Afghan sentence example
Afghan conqueror, was born on the 2nd of October 971.
There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.
The remaining three clans are Afghan subjects.
The chief, whose title is nawab, is a Mahommedan, of Afghan descent.
It is navigated from the mouth of the Surkhan, and steamboats ply on it up to Karki near the Afghan frontier.Advertisement
He reported the gradual formation of an anticlinal or ridge extending longitudinally through the great Balkh plain of Afghan Turkestan, which effectually shuts off the northern affluents of that basin from actual junction with the river.
The Kabul (ancient Kophes), which is the most important (although not the largest) river in Afghanistan, rises at the foot of the Unai pass leading over the Sanglakh range, an offshoot of the Hindu Kush towards Bamian and Afghan Turkestan.
Bhopal state was founded in 1723 by Dost Mahommed Khan, an Afghan adventurer.
It leaves the Hindu Kush near the Dorah Pass at the head of one of the minor Chitral affluents, and passing south-west divides Kafiristan from Chitral and Bajour, separates the sections of the Mohmands who are within the respective spheres of Afghan and British sovereignty, and crosses the Peshawar-Kabul route at Lundi-Khana.
His youngest son, Mahomed Omar Jan, was born in 1889 of an Afghan mother, connected by descent with the Barakzai family.Advertisement
From this central point great lines of communication radiate in all directions to Russian, British, Persian and Afghan.
Little control was exercised by the rulers of Kabul, and the country was administered by local chiefs or Afghan Sirdars very much as they pleased.
The result of this minute was that a frontier commissionership, including Sind, was sanctioned by the home government, and Sir Frederick (afterwards Lord) Roberts had been designated as the first Commissioner, when the outbreak of the Second Afghan War caused the project to be postponed.
He was supposed to have died on the Afghan frontier in 1825 on his second journey; but if Huc's story is true he reached Lhasa in 1826, and did not leave it till 1838, being assassinated on his homeward journey, when maps and drawings were found on him, and his identity was for the first time suspected by the Tibetans.
Other routes there are, open to trade, between Herat and northern India, either following the banks of the Hari Rud, or, more circuitously, through the valley of the Helmund to Kabul; or the line of hills between the Arghandab and the Tarnak may be crossed close to Kalat-i-Ghilzai; but of the two former it may be said that they are not ways open to the passage of Afghan armies owing to the hereditary hostility existing between the Aeimak and Hazara tribes and the Afghans generally, while the latter is not beyond striking distance from Kandahar.Advertisement
In 1507 it was captured by the emperor Baber, but shortly afterwards it fell again into Afghan hands, to be retaken by Baber in 1521.
He at once changed the site of the city to its present position, and thus founded the Afghan kingdom, with modern Kandahar as its capital.
In the years1872-1878the Afghan Jamal ud-Din, a professor in the Azhar mosque at Cairo, attempted to read Avicenna with his scholars, and to exercise them in things that went beyond theology, bringing, for example, a globe into the mosque to explain the form of the earth.
The most notable episode in the history of the place is the famous defence by Sir Robert Sale during the first Afghan war, when he held the town from November 1841 to April 1842.
The attitude of the government on the Afghan question and generally in regard to Russia was held by many to have been perceptibly stiffened owing to Lord Rosebery's influence.Advertisement
Russian explorers and natives of India trained for geographical reconnaissance, and employed in connexion with the great trigonometrical survey of India, had done so much towards clearing away the mists which enveloped the actual course of the river, that all the primary affluents were known, although their relative value was misunderstood, but the nature of the districts which bordered the river in Afghan Turkestan was so imperfectly mapped as to give rise to considerable political complication in framing the boundary agreement between Great Britain and Russia.
From Lake Victoria (Sor-Kul) in the Pamirs, which was originally reckoned as the true source of the river, to Khamiab, on the edge of the Andkhui district of Afghan Turkestan, for a distance of about 680 m., the Oxus forms the boundary between Afghanistan and Russia.
These slopes represent the extent of Afghan territory which exists north of the Hindu Kush between Kala Panja and Ishkashim.
Throughout the plains of Afghan Turkestan the drainage from the southern hills is arrested and lost in the desert sands.
A wide belt of blown sand (or Chul), sprinkled with sa.aul jungle, separates the swamps on the south side of the river from the cultivated plains of Afghan Turkestan; but in places, notably for Cultiva= about 12 Tn.Advertisement
Since the treaty of Gandamak, which was signed at the close of the first phase of the Afghan War in 1879, the Bolan route has been brought directly under British control, and it was selected for the first alignment of the Sind-Pishin railway from the plains to the plateau.
The Arms Traffic. - During the 3rd Afghan War the trade in modern arms and ammunition in the Persian Gulf attracted the attention of the British and Indian Governments for the first time.
