Africa Sentence Examples
It is as much Asia or Africa as New England.
I've never been to Europe, or Africa, or anywhere yet.
Crops native to Africa are not the staples of the world.
Although in late Tertiary times widely spread over southern Europe and India, giraffes are now confined to Africa south of the Sahara.
In Africa they were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily.Advertisement
Of the Sarcopsyllidae the best known species is the "jigger" or "chigoe" (Dermatophilus penetrans), indigenous in tropical South America and introduced into West Africa during the second half of last century.
Not improbably this country was either "Gondwana-land," connecting Mesozoic India with Africa, or perhaps Africa itself.
Malta and Gozo are the only islands of the Mediterranean which can be associated with this section, and, per contra, the mountain chain of north-west Africa belongs to Eurasia.
Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa is a contributing factor in any number of conflicts there.
In Africa the name of flying-squirrel is applied to the members of a very different family of rodents, the Anomaluridae, which are provided with a parachute.Advertisement
In 2000, Africa had fewer than five million Internet users.
The principal rivers entering the Mediterranean directly are the Nile from Africa, and the Po, Rhone and Ebro from Europe.
Between 1130 and his death in 1163, `Abd-el-Mumin not only rooted out the Murabtis, but extended his power over all northern Africa as far as Egypt, becoming amir of Morocco in 1149.
Of wild animals may be noted the moufflon (Ovis Ammon), the stag, and the wild boar, and among birds various species of the vulture and eagle in the mountains, and the pelican and flamingo (the latter coming in August in large flocks from Africa) in the lagoons.
Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the latter being an importation from the East.Advertisement
In Africa, most genetically engineered crops that could grow well there are not welcome.
This is especially unfortunate because a major crop in Africa, grain sorghum, has a somewhat indigestible protein which our bodies have a hard time metabolizing.
In Asia they gave rise to the elephants, while they themselves originated in Africa from ungulates of more normal type.
In 112 he was one of the commissioners sent to Africa to arrange the dispute between Jugurtha and Adherbal.
Among agricultural tribes in Africa one day of the week, which varies from place to place, is often a rest-day, visiting the market being the only work allowed.Advertisement
It was classed with Sicily and Africa as one of the main sources of the corn-supply of Rome.
The classic term "camelopard," probably introduced when these animals were brought from North Africa to the Roman amphitheatre, has fallen into complete disuse.
The oaks are widely distributed over the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America.
The banded duiker (C. doriae) from West Africa is golden brown with black transverse bands on the back and loins.
In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.Advertisement
The first book also relates his conquests in Italy, Africa, Syria and Asia Minor; his return to Macedonia and the submission of Greece.
In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South America in the same latitudes.
He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were peopled from one common stock.
In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon.
C. sylvicultor, of West Africa, is the largest species, and approaches a donkey in size.
Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.
For him it was no new conviction that his presence in any part of the world, from Africa to the steppes of Muscovy alike, was enough to dumfound people and impel them to insane self-oblivion.
The foreign missionary work of the General Assembly had been carried on after 1812 through the (Congregational) American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (organized in 1810) until the separation of 1837, when the Old School Assembly established its own board of foreign missions; the New School continued to work through the American board; after the union of 1869 the separate board was perpetuated and the American board transferred to it, with the contributions made to the American board by the New School churches, the missions in Africa (1833), in Syria (1822), and in Persia (1835).
The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.
Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.
The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these primitive types.
The fauna resembles that of other parts of West Africa; it is poor on the coast.
In 1906 the combined exports had risen to 362 bales, including a little from German East Africa.
At the time that "the scramble for Africa" began, the narrow strip of coast over which the king of Togo ruled was the sole district between the Gambia and the Niger to which Great Britain, France or some other civilized power had not a claim.
It is chiefly found in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa, but has also been met with in South Carolina and several of the West Indian islands.
Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Valens the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples of whom we now hear for the first time - Burgundians, Saxons, Alamanni.
In Africa the Moorish prince, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Count Romanus, the military governor.
He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.
They made Milan their home; and the empire was nominally divided between them, Gratian taking the trans-Alpine provinces, whilst Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina.
In 1893 a contract was made with the Eastern and South Africa Telegraph Company for the construction, laying and maintenance of a cable from Zanzibar to the Seychelles and Mauritius, a distance of 2210 m., for a subsidy of £28,000 a year for twenty years.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
It was conveniently situated opposite to the Carthaginian territory in Africa, and was early noted for its harbour.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
These canons were always repudiated in the East, and when, sixty years afterwards, they were, for the first time, heard of in Africa, they were repudiated there also.
