cabinets.
in length, sent mainly to the South African market.
Limonite often forms a cementing medium in ferruginous sands and gravels, forming "pan"; and in like manner it is the agglutinating agent in many conglomerates, like the South African "banket," where it is auriferous.
Lixus in Mauretania, Gades and Utica, are said to have been founded, one after the other, as far back as the 12th century B.C. Most of the African colonies were no doubt younger; we have traditional dates for Aoza (887-855) and Carthage (813).
The Hemimeridae include the single genus Hemimerus, which contains only two species of curious wingless insects with long, jointed cerci, found among the hair of certain West African rodents.
The fauna comprises nearly all the more remarkable of African animals.
who equipped two galleys and sailed south along the African coast in 1291.
has an introduction on the early history of African exploration, &c. with full bibliographical notes).