There are few residents in the country from the more eastern parts of Asia - if we except the Turkoman settlements in the Jaulan, a number of Persians, and a fairly large Afghan colony that since 1905 has established itself in Jaffa.
Since that date it has been largely settled by the amir with purely Afghan tribes.
At Haibak there is a very perfect excavation called the Takht-iRustam (a general name for all incomprehensible constructions amongst the modern inhabitants of Afghan Turkestan), which consists of an annular ditch enclosing a platform, with a small house about 21 ft.
The second Afghan war of 1878-80 afforded an opportunity for the extension of wide geographical surveys on a scientific basis.
From Kushkinski the boundary runs north-east, crossing the Murghab river near Maruchak (which is an Afghan fortress), and thence passes north-east through the hills of the Chul, and the undulating deserts of the Aleli Turkmans, to the Oxus, leaving the valleys of Charshamba and of Andkhui (to which it runs approximately parallel) within Afghan limits.
Bending back westwards upon itself, the line of Afghan frontier now follows the water-parting of the Hindu Kush; and as the Hindu Kush absolutely overhangs the Oxus nearly opposite Ishkashim, it follows that, at this point, Afghanistan is about io m.
Thus a small and highly elevated portion of the state extends eastwards from its extreme north-eastern corner, and is attached to the great Afghan quadrilateral by the thin link of the Panja valley.
Two points of this part of the Afghan boundary are notable.
It leaves some of the most fanatical of the Durani Afghan people on the Baluch side of the frontier in the Toba district, north of the Quetta - Chaman line of railway; and it passes 50 m.
Within the limits of this boundary Afghanistan comprises four main provinces, Northern Afghanistan or Kabul, Southern Afghanistan or Kandahar, Herat and Afghan Turkes Ghilzai and Hazara Highlands, Ghazni, Jalalabad and Kafiristan.
The Herat province is largely Persian, while Afghan Turkestan is chiefly Usbeg; and in neither is the sentiment of loyalty to the central government very strong.
The Kabul river drains Northern Afghanistan, the Hari Rud the province of Herat, and the Oxus that of Afghan Turkestan.
Thus the main routes from Kabul to Afghan Turkestan must cross either one or other of these ranges, and must traverse one or other of the terrific defiles which have been carved out of them by the upper tributaries of the rivers running northwards towards the Oxus.
This appears to be the beginning of a new anticlinal which has altered the levels of the Balkh plain, and is indicative of those elevating processes which Afghan tan, together with the minor dependencies of the provinces.
There are no glaciers now to be found in Afghan Turkestan; but evidences of their recent existence are abundant.
The Jurassic beds are followed, generally with perfect conformity, by the Cretaceous, which covers a large part of Afghan Turkestan and probably forms the greater part of the ranges which run south and south-west from the principal watershed.
The entire system may be represented in the west, but in the Herat province and in Afghan Turkestan the middle Cretaceous seems to be absent, and it is probable that, as in other regions, the upper Cretaceous covers a much wider area than the lower beds.
The lower part of the Miocene is marine in Herat and Afghan Turkestan; but the upper Miocene is usually of freshwater or estuarine origin.
Kabul is linked with Afghan Turkestan and Badakshan by three main lines of communication across the Koh-i-Baba and the Hindu Kush.
This high road is stated (on Afghan authority) to be kept open for khafila traffic all the year round by the employment of forced labour for clearing snow.
There is not a pass of any great importance, nor a river of any great difficulty, to be encountered from end to end, but the route is flanked on the north between Kandahar and Girishk by the Zamindawar hills, containing the most truculent and fanatical clans of all the Southern Afghan tribes.
But the remarkable feature of Afghan climate (as also of that of Baluchistan) is its extreme range of temperature within limited periods.
The term Afghan really applies to one section only of the mixed conglomeration of nationalities which forms the people of Afghanistan, but this is the dominant section known as the Durani.
Popularly any inhabitant of Afghanistan is known as Afghan on the Indian frontier without distinction of origin or language; but the language division between the Parsiwan (or Persian-speaking Afghan) and the Pathan is a very distinct one.
The predominance of the Afghan in Afghanistan dates from the middle of the 18th century, when Ahmad Shah carved out Afghanistan from the previous conquests of Nadir Shah and called it the Durani empire.
Yet they also claim to be Pukhtun (or Pathan) in common with all other Pushtu-speaking tribes, whom they do not admit to be Afghan.
Besides their division into clans and tribes, the whole Afghan people may be divided into dwellers in tents and dwellers in houses; and this division is apparently not coincident with tribal divisions, for of several of the great clans at least a part is nomad and a part settled.
No Afghan will pursue a handicraft or keep a shop, though the Ghilzai Povindahs engage largely in travelling trade and transport of goods.