In Africa in the beginning of the 5th century Apiarius, a priest who had been deposed by the bishop of Sicca for immorality, and whose deposition had been affirmed by the " provincial synod," instead of further appealing to a general synod of Africa, carried his appeal to Pope Zosimus.
The pope received the appeal, absolved him and restored him to the rank of priest, and sent a bishop and two priests as legates to Africa with instructions to them to hear the cause of Apiarius anew and for execution of their sentence to crave the prefect's aid; moreover, they were to summon the bishop of Sicca to Rome and to excommunicate him, unless he should amend those things which the legates deemed wrong.
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
It is a native of North Africa and Western and Central Asia, including North-West India.
SouTH TEMPERATE REGI0N.This occupies widely separated areas in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and South America.
It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.
Extensions of the flora occur southwards of the high mountains of tropical Africa; A denocaf pus, a characteristic Mediterranean genus, has been found on Kilimanjaro and 2000 m.
Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
A peculiar feature in which tropical Africa stands alone is that at least one-fifth and probably more of the species are common to both sides of the continent and presumably stretch right across it.
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
Hemsley remarks that the northerr genus Erica, which covers thousands of square miles in Europe with very few species, is represented by hundreds of species in I comparatively small area in South Africa.
On the eastern side the southern flora finds representatives in Abyssinia, including Protea, and on the mountains of equatorial Africa, Calodendron capense occurring on Kilimanjaro.
South Africa has only two palms (Phoenix and Hyphaene).
They are linked together by the presence of Proteaceae and of Epacrideae, which take the place of the nearly allied heaths in South Africa.
On the other hand, it is the headquarters of Mutisiaceae, represented in South Africa by such genera as Oldenburgia and Gerbera and by Triehocline in Australia.
He also pointed out reasons for accepting a division of the land into three continents - Europe, Asia and Africa.
His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.
Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
His monumental Vergleichende Geographie, which was to have made the whole world its theme, died out in a wilderness of detail in twenty-one volumes before it had covered more of the earth's surface than Asia and a portion of Africa.
The western emporium known in the scriptures as Tarshish was probably situated in the south of Spain, possibly at Cadiz, although some writers contend that it was Carthage in North Africa.
Still more diversity of opinion prevails as to the southern gold-exporting port of Ophir, which some scholars place in Arabia, others at one or another point on the east coast of Africa.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
The most celebrated voyage of antiquity undertaken for the express purpose of discovery was that fitted out by the senate of Carthage under the command of Hanno, with the intention of founding new colonies along the west coast of Africa.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
The Ptolemies continued to send fleets annually from their Red Sea ports of Berenice and Myos Hormus to Arabia, as well as to ports on the coasts of Africa and India.
But it was the military genius of Rome, and the ambition for universal empire, which led, not only to the discovery, but also to the survey of nearly all Europe, and of large tracts in Asia and Africa.
In Africa their empire included Egypt, Carthage, Numidia and Mauritania.
The great westward projection of the coast of Africa, and the islands to the north-west of that continent, were the principal scene of the work of the mariners sent out at his expense; but his object was to push onward and reach India from the Atlantic. The progress of discovery received a check on his death, but only for a time.
Diaz succeeded in rounding the southern point of Africa, which he named Cabo Tormentoso - the Cape of Storms - but King Joao II., foreseeing the realization of the long-sought passage to India, gave it the stimulating and enduring name of the Cape of Good Hope.
The Portuguese also established a close connexion with the kingdom of Congo on the west side of Africa, and obtained much information respecting the interior of the continent.
The most valuable work on Africa about this time is, however, that written by the Moor Leo Africanus in the early part of the 16th century.
At the pope's desire he translated his work on Africa into Italian.
The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
James Bruce of Kinnaird, the contemporary of Niebuhr, was equally devoted to Eastern travel; and his principal geographical Africa .
The association first employed John Ledyard (who had previously made an extraordinary journey into Siberia) to cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, and William Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan.
Five years later he accepted an offer from the government to command an expedition into the interior of Africa, the plan being to cross from the Gambia to the Niger and descend the latter river to the sea.
