by the ranges of Grammos and Pindus; the entire chain, a prolongation of the Alpine systems of Bosnia and Dalmatia, may be described as the backbone of the peninsula; it forms the watershed between the Aegean and the Adriatic, and culminates in the lofty peak of Liubotrn, near Kalkandele, one of the highest summits in south-eastern Europe (8858 ft.).
the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.
about 1750), an able, cruel and unscrupulous man, subdued the neighbouring pashas and chiefs, crushed the Suliotes and Khimarrhotes, and exercised a practically independent sovereignty from the Adriatic to the Aegean.
After traversing North Italy, in a direction first southerly and then easterly, it falls into the Adriatic at Porto Fossone, a few miles north of the mouth of the Po.
According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first of all the Greeks to undertake distant voyages, and made known the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain.
One chief result of the manner in which the Apennines traverse Italy from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic is the marked division between Northern Italy, including the region north of the Apennines and extending thence to the foot of the Alps, and the central and more southerly portions of the peninsula.
From its source in Monte Viso to its outflow into the Adriatic—a distance of more than 220 m.
is the Adige, which, after pursuing a parallel course with the Po for a considerable distance, enters the Adriatic by a separate mouth.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
The southernmost of these, the Po di Primaro, enters the Adriatic about 12 m.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
The tract adjoining this long line of lagoons is, like the basin of the Po, a broad expanse of perfectly level alluvial plain, extending from the Adige eastwards to the Carnic Alps, where they approach close to the Adriatic between Aquileia and Trieste, and northwards to the foot of the great chain, which here sweeps round in a semicircle from the neighborhood of Vicenza to that of Aquileia.
The other small streams east of this—of which the most considerable are the Solaro, the Santerno, flowing by Imola, the Lamone by Faenza, the Montone by ForlÃ¬, all in Roman times tributaries of the Po—have their outlet in like manner into the Po di Primaro, or by artificial mouths into the Adriatic between Ravenna and Rimini.
The Savio is the only other stream of any importance which has always flowed directly into the Adriatic from this side of the Tuscan Apennines.
The geography of Central Italy is almost wholly determined by the Apennines, which traverse it in a direction from about north-north-east to south-south-west, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara.
from the Adriatic, while about double that distance separates it from the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west.
On the east side in like manner the Monte Gargano (3465 ft.), a detached limestone mass which projects in a bold spur-like promontory into the Adriatic, forming the only break in the otherwise uniform coast-line of Italy on that sea, though separated from the great body of the Apennines by a considerable interval of low country, may be considered as merely an outlier from the central mass.
Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.
Proceeding south from the Trigno, already mentioned as constituting the limit of Central Italy, there are (1) the Biferno and (2) the Fortore, both rising in the mountains of Samnium, and flowing into the Adriatic west of Monte Gargano; (3) the Cervaro, south of the great promontory; and (4) the Ofanto, the Aufidus of Horace, whose description of it is characteristic of almost all the rivers of Southern Italy, of which it may be taken as the typical representative.
The so-called lakes on the coast of the Adriatic north and south of the promontory of Gargano are brackish lagoons communicating with the sea.
It is a great depression—the continuation of the Adriatic Sea—filled up by deposits brought down by the rivers from the mountains.
of this district, and even more to the north, the olive, the fig-tree and the orange thrive luxuriantly on the shores of the Adriatic from Ortona to Vasto.
It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto del Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ioian Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples.
Most of the fishing boats, properly so called, start from the Adriatic coast, the coral boats from the western Mediterranean coast, and the sponge boats from the western Mediterranean and Sicilian coasts.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
in length) from Domodossola to Brigue, the St Gotthard from Milan to Chiasso (the tunnel is entirely in Swiss territory), the Brenner from Verona to Trent, the line from Udine to Tarvis and the line from Venice to Triest by the Adriatic coast.
(I) It is probable, though not very clearly demonstrated, that Venetic, East Italic and Messapian are connected together and with the ancient dialects spoken in Illyria, so that these might be provisionally entitled the Adriatic group, to which the language spoken.
The fifth region was composed solely of Picenum, extending along the coast of the Adriatic from the mouth of the Matrinus to that of the Aesis, beyond Ancona.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
It was separated from Etruria and Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and the river Ariminus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit on the Adriatic.