The Afghan is by breed and nature a bird of prey.
They look on the Afghans as the first of nations, and each man looks on himself as the equal of any Afghan.
The first impression made by the Afghan is favourable.
The European, especially if he come from India, is charmed by their apparently frank, openhearted, hospitable and manly manners; but the charm is not of long duration, and he finds that the Afghan is as cruel and crafty as he is independent.
Those contiguous Afghan tribes, who have not so long ago been converted to the faith of Islam, are naturally the most fanatical and the most virulent upholders of the faith around them.
In the western provinces about Kandahar (amongst the Durani Afghans - the people who claim to be Beni-Israel), and especially in Zamindawar, the spirit of fanaticism runs high, and every other Afghan is a possible Ghazi - a man who has devoted his life to the extinction of other creeds.
Turki is spoken in Afghan Turkestan.
There is a respectable amount of Afghan literature.
Here the younger boys are collected and instructed in the rudiments of reading, writing and religious creed by the village mullah, or priest, who thereby acquires an early influence over the Afghan mind.
Every Afghan gentleman can read and speak Persian, but beyond this acquirement education seems to be limited to the physical development of the youth by instruction in horsemanship and feats of skill.
The latter fort took twelve years to build, and commands all the roads leading from the Oxus into Afghan Turkestan.
The tiger exists in Afghan Turkestan.
The best of these, however, are reserved for the Afghan cavalry.
Those exported to India are usually bred in Maimana and other places in Afghan culture.
Dairy produce is important in Afghan diet, especially the pressed and dried curd called knit (an article and name perhaps introduced by the Mongols).
The nomadic Afghan tribes of the west are chiefly pastoral, and the wool of the southern Herat and Kandahar provinces is famous for its quality.
H.*) History The Afghan chroniclers call their people Beni-Israil (Arab.
And one of the Afghan histories, quoted by Mr Bellew, relates " a current tradition " that, previous to the time of Kais, Bilo the father of the Biluchis, Uzbak (evidently the father of the Usbegs) and Afghana were considered as brethren.
But the Hebrew ancestry of the Afghans is more worthy at least of consideration, for a respectable number of intelligent officers, well acquainted with the Afghans, have been strong in their belief of it; and though the customs alleged in proof will not bear the stress laid on them, undoubtedly a prevailing type of the Afghan physiognomy has a character strongly Jewish.
We then have a powerful dynasty, commonly believed to have been of Afghan race; and if so, the first.
But the historians give them a legendary descent from Zohak, which is no Afghan genealogy.
For a brief period the Afghan countries were subject to the king of Khwarizm, and it was here chiefly that occurred the gallant attempts of Jalaluddin of Khwarizm to withstand the progress of Jenghiz Khan.
For a century and more after the Mongol invasion the whole of the Afghan countries were under Mongol rule; but in the middle of the 14th century a native dynasty sprang up in western Afghanistan, that of the Kurts, which extended its rule over Ghor, Herat and Kandahar.
The history of the Afghan countries under the Mongols is obscure; but that regime must have left its mark upon the country, if we judge from the occurrence of frequent Mongol names of places, and even of Mongol expressions adopted into familiar language.
Among these was a noble young soldier, Ahmad Khan, of the Saddozai family of the Abdali clan, who after the assassination of Nadir (1747) was chosen by the Afghan chiefs at Kandahar to be their leader, and assumed kingly authority over the eastern part of Nadir's empire, with the style of Dur-i-Durdn, " Pearl of the Age," bestowing that of Durani upon his clan, the Abdalis.
The last owed success to Payindah's son, Fatteh Khan (known as the "Afghan Warwick "), a man of masterly ability in war and politics, the eldest of twenty-one brothers, a family of notable intelligence and force of character, and many of these he placed over the provinces.
The last Afghan hold of the Punjab had been lost long before - Kashmir in 181 9; Sind had cast off all allegiance since 1808; the Turkestan provinces had been practically independent since the death of Timur Shah.
All these circumstances combined to render the new regime weak and unpopular, since there was no force at the ruler's command except foreign troops to put down disorder or to protect those who submitted, while the discontented nobles fomented disaffection and the inbred hatred of strangers in race and religion among the general Afghan population.
After 1849, when the annexation of the Punjab had carried the Indian northwestern frontier up to the skirts of the Afghan highlands, the corresponding advance of the Russians south-eastward along the Oxus river became of closer interest to the British, particularly when, in 1856, the Persians again attempted to take possession of Herat.
To the British government an attitude of non-intervention in Afghan affairs appeared in this situation to be no longer possible.
It was immediately notified to him from India that a British mission would be deputed to his capital, but he demurred to receiving it; and when the British envoy was turned back on the Afghan frontier hostilities were proclaimed by the viceroy in November 1878, and the second Afghan War began.