South America and North America follow this type most closely; Eurasia (the land mass of Europe and Asia) comes next, while Africa and Australia are farther removed from the type, and the structure of Antarctica and Greenland is unknown.
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
New colonial forms have been developed during the partition of Africa amongst European powers, the sphere of influence being especially worthy of notice.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The faunas of the two are as absolutely distinct as those of South America and Africa, and it is only because they are separated by a narrow strait instead of the broad Atlantic that they have become so slightly connected by the interchange of a few species and genera.
All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
Struthio in Africa and Arabia, fossil also in the Sivalik Hills, and Aepyornithidae in Madagascar; Pittzdae, Bucerotinae and Upupinae, of which Upupa itself in India, Madagascar and Africa; Coraciidae; Pycnonotidae or bulbuls; Trogonidae, of which the Asiatic genera are the less specialized in opposition to the Neotropical forms; Vulturidae; Leptoptilus, Anastomus and Ciconia among the storks; Pteroclidae; Treroninae among pigeons.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
We have homely genera, even among the true Passeres, occurring there - such as Alauda, Acrocephalus, Motacilla and Pratincola, while the Cisticola madagascariensis is only distinguishable from the well-known fan-tailed warbler, C. schoenicola of Europe, Africa and India by its rather darker coloration.
In 1901 he became private secretary to Lord Milner, then High Commissioner for South Africa, and remained with him till 5903.
Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
In North Africa, probably in the 9th century, appeared the book known under the name of Eldad ha-Dani, giving an account of the ten tribes, from which much medieval legend was derived; 2 and in Kairawan the medical and philosophical treatises of Isaac Israeli, who died in 932.
The activity in North Africa reacted on Spain.
Some require the hot, moist temperature of a stove; such are C. amabile, a native of Sumatra, C. amoenum (India), C. Balfourii (Socotra), C. giganteum (West tropical Africa), C. Kirkii (Zanzibar), C. latifolium (India), C. zeylanicum (tropical Asia and Africa), and others.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.
Concurrently with the claim of Mahommed Ahmed to be the mandi the same title was claimed by, or for, the head of the Senussites, a confraternity powerful in many regions of North Africa.
He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.
The works may really have been written by one Boetius, a bishop of Africa, as Jourdain supposes, or by some Saint Severinus, as Nitzsch conjectures, and the similarity of name may have aided the transference of them to the heathen or neutral Boetius.
As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of strategical importance.
As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.
In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.
In the north-east, French explorers have computed the altitudes of some mountains at figures which would make them the highest land surfaces of the western projection of Africa - from 6000 to 9000 ft.
One noteworthy feature in Liberia, however, is the relative absence of mosquitoes, and the white ants and some other insect pests are not so troublesome here as in other parts of West Africa.
Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.
He travelled much in North Africa, Mexico and South America, and wrote a number of short stories and vivid studies of life in those regions.
Like the European settlers on the coast of Africa in more recent times, they wished the barbarians of the interior to be restricted to the use of their primitive weapons.
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
In Australia the increase in railway mileage in the five years ending December 31st, 1907 was about 7%-a small proportion as compared with America, Asia or Africa.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
This is perhaps mainly found in India but is not unknown in Africa and other parts of the world.
Semites and Egyptians, Peruvians and Aztecs, slew human victims; Africa, especially the West Coast, till recently saw thousands of human victims perish annually; in Polynesia, Tahiti and Fiji were great centres of the rite - in fact, it is not easy to name an area where it has not been known.
Probably the custom was of African origin, and came from eastern Africa along with the Semitic race.
Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
Cyprian was at first banished to Curubis in Africa Proconsularis.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
It is one of the highest mountains of Africa, its highest peak reaching an altitude of 17,007 feet.
Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.
The recent discovery of a bloodsucking maggot, which is found in native huts throughout the greater part of tropical and subtropical Africa, and attacks the inmates when asleep, is of great interest.
In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.
In other parts of the same continent, in Egypt and in South Africa, many Jews have settled, participating in all industrial and financial pursuits.
Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).
On this island Bartholomew Diaz made his second landing in South Africa some time after the 3rd of February 1488, and from the cross which he is thought to have erected on it the island gets its name.
In the eastern portion of the island were Praesus in the interior, and Itanus on the coast, facing the east, while Hierapytna on the south coast was the only place of importance on the side facing Africa, and on this account rose under the Romans to be one of the principal cities of the island.