The tenth region included Venetia from the Padus and Adriatic to the Alps, to which was annexed the neighboring peninsula of Istria, and to the west the territory of the Cenomani, a Gaulish tribe, extending from the Athesis to the Addua, which had previously been regarded as a part of Gallia Cisalpina.
The Via Salaria, a very ancient road, with its branch, the Via Caecilia, ran north-eastwards to the Adriatic coast and so also did the Via Flaminia, which reached the coast at Fanum Fortunae, and thence followed it to Ariminum.
Venici strengthened herself between the Adriatic and the Alps.
The second and decisive battle was fought upon the Adriatic. The Genoese fleet under Luciano Doria defeated the Venetians off Pola in 1379, and sailed without opposition to Chioggia, which was stormed and taken.
Yet she kept the Adriatic free of pirates, notably by suppressing the sea-robbers called Uscocchi (1601-1617), maintained herself in the Ionian Islands, and in 1684 added one more to the series of victorious episodes which render her annals so romantic. In that year Francesco Morosini, upon whose tomb we still may read the title Peloponnesiacus, wrested the whole of the Morea from the Turks.
Venice with its mainland End of the territories east of the Adige, inclusive of Istria and Dalmatia, went to the Habsburgs, while the Venetian isles of the Adriatic (the lonian Isles) and the Venetian fleet went to strengthen France for that eastern expedition on which Bonaparte had already set his heart.
For twelve years these committees had remained comparatively inactive, but in 1878 the presence of the ex-Garibaldian Cairoli at the head of the government, and popular dissatisfaction at the spread of Austrian sway on the Adriatic, encouraged them to begin a series of noisy demonstrations.
Austria undertook to guard the Adriatic on land and sea, and to help Germany by checkmating Russia on land.
On the 6th of March 1885 parliament finally sanctioned the conventions by which state railways were farmed out to three private companiesthe Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian.
the line from Bologna to Brindisi belonging to the Societ Meridionale to whom the Adriatic lines were now farmed), but sold rolling stock to the companies, arranged various schedules of state subsidy for lines projected or in.
which skirts the Adriatic coast.
Similarly, in regard to Albania, Visconti Venosta exchanged notes with Austria with a view to the prevention of any misunderstanding through the conflict between Italian and Austrian interests in that part of the Adriatic coast.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.
BUTRINTO, a seaport and fortified town of southern Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina; directly opposite the island of Corfu (Corcyra), and on a small stream which issues from Lake Vatzindro or Vivari, into the Bay of Butrinto, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea.
An experiment made on the railway staff at Bovino, a highly malarious district on the Adriatic, gave a striking result.
The town occupies the site of the ancient Atria, which gave its name to the Adriatic. Its origin is variously ascribed by ancient writers, but it was probably a Venetian, i.e.
With the exception of the Idria and the Wippach, which as tributaries of the Isonzo belong to the basin of the Adriatic, Carniola belongs to the watershed of the Save.
In foreign affairs he succeeded in achieving as satisfactory a solution of the Adriatic problem as was possible under the circumstances.
Still farther to the north-west a distinct Minoan influence is perceptible in the old Illyrian lands east of the Adriatic, and its traces reappear in the neighbourhood of Venice.
It is Adriatic well marked throughout southern Italy from Taranto and to Naples.
He joined the Illyrians in an attempt to plunder the temple of Delphi, pillaged the temple of Caere on the Etruscan coast, and founded several military colonies on the Adriatic. In the Peloponnesian War he espoused the side of the Spartans, and assisted them with mercenaries.
TYRANNIUS RUFINUS, presbyter and theologian, was born at or near Aquileia at the head of the Adriatic, probably between 340 an 345.
At the time of his first view of the Adriatic (February 1797) he noted the importance of the port of Ancona for intercourse with the Sultan's dominions; and at that city fortune placed in his hands Russian despatches relative to the designs of the Tsar Paul on Malta.
Already, as may be seen by his letters to the Directory, he had laid his plans for the bartering away of the Queen of the Adriatic to Austria; and throughout the lengthy negotiations of the summer and early autumn of 1797 which he conducted with little interference from Paris, he adhered to his plan of gaining the fleet and the Ionian Isles; while the house of Habsburg was to acquire the city itself, together with all the mainland territories of the Republic as far west as the River Adige.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
At the head of the Adriatic, between the mountains and the sea, lies that part of the Lombard plain known as the Veneto.