For the second time in the course of this war a conclusive settlement of Afghan affairs seemed now to have been attained; and again, as in 1879, it was immediately dissolved.
Some local revolts among the tribes were rigorously suppressed; and two attempts to upset his rulership - the first by Ayub Khan, who entered Afghanistan from Persia, the second and more dangerous one by Ishak Khan, the amir's cousin, who rebelled against him in Afghan Turkestan - were defeated.
Meanwhile the delimitation of the northern frontier, up to the point where it meets Chinese territory on the east, was completed and fixed by arrangements between the governments of Russia and Great Britain; and the eastern border of the Afghan territory, towards India,was also mapped out and partially laid down, in accordance with a convention between the two governments.
The result was that whereas in former times the forces of an Afghan ruler consisted mainly of a militia, furnished by the chiefs of tribes who held land on condition of military service, and who stoutly resisted any attempt to commute this service for money payment, the amir had at his command a large standing army, and disposed of a substantial revenue paid direct to his treasury.
He established, for the first time in the history of the Afghan kingdom, a powerfully centralized administration strong enough to maintain order and to enforce obedience over all the country which he had united under his dominion, supported by a force sufficiently armed and disciplined to put down attempts at resistance or revolt.
They extend River from the Bay of Bengal on the east to the Afghan frontier and the Arabian Sea on the west, and contain the richest and most densely crowded provinces of the empire.
He had transferred much territory to chiefs and confederacies devoted to his cause; every petty court had its Greek faction; and the detachments which he left behind at various positions, from the Afghan frontier to the Beas, and from near the base of the Himalaya to the Sind delta, were visible pledges of his return.
A blood-feud arose between them and a line of Afghan princes who had established themselves among the mountains of Ghor.
The independence of the Afghan kings - of Bengal is generally dated from 1336, when Mahommed Tughlak was yet on the throne.
The Sayyids were in their turn expelled by Bahlol, an Afghan of the Lodi tribe, whose successors removed the seat of government to Agra, which thus for the first time became the imperial city.
To complete this sketch of India at the time of Baber's invasion it remains to say that an independent Mahommedan dynasty reigned at Ahmedabad in Gujarat for nearly two centuries (from 1391 to 1573), until conquered by Akbar; and that Bengal was similarly independent, under a line of Afghan kings, with Gaur for their capital, from 1336 to 1573.
The Grand Trunk road running across the north of the peninsula, is generally attributed to the Afghan usurper, Sher Shah.
An Afghan of the Lodi dynasty was on the throne of Delhi, and another Afghan king was ruling over Bengal.
The attention of the British government had been directed to Afghan affairs ever since the time of Sir John Shore, who feared that Zaman Shah, then holding his court at First Lahore, might follow in the path of Ahmed Shah, Afghan and overrun Hindustan.
Macnaghten was treacherously murdered at an interview with the Afghan chief, Akbar Khan, eldest son of Dost Mahommed.
Multan had previously fallen; and the Afghan horse under Dost Mahommed, who had forgotten their hereditary antipathy to the Sikhs in their greater hatred of the British name, were chased back with ignominy to their native hills.
Shere Ali fled to Afghan Turkestan, and there died.
During the preceding decades Russia had gradually advanced her power from the Caspian across the Turkoman steppes to the border of Afghanistan, and Russian intrigue was largely responsible for the second Afghan war.
This action led to an arrangement in August of the same year for a joint Anglo-Russian commission to delimit the Afghan frontier.
The durbar was interrupted by the news that a Russian general had attacked and routed the Afghan force holding the bridge across the river Kushk, and the incident might possibly have resulted in war between Britain and Russia but for the slight importance that Abdur Rahman attributed to what he termed a border scuffle.
It was formerly fastened with strings, but now with the ghundi (the old form of button) and tukmah or loop. In southern India, Gujarat and in the United Provinces the arid is much the same as to length and fit as the English shirt; as the traveller goes northward from Delhi to the Afghan border he sees the kurta becoming longer and looser till he finds the Pathan wearing it almost to his ankles, with very full wide sleeves.
Distrusting the attitude of the Amir Dost Mahommed towards Russia, Lord Auckland in 1839 attempted to restore Shah Shuja to the throne against the wishes of the Afghan people.
This policy led to the disastrous first Afghan War.
Owing to its unhealthiness it is now almost deserted, being only occupied by the Afghan regiment quartered there.
In the districts east of Farah are to be found the most fanatical of the Durani Afghan tribes.
Ancient Khulm is now only a mass of ruins; but Tashkurghan, lying two or three miles to the south of it, has become the great trade-mart of Afghan Turkestan and second only in importance to Mazar-i-Sharif, the military centre of the province; while it is much larger and more prosperous than the latter place.