The island was now reduced to a Roman province, and subsequently united for administrative purposes with the district of Cyrenaica or the Pentapolis, on the opposite coast of Africa.
It contains two small genera of tropical Asia and Africa with almost regular flowers, and the large genus Cypripedium containing about 80 species in the north-temperate zone and tropical Asia and America.
Also some genera mainly represented in South and tropical Africa, such as Satyrium, Disa and others.
Cystopodiinae, includes 9 genera tropical, but extending into north temperate Asia and South Africa; Eulophia and Lissochilus 'are ' important African genera.
Vanda (Asia) and Angraecum (Africa and Madagascar) are known in cultivation.
Some of the earliest Greek geographers divided their known world into two portions only, Europe and Asia, in which last Libya (the Greek name for Africa) was included.
It was a portion of a great land-mass which probably extended across the Indian Ocean and was at one time united with the south of Africa.
Gondwanaland, however, did not long survive, and the portion which lay between India and South Africa sank beneath the waves in Tertiary times.
The extremely dry and hot tracts which constitute an almost unbroken desert from Arabia, through south Persia and Baluchistan, to Sind, are characterized by considerable uniformity in the types of life, which closely approach to those of the neighbouring hot and dry regions of Africa.
The vegetation of the hot and dry region of the south-west of the continent consists largely of plants which are diffused over Africa, Baluchistan and Sind; many of these extend into the hotter parts of India, and not a few common Egyptian plants are to be met with in the Indian peninsula.
A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
A peculiar form of baboon, Cynopithecus, and the singular ruminant, Anoa, found in Celebes, seem to have no relation to Asiatic animals, and rather to be allied to those in Africa.
Species of birds akin to those of Africa also occur in Celebes.
Other allied genera are abundant, and extend from the Indian seas to eastern Africa.
Only one Silurus is found in Europe, and the same species extends to southern Asia and Africa.
The walking or climbing fishes, which are peculiar to south-eastern Asia and Africa, are organized so as to be able to breathe when out of the water, and they are thus fitted to exist under conditions which would be fatal to other fishes, being suited to live in the regions of periodical drought and rain in which they are found.
Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
Persia, including Syria and Arabia, besides extending into North Africa.
It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.
It has profoundly affected and to a large extent subjugated all western Asia including India, all eastern and northern Africa as well as Spain, and all eastern Europe.
The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.
The language and writing of the Semites who, at an unknown period, settled in what is now Abyssinia, show affinities with those of South Arabia, and these Semites may have been immigrants into Africa from that region.
It is still one of the least known parts of the globe, and has hardly any political link with the outside, for the Arabs of northern Africa form separate states.
But in spite of this total political collapse, Arabic religion and literature are still one of the greatest forces working in the western half of Asia, in northern Africa and to some extent in eastern Europe.
Such were the Persian wars of Greece, and perhaps one may add Hannibal's invasion of Italy, if the Carthaginians were Phoenicians transplanted to Africa.
The Turks, and to some extent the Arabs in Spain, were successful because they first conquered the parts of Asia and Africa adjoining Europe, so that the final invaders were in touch with Asiatic settlements.
The influence of Asia on Africa has been considerable, and until the middle of the 10th century greater than that of Europe.
The whole of the north of Africa from Egypt to Morocco has been mahommedanized, and Mahommedan influence is general and fairly strong from Timbuktu to Lake Chad and Wadai.
Portugal was first on the scene, and in the r6th century established a considerable littoral empire on the coasts of East Africa, India and China, fragments of which still remain, especially Goa, where Portuguese influence on the natives was considerable.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
The question of the suppression of the African slave trade, with which was connected the right of search, was settled by an agreement that each nation should keep in service off the coast of Africa a squadron carrying not fewer than eighty guns, and that the two squadrons should act in concert when necessary.
While the peace between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War lasted, Howe held commands at home and on the west coast of Africa.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
It was founded in 1868 and is the chief town of the Marico district, one of the most fertile regions of South Africa.
The result of this, however, has not so far established more than the fact that the Aegean races, as a whole, belonged to the dark, long-headed Homo Mediterraneus, whose probable origin lay in mid-eastern Africa - a fact only valuable in the present connexion in so far as it tends to discredit an Asiatic source for Aegean civilization.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).
In Northern Africa the group is represented by the scimitar-horned 0.