A strong current sets round the head of the Adriatic from east to west.
With the destruction of the mainland cities by repeated barbarian invasions, and thanks to the gradual development of Venice as a centre of coasting trade in the northern Adriatic, the aspect of the city changed.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
The doge assumed the title of duke of Dalmatia, and a great step was taken towards the supremacy of Venice in the Adriatic, which was essential to the free development of her commerce and also enabled her to reap the pecuniary advantages to be derived from the Crusades.
The fall of Tyre marks a great advance in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards that complete command of the Levant which she established after the Fourth Crusade.
Adriatic had been temporarily shaken.
To her fell the Cyclades, the Sporades, the islands and the eastern shores of the Adriatic, the shores of the Propontis and the Euxine, and the littoral of Thessaly, and she bought Crete from the marquis of Monferrat.
She now commanded the Adriatic, the Ionian islands, the archipelago, the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea, the trade route between Constantinople and western Europe, and she had already established herself in the seaports of Syria, and thus held the trade route between Asia Minor and Europe.
The decisive engagement, however, of this campaign was fought at Curzola (1299) in the Adriatic, when Venice suffered a crushing defeat.
The Genoese Admiral Luciano Doria sailed into the Adriatic, attacked and defeated Vettor Pisani at Pola in Istria, and again Venice and the lagoons lay at the mercy of the enemy.
The principal river is the Drave, which flows from west to east through the length of the duchy, and receives in its course the waters of all the other streams, except the Fella, which reaches the Adriatic by its junction with the Tagliamento.
The conquest of Zara, a port on the Adriatic claimed by the Venetians from the king of Hungary, was the only object overtly mentioned; but the idea of the expedition to Constantinople was in the air, and the crusaders knew what was ultimately expected.
28) on a voyage across the Adriatic, and was buried, as we are told, at Matinum in Apulia.
ARBE (Serbo-Croatian Rab), an island in the Adriatic Sea, forming the northernmost point of Dalmatia, Austria.
" From the Euxine to the Adriatic, in the state of captives or subjects, ...
by the Adriatic, on the S.E.
On the Adriatic the coast extended 140 m.
Opposite to the promontory of Sabbioncello, and at the entrance to the Bocche di Cattaro, the frontier of Herzegovina comes down to the Adriatic; but these two strips of coast do not contain any good harbour, and extend only for a total distance of 141 m.
Bosnia belongs wholly to the watershed of the Save, and its rivers to the Danubian system, no large stream finding a way to the Adriatic. The Save flows eastward along the northern frontier for 237 m.
Its mountains, which belong to the Adriatic watershed, and form a continuation of the Montenegrin highlands, are less rounded and more dolomitic in character.
Rising on the Montenegrin border, under the Lebrsnik mountains, it flows north-westwards at the foot of the Dinaric Alps; and, near Konjica, sweeps round suddenly to the south, and falls into the Adriatic near Metkovic, after traversing 125 m.
With Venetian aid he wrested from Hungary the entire Adriatic littoral between Fiume and Cattaro, except the city of Zara; thus adding Dalmatia to his kingdom at the moment when Servia was lost through the Ottoman victory of Kossovo (1389).
At his coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar; and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
Avlona occupies an eminence near the Gulf of Avlona, an inlet of the Adriatic, almost surrounded by mountains.
by the Ionian and Adriatic Seas.
(For maps of Asiatic Turkey, see Arabia; Armenia; Asia Minor; Palestine; Syria.) The possessions of the sultan in Europe now consist of a strip of territory stretching continuously across the Balkan Peninsula from the Bosporus to the Adriatic (29° to' to 19° 20' E.), and lying in the east mainly between 40° and 42° and in the west between 39 0 and 43° N.
Again, others (Apollonius Rhodius) laid down the course as up the Danube (Ister), from it into the Adriatic by a supposed mouth of that river, and on to Corcyra, where a storm overtook them.
One of these skirted the southern coast, being a continuation of the Via Egnatia, which ran from Dyrrhachium to Thessalonica, thus connecting the Adriatic and the Aegean; it became of the first importance after the foundation of Constantinople, because it was the direct line of communication between that city and Rome.
