How to use Aether in a sentence
Even with the particles retarding the motion of the aether, the same will be true if, to counterbalance the increased inertia, suitable forces are caused to act on the aether at all points where the inertia is altered.
It banished the spirits and genii, to which even Kepler had assigned the guardianship of the planetary movements; and, if it supposes the globular particles of the envelope to be the active force in carrying the earth round the sun, we may remember that Newton himself assumed an aether for somewhat similar purposes.
Liber magnus, vulgo "Liber Adami" appellatus, opus Mandaeorum summi ponderis (2 vols., Berlin and Leipzig, 1867), is an excellent metallographic reproduction of the Paris MS. A German soul, permeates the whole aether, the domain of Ayar.
Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her character and attributes from a consideration of her cultepithets and ritual.
In his cosmogonic treatise on nature and the gods, called Hevr4tvxo (Preller's correction of Suidas, who has E7rTaµuXos) from the five elementary or original principles (aether, fire, air, water, earth; Gomperz substitutes smoke and darkness for aether and earth), he enunciated a system in which science, allegory and mythology were blended.Advertisement
To those who maintained the existence of a plenum as a philosophical principle, nature's abhorrence of a vacuum was a sufficient reason for imagining an all-surrounding aether, even though every other argument should be against it.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
The only aether which has survived is that which was invented by Huygens to explain the propagation of light.
The evidence for the existence of the luminiferous aether has accumulated as additional phenomena of light and other radiations have been discovered; and the properties of this medium, as deduced from the phenomena of light, have been found to be precisely those required to explain electromagnetic phenomena."
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.Advertisement
In the remainder of the article referred to, Maxwell reviews the evidence for the necessity of an aether, from the fact that light takes time to travel, while it cannot travel as a substance, for if so two interfering lights could not mask each other in the dark fringes.
Light is therefore an influence propagated as wave-motion, and moreover by transverse undulations, for the reasons brought out by Thomas Young and Augustin Fresnel; so that the aether is a medium which possesses elasticity of a type analogous to rigidity.
Let E be the effective elasticity of the aether; then E = pc t, where p is its density, and c the velocity of light which is 3 X 10 10 cm./sec. If = A cos" (t - x/c) is the linear vibration, the stress is E dE/dx; and the total energy, which is twice the kinetic energy Zp(d/dt) 2 dx, is 2pn2A2 per cm., which is thus equal to 1.8 ergs as above.
It follows that the density of the aether must exceed io 18, and its elastic modulus must exceed Io 3, which is only about io s of the modulus of rigidity of glass.
It thus appears that if the amplitude of vibration could be as much as 1 o_2 of the wave-length, the aether would be an excessively rare medium with very slight elasticity; and yet it would be capable of transmitting the supply of solar energy on which all terrestrial activity depends.Advertisement
But on the modern theory, which includes the play of electrical phenomena as a function of the aether, there are other considerations which show that this number io 2 is really an enormous overestimate; and it is not impossible that the co-efficient of ultimate inertia of the aether is greater than the co-efficient of inertia (of different kind) of any existing material substance.
The question of whether the aether is carried along by the earth's motion has been considered from the early days of the undulatory theory of light.
In reviving that theory at the beginning of the 19th century, Thomas Young stated his conviction that material media offered an open structure to the substance called aether, which passed through them without hindrance " like the wind through a grove of trees."
It has further been verified by Sir Oliver Lodge that even in very narrow spaces the aether is not entrained by its surroundings when they are put into rapid motion.
Lord Kelvin was thereby induced to identify magnetic force with rotation, involving, therefore, angular momentum in the aether.Advertisement
If the aether were itself constituted of discrete molecules, on the model of material bodies, such transparency would not be conceivable.
We must be content to treat the aether as a plenum, which places it in a class by itself; and we can thus recognize that it may behave very differently from matter, though in some manner consistent with itself - a remark which is fundamental in the modern theory.
Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.
Now this doctrine of material atoms is an almost necessary corollary to the doctrine of a universal aether.
We might consider that matter and aether can coexist in the same space; this would involve the co-existence and interaction of a double set of properties, introducing great complication, which would place any coherent scheme of physical action probably beyond the powers of human analysis.Advertisement
Or we might consider that aether exists only where matter is not, thus making it a very rare and subtle and elastic kind of matter; then we should have to assign these very properties to the matter itself where it replaces aether, in addition to its more familiar properties, and the complication would remain.
The other course is to consider matter as formed of ultimate atoms, each the nucleus or core of an intrinsic modification impressed on the surrounding region of the aether; this might conceivably be of the nature of vortical motion of a liquid round a ring-core, thus giving a vortex atom, or of an intrinsic strain of some sort radiating from a core, which would give an electric atom.
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
Returning now to the aether, on our present point of view no such complications there arise; it must be regarded as a continuous uniform medium free from any complexities of atomic aggregation, whose function is confined to the transmission of the various types of physical effect between the portions of matter.