Holoarctic types reappear on the Andes and in South Africa, and even in New Zealand.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
In regard to South Africa, besides the well-known work of Le Vaillant already mentioned, there is the second volume of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa (4to, 1838-1842), which is devoted to birds.
The European wild boar (Sus scrof a) is distributed over Europe, northern Africa, and central and northern Asia.
Venetian beads are now sent in large quantities to the various colonies in Africa, and to India, Sumatra and Borneo.
This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
Another way in which a demon is held to cause disease is by introducing itself into the patient's body and sucking his blood; the Malays believe that a woman who dies in childbirth becomes a langsuir and sucks the blood of children; victims of the lycanthrope are sometimes said to be done to death in the same way; and it is commonly believed in Africa that the wizard has the power of killing people in this way, probably with the aid of a familiar.
In South Africa and India, on the other hand, the magician digs up a dead body, especially of a child, to secure a familiar.
As a natural result of this belief we find the view that the operations of nature are conducted by a multitude of more or less obedient subordinate deities; thus, in Portuguese West Africa the Kimbunda believe in Suku-Vakange, but hold that he has committed the government of the universe to innumerable kilulu good and bad; the latter kind are held to be far more numerous, but Suku-Vakange is said to keep them in order by occasionally smiting them with his thunderbolts; were it not for this, man's lot would be insupportable.
In that year he was ordered to the west coast of Africa, where he visited Dahomey, and contracted fever, which told severely on his constitution.
In 1818 he joined the Rev. John Campbell in his second journey to South Africa to inspect the stations of the London Missionary Society, and reported that the conduct of the Cape Colonists towards the natives was deserving of strong reprobation.
During1826-1828he was in England, and in the last-named year he published Researches in South Africa, containing his views on the native question.
His recommendations were adopted by the House of Commons, but his unpopularity in South Africa was great, and in 1830 he was convicted of libelling a Cape official.
Later on a contingent served with the Roman army in Africa, Britain, Italy, Hungary, where grave-stones with Palmyrene and Latin inscriptions have been found; see Lidzbarski, Nordsem.
After staying for some time in Africa as the disciple of Augustine, he was sent by him in 415 to Palestine with a letter of introduction to Jerome, then at Bethlehem.
All that Orosius succeeded in obtaining was John's consent to send letters and deputies to Innocent of Rome; and, after having waited long enough to learn the unfavourable decision of the synod of Diospolis or Lydda in December of the same year, he returned to north Africa, where he is believed to have died.
South America, the West Indies, tropical Africa and Southern Asia are the homes of the various members, but the plants have been introduced with success into other lands, as is well indicated by the fact that although no species of Gossypium is native to the United States of America, that country now produces over twothirds of the world's supply of cotton.
The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa.
Very simple machines are used in some parts of Africa.
The Egyptian boll worm (Earias insulana) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
Efforts have been made in the same direction in Egypt, West Africa, &c.
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together.
Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.
In 1904-1905 there were some 300 acres under cotton in British East Africa.
In West Africa also prospects appear encouraging.
In British Central Africa, the results on the whole have not been satisfactory.
Arrangements were concluded with the British South Africa Company for the formation of a small syndicate for working in Rhodesia.
Stilicho and Serena were named guardians of the youthful Honorius when the latter was created joint emperor in 394 with special jurisdiction over Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain and Africa, and Stilicho was even more closely allied to the imperial family in the following year by betrothing his daughter Maria to his ward and by receiving the dying injunctions of Theodosius to care for his children.
In 3 9 8 he quelled Gildo's revolt in Africa and married his daughter Maria to Honorius.
Basutoland, or Lesuto (Lesotho) as the natives call it, forms the south-eastern edge of the interior tableland of South Africa, and has a rugged and broken surface with a mean elevation of 6000 ft.
The aspect of the country is everywhere grand, and often beautiful, fully justifying the title, "The Switzerland of South Africa," often applied to it.
The four seasons are distinctly marked, a rarity in South Africa, where the transition from summer to winter is generally very rapid.
Heaths, generally somewhat rare in South Africa outside the Cape peninsula, are abundant in Basutoland.
The conversion of Basuto A land into a crown colony contributed alike to the Y pros perityof the Basuto,the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally.
Draper, Notes on the Geology of South-eastern Africa," Quart.
Many books dealing with South Africa generally have chapters relating to Basutoland, e.g.
Consult also Theal's History of South Africa (1908-9 ed.).