The shah offered him a sum of money to return to Kandahar, but the Afghan answered by advancing to a place called Gulnabad, within 9 m.
The wali of Arabia escaped into Isfahan, and Mahmud the Afghan gained a complete victory.
Having been conducted to the Afghan camp, he fixed, the royal plume of feathers on the young rebels turban Malmmud S with his own handS and 4000 Afghans were ordered to Usurpation.
He was a brave but cruel Afghan.
Ashraf tried to escape to Kandahar almost alone, but was murdered by a party of Baluch robbers; and thus, by the genius of Nadir, his native land was delivered from the terrible Afghan invaders.
There is,1 however, also shown, as a result of the Afghan intrusion and the impotency of the later Safawid kings, a long broad strip of country to the west, including Tabriz and Hamadan, marked conquests of the Turks, and the whole west shore of the Caspian from Astrakan to Mazandaran marked conquests of the czar of Muscovy; Makran, written Mecran, is designated a warlike independent nation.
If further allowance be made for the district held by the Afghan invaders as part of their own country, it will be seen how greatly the extent of Persia proper was reduced, and what a work Nadir had before him to restore the kingdom to its former proportions.
The wary Afghan, however, shut himself upin Kazvin, a position from which he was enabled to inflict much injury on the army of Karirn, while his own troops remained unharmed behind the walls of the town.
The Afghan did not await his coming, but retired to his government of Tabriz.
In the following year the same mission, accompanied by the same Persian commissioner proceeded to Seistan, where it remained for more than five weeks, prosecuting its inquiries, until joined by another mission froni India, under Major-General (afterwards Sir Richard) Pollock accompanying the Afghan commissioner.
Frequent interruptions occurred on the telegraph line between Teheran and Meshed in 1885, at the time of the Panjdeh incident, when the Russians were advancing towards Afghanistan and Sir Peter Lumsden was on the Afghan frontier; and Sir Ronald Thomson concluded an agreement with the Persian government for the line to be kept in working order by an English inspector, the Indian government paying a share not exceeding 20,000 rupees per annum of the cost of maintenance, and an English signaller being stationed at Meshed.
After a futile attempt to enter Afghan territory and raise a revolt against the Amir Abdur Rahman, he gave himself up to the British consul-general at Meshed in the beginning of November, and was sent under escort to the Turkish frontier and thence via Bagdad to India.
The last raja of the Hindu dynasty found himself compelled to call for the assistance of the mountain shepherds, with their leader, Kambar, in order to check the encroachments of a horde of depredators, headed by an Afghan chief, who infested the country and even threatened to attack the seat of government.
The khan, however, raised an army and totally routed the Afghan army.
The native quarters are well laid out, with a large bazaar for Afghan traders.
The vegetation of the western part of the plain and of the hottest zone of the western mountains thus becomes closely allied to, or almost identical with, that of the drier parts of the Indian peninsula, more especially of its hilly portions; and, while a general tropical character is preserved, forms are observed which indicate the addition of an Afghan as well as of an African element, of which last the gay lily Gloriosa superba is an example, pointing to some.
Of these Dost Mahommed received for his share Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added Kabul, the richest of the Afghan provinces.
The recovery of this fortress became the Afghan amir's great concern.
In 1850 he conquered Balkh, and in 1854 he acquired control over the southern Afghan tribes by the capture of Kandahar.
In 1526 Baber, sixth in descent from Timurlane, invaded India, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi at the battle of Panipat, entered Delhi, was proclaimed emperor, and finally put an end to the Afghan empire.
The khanate was for long in dispute between Bokhara and Kabul, but in 1868 Abdur Rahman laid siege to the town, and it was compelled to come to terms. Its political status as an Afghan province was definitely fixed by the Russo-Afghan boundary commission of 1885.
Other products are manna, suffron, asafoetida and other gums. The chief manufactures are swords, stoneware, carpets and rugs, woollens, cottons, silks and sheepskin pelisses (pustin, Afghan poshtin).
A large force of Afghan troops was at that time in the Chitral river valley to the south of Chitral, nominally holding the Kafirs in check during the progress of boundary demarcation.
In this latter part of its course it forms the boundary between Afghan and Persian Seistan, and owing to constant changes in its bed and the swampy nature of its borders it has been a fertile source of frontier squabbles.
All the head of the Little Pamir, with the Wakhan valley, is consequently Afghan territory, but no military posts have been established so far.
In 1844, after the disasters of the Afghan war had shaken the prestige of British arms in India, no less than seven native regiments broke into open mutiny over grievances both real and fancied; and this time the old stern measures were not adopted to stamp out military disobedience.
To all these causes must be added - not least important in dealing with orientals - the widespread feeling since the Afghan disaster that the star of the company was in the descendant, and that there was truth in the old prophecy that the British would rule in India for a bare century from Plassey (1757).