If we rest on the synthesis here described, the energy of the matter, even the thermal part, appears largely as potential energy of strain in the aether which interacts with the kinetic energy associated with disturbances involving finite velocity of matter.Advertisement
An important question arises whether, when a material body is moved through the aether, the nucleus of each atom carries some of the surrounding aether along with it; or whether it practically only carries on its strain-form or physical atmosphere, which is transferred from one portion of aether to another after the manner of a shadow, or rather like a loose knot which can slip along a rope without the rope being required to go with it.
The nature of the motion, if any, that is produced in the surrounding regions of the aether by the translation of matter through it can be investigated by optical experiment.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
We shall make the natural supposition that motion of the aether, say with velocity (u,v,w) at the point (x,y,z), is simply superposed on the velocity V of the optical undulations through that medium, the latter not being intrinsically altered.
Thus the path of the ray when the aether is at rest is the curve which makes fds/V least; but when it is in motion it is the curve which makes fds/(V+lug-m y -I-nw) least, where (l,m,n) is the direction vector of Ss.Advertisement
If this relation is true along all paths, the velocity of the aether must be of irrotational type, like that of frictionless fluid.
Moreover, this is precisely the condition for the absence of interference between the component of a split beam; because, the time of passage being to the first order fds/V f(udx+vdy+wdz)V2, the second term will then be independent of the path (43 being a single valued function) and therefore the same for the paths of both the interfering beams. If therefore the aether can be put into motion, we conclude (with Stokes) that such motion, in free space, must be of strictly irrotational type.
In the simplest case, that of uniform translation, these components of the gradient will each be constant throughout the region; at a distant place in free aether where there is no motion, they must thus be equal to -u,-v,-w, as they refer to axes moving with the matter.
This result is inconsistent with the aether remaining at rest, unless we assume that the dimensions of the moving system depend, though to an extent so small as to be not otherwise detectable, on its orientation with regard to the aether that is streaming through it.
It is, however, in complete accordance with a view that would make the aether near the earth fully partake in its orbital motion - a view which the null effect of convection on all terrestrial optical and electrical phenomena also strongly suggests.Advertisement
These conditions cannot be consistent with sensible convection of the aether near the earth without involving discontinuity in its motion at some intermediate distance, so that we are thrown back on the previous theory.
Another powerful reason for taking the aether to be stationary is afforded by the character of the equations of electrodynamics; they are all of linear type, and superposition of effects is possible.
The analytical equations which represent the propagation of light in free aether, and also in aether modified by the presence of matter, were originally developed on the analogy of the equations of propagation of elastic effects in solid media.
Various types of elastic solid medium have thus been invented to represent the aether, without complete success in any case.
The aether is taken to be at rest; and the strain-forms belonging to the atoms are the electric fields of the intrinsic charges, or electrones, involved in their constitution.Advertisement
When the atoms are in motion these strain-forms produce straining and unstraining in the aether as they pass across it, which in its motional or kinetic aspect constitutes the resulting magnetic field; as the strains are slight the coefficient of ultimate inertia here involved must be great.
The polarization itself is determined from the electric force (P,Q,R) by the usual statical formula of linear type which becomes tor an isotropic medium (.f',g',h') = c2(P,Q,R), because any change of the dielectric constant K arising from the convection of the material through the aether must be independent of the sign of v and therefore be of the second order.
Larmor, Aether and Matter, p. 262 and passim.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
The corollary, that the electric resistance of a metal can be determined in absolute units by experiments on the reflexion of heat-rays from its surface, is a striking illustration of the unification of the various branches of physical science, which has come in the train of the development of the theory of the aether.Advertisement
These results constitute a far-reaching development of the modern or electrodynamic theory of the aether, of which the issue can hardly yet be foreseen.
Wood, have been written largely on the basis of the general physics of the aether; while the Collected Papers of Lord Rayleigh should be accessible to all who desire a first-hand knowledge of the development of the optical side of the subject.
In 1902, in an "attempt at a chemical conception of the ether," he put forward the hypothesis that there are in existence two elements of smaller atomic weight than hydrogen, and that the lighter of these is a chemically inert, exceedingly mobile, all-penetrating and all-pervading gas, which constitutes the aether.
Still a man is not the only organism; and every organism has a soul, whose immediate organ is the spirit (7rvEwµa), a body which - analogous to a body diviner than the four so-called elements, namely the aether, the element of the stars - gives to the organism its nonterrestrial vital heat, whether it be a plant or an animal.
The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
This subject is discussed in the articles Aether and Light.
Thomson also developed this hypothesis in a profoundly interesting manner, and we may therefore summarize very briefly the views held on the nature of electricity and matter at the beginning of the 10th century by saying that the term electricity had come to be regarded, in part at least, as a collective name for electrons, which in turn must be considered as constituents of the chemical atom, furthermore as centres of certain lines of self-locked and permanent strain existing in the universal aether or electromagnetic medium.