The next year was spent at Rome, and, after a visit to Africa, he set out on his second great journey (September 128).
He composed an autobiography, published under the name of his freedman Phlegon; wrote speeches, fragments of two of which are preserved in inscriptions (a panegyric on his mother-in-law Matidia, and an address to the soldiers at Lambaesis in Africa).
In January 1870 the first piece of real foreign missionary work was begun at Fernando Po, followed in December of the same year by the mission at Aliwal North on the Orange River in South Africa.
The favours he received from the sovereign excited the jealousy of the vizier, and he was driven back to Africa (1364), where he was received with great cordiality by the sultan of Bougie, Abu Abdallah, who had been formerly his companion in prison.
The great work by which he is known is a "Universal History," but it deals more particularly with the history of the Arabs of Spain and Africa.
He entered into an agreement with C. Marius, and in order to gain the favour of his soldiers proposed that each of his veterans should receive an allotment of Ioo jugera of land in Africa.
In the town are the head offices of the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft, the largest trading company in German East Africa.
In 1887 Dr Carl Peters occupied the bay in the name of the German East Africa Company.
It is the starting point of a railway to Mrogoro, and is connected by overland telegraph via Ujiji with South Africa.
The trade returns are included in those of German East Africa.
The central dome has but a slight elevation outside, but with the numerous cupolas round, and the minarets, it forms a picturesque group which is wanting in the mosques of Kairawan, Cordova, and other examples in North Africa.
The materials of the native styles of India, however, did not lend themselves to their utilization as in Syria, Egypt and North Africa, where the columns and capitals formed the substructure of the arcades which surrounded their courts.
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
The zeal of Ignatius (c. 115), who begs the Roman Church to do nothing to avert from him the martyr's death, was natural enough in a spiritual knight-errant, but with others in later days, especially in Phrygia and North Africa, the passion became artificial.
The name Mozambique, used first to designate the island, was also given to the town and extended to the whole of the Portuguese possessions on the east coast of Africa.
The history of the Portuguese town is closely identified with that of the province, for which see Portuguese East Africa.
The Mediterranean occupies nearly half the inhabited world in longitude, and the east coast of Africa is shown as if it extended due east.
Associated with it are Francesco Pizigano (1367-1373), Francesco de Cesanis (1421), Giacomo Giroldi (1422-1446), Andrea Bianco (43-44) Giovanni Leardo (1442-1452), Alvise Cadamosto, who was associated with the Portuguese explorers on the west coast of Africa (1454-1456) and whose Portolano was printed at Venice in 1490, and Fra Mauro (1457).
Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
Not even the coasts of western Africa are laid down correctly, although the author claimed to have taken part in one of the Portuguese expeditions.
Isaac Voss, in his work De Nili (1659), published a map of central Africa, in which he anticipated D'Anville by rejecting all the fanciful details which found a place upon Filippo Pigafetta's map of that continent.
Maps on that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been published by British, French, German and United States authorities.
In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler.
In the British colonies of tropical and of South Africa' surveys for the most part are carried on actively.
The states of British South Africa have each their surveyor-general, and a reconnaissance survey has been in progress since 1903.
Surveys in British Central Africa were taken up in 1894; a survey of Lake Nyasa, by Lieut.
Maps of the French Africa Colonies have been published by the service geographique de l'Afrique occidental and the service geographique des colonies.
The hairless dogs of Central Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.
It is also known as the " Eastern Horn of Africa," because it projects somewhat sharply eastwards into the Indian Ocean, and is the only section of the continent which can be spoken of as a peninsula.
The highlands, which in an almost continuous line traverse East Africa, have to a great extent isolated the flora of Somaliland in spite of the general resemblance of its climate and soil to the country on the western side of the band of high ground.
On the plateau many forms common elsewhere in East Africa, such as the Borassus palm and the baobab tree, are missing.
Other traditions trace their origin to the Himyaritic chiefs Sanhaj and Samamah, said to have been coeval with a King Afrikus, who is supposed to have conquered Africa about 400.
Somaliland was one of the last parts of Africa to be explored by Europeans.
There was a regular importation to Rome of slaves, brought to some extent from Africa, Spain and Gaul, but chiefly from Asiatic countries - Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria.
In 1442, when the Portuguese under Prince Henry the Navigator were exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa, one of his officers, Antam Gonsalves, who had captured some Moors, was directed by the prince to carry them back to Africa.