It comprises about Soo houses of Afghan settlers, a colony of Jews and a small bazaar, set in the midst of a waste of ruins and many acres of debris.
The town is garrisoned by a few hundred kasidars, the regular troops of Afghan Turkestan being cantoned at Takhtapul, near Mazari-Sharif.
In 1850 Mahommed Akram Khan, Barakzai, captured Balkh, and from that time it remained under Afghan rule.
From 1540 to 1576 Bengal passed under the rule of the Pathan or Afghan dynasty, which commonly bears the name of Sher Shah.
The principal town is Mazar-i-Sharif, which in modern times has supplanted the ancient city of Balkh; and Taklitapul, near Mazar, is the chief Afghan cantonment north of the Hindu Kush.
Ethnically and historically Afghan Turkestan is more connected with Bokhara than with Kabul, of which government it has been a dependency only since the time of Dost Mahommed.
The sovereignty over Andkhui, Shibarghan, Saripul and Maimana was in dispute between Bokhara and Kabul until settled by the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1873 in favour of the Afghan claim.
Kabul is now connected by well-planned and metalled roads with Afghan Turkestan on the west, with the Oxus and Bokhara on the north, and with India on the east.
The road to India was first made by British and is now maintained by Afghan engineers.
A Russian envoy was sent to Kabul, where Shere Ali, who had succeeded his father Ddst Mahommed in 1863, was amir; and the British-government, alarmed at this new embarrassment, decided on sending a mission to the Afghan capital.
A better understanding was gradually established with Russia; and, before the ministry went out, steps had been taken which led to the delimitation of the Russian and Afghan frontier.
Haibak derives its importance from its position on the main line of communication between Kabul and Afghan Turkestan.
Lands north of the Naizar not belonging to the Afghan district of Lash Juwain may also be included in Outer Seistan; but it is unnecessary to make any distinction of the kind for the tract marked Hamun on the west, where it merges into the Persian frontier.
At the time of the Afghan invasion of Mir Mahmud (1722), Malik Mahommed Kaiani was the resident ruler in Seistan, and by league with the invader or other intrigue he secured for himself that particular principality and a great part of Khorasan also.
It is apparently derived from the Afghan name for their own language, Pushtu or Pukhtu, and may be traced back to the Paktues of Herodotus.
Clear, step-by-step instructions show you how to piece the squares together to create your finished Afghan.
Afghan refugees remain abroad.
Jolie, who is a goodwill ambassador for the United Nations, indicated that the Afghan refugee crisis is not yet over.
The Afghan civil war will continue into the foreseeable future, leaving the country fragmented and unstable.
As for having sympathy with the three Britons who were found among the Afghan detainees.
The traditional Afghan festivity had been banned during the Taliban regime.
Apart from these the Afghan campaign has been a complete flop.
When the advance party reached Fort Ali Masjid on the Afghan frontier, passage to Kabul was formally refused.
Actually, I was going to bring your attention to our range of Afghan hounds.
As a result of police inaction, the gunmen were able to get away in the direction of the Afghan border.
Afghan President Hamid Karzai says the violent insurgency in his country will likely continue for years to come.
Would the Taliban or Al-Qaida have emerged without US support for the Afghan jihad?
Because the Kabul regime has so badly mismanaged the economy, the Afghan people are starving.
This is a regular occurrence in the life of an Afghan woman.
The flood of Afghan opium has swamped Pakistani security forces.
They found themselves near Maiwand, an Afghan village on a desiccated dusty open plain with shade temperatures approaching 120 degrees.
Read more Human Rights Watch also noted that the Afghan government should immediately revoke a recently promulgated directive restricting the freedom of the press.
The Afghan rebels received about $ 3 billion from the CIA.
Afghan refugees cross the border into Pakistan at Chaman, near Quetta.
One was a life size statue of a sitting Afghan Hound in the man's study and that seemed topical.
Characteristics The Afghan Hound is a square built dog with a proud head carriage, eastern expression and a long silky topknot.
You know, when I lived in India, I heard many stories of the Legendary Afghan tribesman.
The Rohillas were a race of Afghan origin, who had established themselves for some generations in a fertile tract west of Oudh, between the Himalayas and the Ganges, which still bears the name of Rohilkhand.
Nub II., in order to retain at least a nominal sway over those Afghan territories, confirmed him in his high position and even invested Sabuktagin's son Mahmud with the governorship of Khorasan, in reward for the powerful help they had given him in his desperate struggles with a confederation of disaffected nobles of Bokhara under the leadership of Fa'iq and the troops of the Dailamites, a dynasty that had arisen on the shores of the Caspian Sea and wrested already from the hands of the Samanids all their western provinces.