It is not, however, a mere abstraction, being filled with clouds and darkness; from it proceed Erebus and Nyx (Night), whose children are Aether (upper air) and Hemera (Day).
In the Orphic cosmogony the origin of all goes back to Chronos, the personification of time, who produces Aether and Chaos.
To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so immense.
When a system vibrating in a free period of its own encounters, say through the medium of an enveloping aether, a second system having a different free period, and sets it in vibration, the amplitude of the second vibration is inconsiderable, except when the periods approach equality.
He regarded the sun as the abode of God, the intelligent providence, or (in accordance with Stoical materialism) the vivifying fire or aether of the universe.
This pantheistic doctrine harmonized thoroughly with the Stoic view of human good; but being unable to conceive substance idealistically, they (with considerable aid from the system of Heraclitus) supplied a materialistic side to their pantheism, - conceiving divine thought as an attribute of the purest and most primary of material substances, a subtle fiery aether.
And through the process of waste thus set on foot, they finally dissolved into the aether, and expired " like spinning insects."
I suggest you read up of the history of luminiferous aether - it should give you pause for thought.
I'm not exactly powerful enough ta take on tha Aether, nor do I have any particular wish ta.
According to our hypothesis, the foreign matter may be supposed to load the aether, so as to increase its inertia without altering its resistance to distortion.
The determination of the motion in the aether, due to the action of a periodic force at a given point, is discussed in the article Diffraction Of Light (§ Ii).
Thus by equation (18) of § II of the article Diffraction Of Light, the secondary disturbance is expressed by D' - D n 2 Tsin sin (nt - kr) D 47rb2 r _ D' - D irTsin O sin (nt - kr) (3)1 The preceding investigation is based upon the assumption that in passing from one medium to another the rigidity of the aether does not change.
In some cases they come and go, or dissolve into an aether round the sun; but in other cases they gradually increase until they form a dense crust round the central nucleus.
In any case the discovery is to some extent his own, for his proof of the law is founded upon the theory that light is the propagation of the aether in straight lines from the sun or luminous body to the eye (see Light).
On light Franklin wrote to David Rittenhouse in June 1784; the sum of his own conjectures was that the corpuscular theory of Newton was wrong, and that light was due to the vibration of an elastic aether.
In the remainder of the article referred to, Maxwell reviews the evidence for the necessity of an aether, from the fact that light takes time to travel, while it cannot travel as a substance, for if so two interfering lights could not mask each other in the dark fringes (see Interference Of Light).
Here then we have the basis of a view in which there are not two media to be considered, but one medium, homogeneous in essence and differentiated as regards its parts only by the presence of nuclei of intrinsic strain or motion - in which the physical activities of matter are identified with those arising from the atmospheres of modified aether which thus belong to its atoms. As regards laws of general physical interactions, the atom is fully represented by the constitution of this atmosphere, and its nucleus may be left out of our discussions; but in the problems of biology great tracts of invariable correlations have to be dealt with, which seem hopelessly more complex than any known or humanly possible physical scheme.
If the path is to be unaltered by the motion of the aether, as the law of astronomical aberration suggests, this must differ from fds/V by terms not depending on the path - that is, by terms involving only the beginning and end of it.
But the aether at a great distance must in any case be at rest; while the facts of astronomical aberration require that the motion of that medium must be irrotational.
But when the rate of change of aethereal strain - that is, of (f,g,h) specified as Maxwell's electric displacement in free aether - is added to it, an analytically convenient vector (u,v,w) is obtained which possesses the characteristic property of being circuital like the flow of an incompressible fluid, and has therefore been made fundamental in the theory by Maxwell under the name of the total electric current.
The latter force is, by Maxwell's hypothesis or by the dynamical theory of an aether pervaded by electrons, the same as that which strair s the aether, and may be called the aethereal force; it thereby produces an aethereal electric displacement, say (f,g,h), according to the relation (f,g,h) = (41 r c 2) - 1(P',Q', RI), in which c is a constant belonging to the aether, which turns out to be the velocity of light.
According to Huygens's principle (see Diffraction) each aether particle, set vibrating by an incident wave, can itself act as a new centre of excitement, emitting a spherical wave; and similarly each particle on this wave itself produces wave systems. All systems which are emitted from a single source can by a suitable optical device be directed that they simultaneously influence one and the same aether particle.
You shrug slightly Drasoini says, The Aether heals in different ways.
I 'm not exactly powerful enough ta take on tha Aether, nor do I have any particular wish ta.
The game takes you to planet Aether, where moth-like critters, called Luminoth, are living off the planet's natural energy.
In one player mode, you are stranded on a distant planet called Aether.
But what if the Ship of the Aether is operated by scholar-priests via incantation and appropriate religious observances?