When Edwards wrote (1791), the number of European factories on the coasts of Africa was 40; of these 14 were English, 3 French, 15 Dutch, 4 Portuguese and 4 Danish.
Thus all that was shocking in the barbarism of Africa was multiplied and intensified by this foreign stimulation.
Exclusive of the slaves who died before they sailed from Africa, 121% were lost during their passage to the West Indies; at Jamaica 42% died whilst in the harbours or before the sale and one-third more in the " seasoning."
Thus, out of every lot of 100 shipped from Africa 17 died in about 9 weeks, and not more than 50 lived to be effective labourers in the islands.
Legislative sanction was, however, given to the establishment of the Sierra Leone Company, for the colonization of a district on the west coast of Africa and the discouragement of the slave trade there.
It was hoped at the time that that place would become the centre from which the civilization of Africa would proceed; but this expectation was not fulfilled.
The United State s h a d in 1 forbidden any a 794 Y m par ticipation by American subjects in the slave trade to foreign countries; they now prohibited the importation of slaves from Africa into their own dominions.
In 1831 and 1833 Great Britain entered into an arrangement with France for a mutual right of search within certain seas, to which most of the other powers acceded; and by the Ashburton treaty (1842) with the United States provision was made for the joint maintenance of squadrons on the west coast of Africa.
As many slaves, Clarkson tells us, came annually from this part of the coast as from all the rest of Africa besides.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
At the close of the first decade of the 10th century it might be said that over the greater part of Africa slave raiding was a thing of the past.
In its social life Alexandria is the most progressive and occidental of all the cities of North Africa, with the possible exception of Algiers.
In April Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of high commissioner for South Africa and governor of Cape Colony.
The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics."
Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898.
He had not based his case against the Transvaal on the letter of the Conventions, and regarded the employment of the word "suzerainty" merely as an "etymological question," but he realized keenly that the spectacle of thousands of British subjects in the Transvaal in the condition of "helots" (as he expressed it) was undermining the prestige of Great Britain throughout South Africa, and he called for "some striking proof" of the intention of the British government not to be ousted from its predominant position.
A violent agitation for his recall, in which Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman joined, was organized, but without success, and in August he returned to South Africa, where he plunged into the herculean task of remodelling the administration.
He left South Africa while the economic crisis was still acute and at a time when the voice of the critic was audible everywhere; but, in the words of the colonial secretary (Mr Alfred Lyttelton) he had in the eight eventful years of his administration "laid deep and strong the foundation upon which a united South Africa would arise to become one of the great states of the empire."
Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
Turkey in Africa has gradually been reduced to Tripoli and Barca.
The army is divided into seven army-corps (ordus), each under the command of a field marshal, and the two independent commands of Tripoli (Africa) and the Hejaz.
Throughout Arabia and in Tripoli (Africa) the principal money used is the silver Maria Theresa dollar tariffed by the Ottoman government at 12 piastres.
Ambriz was, previously to 1884, the northernmost point of Africa south of the equator acknowledged as Portuguese territory.
Except seaward Walfish Bay is surrounded by German South-West Africa.
Walfish Bay forms a detached portion of the Cape province of the Union of South Africa.
It was proclaimed British territory on the 12th of March 1878, and was annexed to Cape Colony on the 7th of August 1884 (see Africa, § 5).
Species of this genus occur in Europe, Africa and Madagascar.
Finally, Glandiceps abyssicola (Spengelidae) was dredged during the "Challenger" expedition in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa at a depth of 2500 fathoms.
Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan.
In the oases of Sahara, and in other parts of Northern Africa, dates are pounded and pressed into a cake for food.
His instructions were to demand an armistice, to intercept all supplies coming to the Turkish forces in the Morea from Africa or Turkey in general, and to look for directions to Stratford Canning (Lord Stratford de Redcliffe), the British ambassador at Constantinople.
Africa and Asia, being the produce of naturally occurring trees and vines.
Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.
In Africa it seems probable that the production of rubber from vines is likely to be entirely superseded in process of time, and replaced by the plantations of trees which are already being established in those districts in which careful experiment has determined the kind of rubber tree best adapted to the locality.
In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
In Africa the cost of collection is much less, but the rubber is generally of inferior quality.
Africa and Egypt, but has not proved very successful in Africa as a rubber producer.