In 1842 Ratan Singh supplied camels for the Afghan expedition; in 1844 he reduced the dues on goods passing through his country, and he gave assistance in both Sikh campaigns.
In 1885, at the moment when (see Afghanistan) the amir was in conference with the British viceroy, Lord Dufferin, in India, the news came of a collision between Russian and Afghan troops at Panjdeh, over a disputed point in the demarcation of the north-western frontier of Afghanistan.
He knew this to be the only policy that would be supported by the Afghan nation; and although for some time a rupture with Russia seemed imminent, while the Indian government made ready for that contingency, the amir's reserved and circumspect tone in the consultations with him helped to turn the balance between peace and war, and substantially conduced towards a pacific solution.
In the reign of Akbar, Bayazid Ansari, called Pir-i-Roshan, " the Saint of Light," the founder of an heretical sect, wrote in Pushtu; as did his chief antagonist, a famous Afghan saint called Akhund Darweza.
When, therefore, Baber invaded India in 1525, the greater part of the country was Mahommedan, but it did not recognize the authority of the Afghan sultan of the Lodi dynasty, who resided at Agra, and also ruled the historical The ast l D nast capital of Delhi.
Karim, by their aid, once more repaired his losses and advanced on Ispahan, while Muhammad Hasan with fifty thousand men was coming from the opposite direction, ready to encounter either the Afghan or the Zend.
From Meshed Aga Mahommed sent an envoy to Zaman Shah, asking for the cession of Balkh, and explaining his invasion of Khorasan; but the Afghan monarch was too perplexed with the troubles in his own country and his own insecure position to do more than send an unmeaning reply.
Pushlu (less accurately Afghan), which has certainly been increasingly influenced by the neighboring Indian languages in inflexion, syntax and vocabulary, but is still at bottom a pure Iranian language, not merely intermediate between Iranian.
When Taliban captured Kabul, mutual benefits and Taliban 's puritanical views brought bin Laden close to the Afghan militia.
He was on duty in the Afghan capital shortly after the fall of the Taliban when a ricocheting bullet hit him in the head.
Well, Afghan people should not have to pay for sins committed by them.
One was a life size statue of a sitting Afghan Hound in the man 's study and that seemed topical.
However, such a brutal attitude by America will unify the whole Afghan nation against aggression.
Although the elections are unparalleled in the country 's history, they should not be the last time the Afghan voice is heard.
These women are volleyball players, waving Afghan flags during the ceremony.
Picture, if you will, a queue of Afghan women waiting for a bus.
In the US warplane raiding areas of Helmand province, 3 Afghan children lost their lives.
Afghans-Your baby will look stylish in her handmade afghan.
A farmhouse sofa might contain an old-fashioned floral print with a handmade Afghan or quilted throw.
The Afghan born makeup artist reportedly developed a close relationship with Cowell while working closely with him during Susan Boyle's makeover.
In Dr Aitchisons Botany of the Afghan Delimitation Commission it is described as a shrub or tree occurring at an elevation of 3000 feet and upwards, near running streams, and cultivated largely in orchards for its fruit.
Lanegan has also worked with notable artists like Greg Dulli of the Afghan Wigs and Isobel Campbell from Belle and Sebastian.
Pick a project like a scarf or baby afghan that doesn't require turning or sizing.
I decided I wanted to use up the yarn by making a series of blocks that I would then stitch together into an afghan.
A crochet afghan is a classic of crafting.
It seems to me that everyone who learns how to crochet makes an afghan as one of his or her first projects.
Her are some options for free crochet afghan patterns you can start today.
A crochet afghan is already a quick project, but some people (notably the folks a Lion Brand yarn) want to help you make the project even more quickly.
If you're looking for more quick-to-crochet patterns, check out the Mile-A-Minute Afghan, the Quick Crochet Blanket and the Quickie Ripple Throw.
If time is not an issue and you want to move beyond the basics, there are many other options for crochet afghan patterns.
I started my return to knitting with a giant knitted afghan in Red Heart's Hokey Pokey yarn (variegated orange yarn, mind you). the design was simple but it took forever to finish.
A circular crochet needle is a tool used by an experienced crafter who wants to create a larger project, such as a double-sided afghan, with multiple colors and a finish that has the look and feel of being knitted.
You can also use an afghan hook, which is an elongated hook attached to a cable with a stopper at the end.
This method can create either a thick, spongy fabric, such as an afghan, or elongated stitches that spread the rows apart.
Small granny squares can be linked together to form an afghan, while larger squares can create tote bags or lap blankets.
The Heart Afghan Square has hearts incorporated into each block.
The Christmas Star Granny Square is perfect for a holiday afghan.
For instance, a queen size afghan uses roughly 11 skeins of three-ply yarn, which can run well over $100 if you use a more expensive fiber such as mohair or silk.