Africa also furnish good rubber, as do the Forsteronia gracilis of British Guiana and Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica.
Africa, from the tuberous roots of which rubber is extracted by the natives.
Africa the Hevea which has been planted promises well, especially in the Gold Coast, where good yields of latex are stated to have been obtained.
Africa the tree flourishes, but it is under trial as a rubber producer.
Africa have been destroyed by over-tapping and felling.
Africa which are unsuited to Hevea.
At this period the metropolis of Byzacena was after Carthage the most important town in Roman Africa.
In 1874 he founded the Sahara and Sudan mission, and sent missionaries to Tunis, Tripoli, East Africa and the Congo.
Among the numerous conjectures which have been made as to the etymology of the term Africa ('Acppucii) may be quoted that which derives it from the Semitic radical.
It has also been held that the word Africa comes from friqi, farikia (the country of fruit).
Thus Africa was originally, in the eyes of the Romans and Carthaginians alike, the country inhabited by the great tribe of Berbers or Numidians called Afarik.
At the time of the Third Punic War the Africa of the Carthaginians was but a fragment of their ancient native empire.
The rest of Africa had passed into the hands of the kings of Numidia, who were allies of the Romans.
After the capture of Carthage by Scipio (146 B.C.) this territory was erected into a Roman province, and a trench, the fossa regia, was dug to mark the boundary of the Roman province of Africa and the dominions of the Numidian princes.
Numidia was converted into a new province called " Africa Nova," and of this province the historian Sallust was appointed proconsul and invested with the imperium.
From that time the old province of Africa was known as " Africa Vetus " or " Africa Propria."
Numidia, however, no longer formed a distinct government, but was attached to the old province of Africa.
In the partition of the government of the provinces of the Roman empire between the senate and the emperor, Africa fell to the senate, and was henceforth administered by a proconsul.
The province of Africa was the only senatorial province whose governor had originally been invested with military powers.
The proconsul of Africa, in fact, had command of the legio III.
The powers of the proconsul, however, extended scarcely beyond the ancient Africa Vetus and the towns on the littoral.
By a treaty concluded in 476, the emperor Zeno recognized Genseric as master of all Africa.
Reconquered by Belisarius in 534, Africa formed, under the name of praefectura Africae, one of the great administrative districts of the Byzantine empire.
It was subdivided into six provinces, which were placed under the authority of the praetorian prefect of Africa.
The much more detailed list of Ptolemy enumerates 39 indigenous tribes in the province of Africa and 25 in Mauretania Caesariensis.
Tumuli, too, are found throughout northern Africa, the"most celebrated being that near Cherchel, the Kubr-er-Rumia (" tomb of the Christian lady "), which was regarded by Pomponius Mela as the royal burying-place of the kings of Numidia.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
Carthage regained its rank of capital of Africa under Augustus, when thousands of Roman colonists flocked to the town.
Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.
The violets comprise a large botanical genus (Viola) - in which more than 200 species have been described - found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few are found in Australasia.
On the departure of Lord Roberts for South Africa the duke succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 9th of January 1900.
Gloriosa, well known in cultivation, climbs by means of its tendril-like leaftips; it has handsome flowers with decurved orange-red or yellow petals; it is a native of tropical Asia and Africa.
The Orange here enters the great inner plateau of South Africa, which at Aliwal North, the first town of any size on the banks of the river, 80 m.
In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.
From the Scandinavian peninsula and the British Islands the range of the fox extends eastwards across Europe and central and northern Asia to Japan, while to the south it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalaya.
On the other hand, the long-eared fox or Delalande's fox (Otocyon megalotis) of south and east Africa represents a totally distinct genus.
Many species are also common to East Africa and to India..
The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of North America on the other.
Some of the plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora characteristic of India and South Africa.
But the plot being discovered during their inactivity, the conspirators were banished to Africa, and Tira-dentes, the leader, was hanged.
Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence distributed.
The ordinary pelican, the Onocrotalus of the ancients, to whom it was well known, and the Pelecanus onocrotalus of ornithologists, is a very abundant bird in some districts of south-eastern Europe, south-western Asia and north-eastern Africa, occasionally straying, it is believed, into the northern parts of Germany and France; but the possibility of such wanderers having escaped from confinement is always to be regarded,' since few zoological gardens are without examples.
The terrace formation of the land characteristic of other coast regions of South Africa prevails in Natal.
The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.