However, by shopping around, you can make the same afghan using a cotton or acrylic yarn for about half the price.
Knitting a baby hat is a lot quicker of a project than knitting an afghan for a queen size bed, for example.
From a small purse to a cozy afghan, you'll be ready for whatever the seasons throw your way.
As a bonus, a baby afghan pattern is also included.
A part of the Afghan force was encamped on the west bank of the Kushk, and on the 29th of March General Komarov sent an ultimatum demanding their withdrawal.
Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Baber for assistance.
He then allowed the military authorities to push forward in the direction of Afghanistan, until in March 1885 an engagement took place between Russian and Afghan forces at Panjdeh.
The western part of the range, which received the name of Paropamisus Mons from the ancients, diminishes in height west of the 65th meridian and constitutes the northern face of the Afghan and Persian plateau, rising abruptly from the plains of the Turkoman desert, which lies between the Oxus and the Caspian.
The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
From the Hari Rud on the Afghan west to the Sarikol mountains on the east her northern limits were set by the Boundary Commissions of 1884 political 1886 and of 1895 respectively.
As these districts had originally been Afghan, they were transferred to British authority by the treaty of Gandamak in 1879, although nominally they had been handed over to Kalat forty years previously.
The claim of the Durani Afghan to be a true Ben-i-Israel is certainly in no way weakened by any recent investigation.
It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
In this neighbourhood is concentrated most of the Afghan army north of the Hindu Kush mountains, the fortified cantonment of Dehdadi having been completed by Sirdar Ghulam Ali Khan and incorporated with Mazar.
The Morgani family are of Afghan descent.
From the Oxus (loon ft.) to Faizabad (4000 ft.) and Zebak (850o ft.) the course of the Kokcha offers a high road across Badakshan;, between Zebak and Ishkashim, at the Oxus bend, there is but an insignificant pass of 9500 ft.; and from Ishkashim by the Panja, through the Pamirs, is the continuation of what must once have been a much-traversed trade route connecting Afghan Turkestan with Kashgar and China.
As the river is here the northern boundary of Afghanistan, and the crest of the Hindu Kush the southern boundary, this distance represents the width of the Afghan kingdom at that point.
There are few passes across the southern section of the Hindu Kush (and this section is, from the politico-geographical point of view, more important to India than the whole Himalayan system) which have not to surmount a succession of crests or ridges as they cross from Afghan Turkestan to Afghanistan.
At that period the first Afghan War was at its height, and in crossing over from Persia through Afghanistan the Aga Khan found opportunities of rendering valuable services to the British army, and thus cast in his lot for ever with the British.
Four times was Herat sacked by Turkomans and Usbegs during the centuries which intervened between the Timuride princes and the rise of the Afghan power, and it has never in modern times attained to anything like its old importance.
Afghan tribes, who had originally dwelt far to the east, were first settled at Herat by Nadir Shah, and from that time they have monopolized the government and formed the dominant element in the population.
Let it suffice to say that Herat has been throughout the seat of an Afghan government, sometimes in subordination to Kabul and sometimes independent.
The inhabitants of this district have always been very independent and stubbornly resisted the Afghan and Sikh predecessors of the British.
But there are still treasures of literature concealed in private libraries, and Afghan, Persian, Armenian and Turkish bibliophiles still repair to Bokhara to buy rare books.
The Chinese had thoughts of pushing their conquests towards western Turkestan and Samarkand, the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of the Afghan king Ahmed Shah.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
In 1530 it became the residence of Shere Shah the Afghan, and forty-five years later was recovered by the emperor Akbar after sustaining a siege of six months.
He went out to reverse the Afghan policy of Lord Lytton, and Kandahar was given up, the whole of Afghanistan being secured to Abdur Rahman.
The general results of recent inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan is to support the general correctness of Bellew's theories of the origin of the Afghan races.
It will be needless to trace the revolutions and counter-revolutions which have followed each other in quick succession at Herat since Ahmad Shah Durani founded the Afghan monarchy about the middle of the 18th century.
In 1863 Herat, which for fifty years previously had been independent of Kabul, was incorporated by Dost Mahomed Khan in the Afghan monarchy, and the Amir, Habibullah of Afghanistan, like his father Abdur Rahman before him, remained Amir of Herat and Kandahar, as well as Kabul.
Where the Oxus river takes its great bend to the north from Ishkashim, the breadth of the Afghan territory intervening between that river and the main water-divide of the Hindu Kush is not more than 10 or 12 m.; and east of the Pamir extension of Afghanistan, where the Beyik Pass crosses the Sarikol range and drops into the Taghdumbash Pamir, there is but the narrow width of the Karachukar valley between the Sarikol and the Murtagh.