TRANI, a seaport and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, on the Adriatic, in the province of Bari, and 26 m.
It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than loo m.).
The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic. The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of 585'.m.
In Transylvania the climate bears the extreme characteristics peculiar to mountainous countries interspersed with valleys; whilst the climate of the districts bordering on the Adriatic is modified by the neighbourhood of the sea.
- On the Adriatic lies the port of Fiume (q.v.), the only direct outlet by sea for the produce of Hungary.
Thus, during the last twelve years of his reign, the dominions of Louis the Great included the greater part of central Europe, from Pomerania to the Danube, and from the Adriatic to the steppes of the Dnieper.
Thus, towards the end of his reign, Louis found himself cut off from the Greek emperor, his sole ally in the Balkans, by a chain of bitterly hostile Greek-Orthodox states, extending from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The 1 Knatchbull-Hugessen, i.
That the Great Powers were so long in according official recognition to the new state was due to purely political reasons connected with the Adriatic dispute.
After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
The agreement signed between them in London on March 7 1918 laid down the basis of ItaloYugoslav cooperation: it recognized each of the two nations to be equally interested in the completion of the other's national unity, and in the liberation of the Adriatic. It left territorial questions to be decided amicably after the war, " on the basis of the principle of nationality and self-determination," and mutually guaranteed the rights of national minorities.
a mainly Yugoslav revolutionary committee had almost gained control of the Cattaro naval base, which would have fallen into Entente hands if the ringleaders, who crossed the Adriatic for help, had not been detained by subordinate Italian subordinates until the Pola squadron had time to crush the mutiny.
America pointedly defined the Adriatic problem as a test case, but amid the pressure of other affairs it was allowed to drift.
The Adriatic Crisis.
At the Paris Conference there was from the first a deadlock in the Adriatic dispute.
It then defined what came to be known as " the Wilson Line," which assigned to Italy Gorizia, Trieste and Istria west of the river Arsa, but not Fiume, which must become an international port, nor any points south of it, save perhaps Lissa and Valona: it also advocated the dismantling of the whole eastern Adriatic coast.
On April 23 President Wilson followed up this private memorandum by a public manifesto to the Italian nation, in which he repudiated the Pact of London and appealed for the application of the same principles on the Adriatic as those enforced against Germany.
During the final stages of the German treaty the Adriatic problem was once more shelved, until on June 29 and July 6 armed conflicts took place in the streets of Fiume between Italian and French soldiers, resulting in several deaths.
After their passage the Adriatic question was again allowed to stagnate, the Powers resuming their negative attitude, while advocating direct discussion between the two parties.
Under his weaker but more neutral guidance, and aided by the unifying force of the Adriatic crisis, the parties reached agreement upon a new parliamentary franchise, based on universal suffrage.
On Adriatic questions, see C. Maranelli and G.
by the Adriatic, S.
The arrival of German submarines 3 during this month proved 3 Already a special German submarine command had been established in the Adriatic, with bases at Pola and Cattaro, and some small boats were sent thither by rail.
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
It commands a splendid view of the Apennines, on every side except the east, where the Adriatic is seen.
Trieste is situated at the northeast angle of the Adriatic Sea, on the Gulf of Trieste, and is picturesquely built on terraces at the foot of the Karst hills.
Among the most prominent secular buildings are: the Tergesteo, a huge edifice containing a cruciform arcade roofed with glass, where the exchange is established, besides numerous shops and offices; the town-hall, rebuilt in 1874, with the handsome hall of the local Diet; the imposing old exchange, now the seat of the chamber of commerce; the palatial offices of the Austrian Lloyd, the principal shipping company; the commercial and nautical academy, with its natural history museum, containing the complete fauna of the Adriatic Sea; and finally the municipal museum, Revoltella, are all worth mentioning.
It may be said nearly to monopolize the trade of the Adriatic, and has long eclipsed its ancient rival Venice.
It owes its development to its geographical situation in the north-east angle of the Adriatic Sea at the end of the deeply indented gulf, and to its harbour, which was more accessible to large vessels than that of Venice.
The natural route overland through Marseilles and Toulouse was held by his enemies; that through the empire from the head of the Adriatic was little safer, since Leopold of Austria was on the watch for him.
Then a belt of imperial territory stretching from Rimini on the Adriatic, S.W.
In 344, or one of the following years, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic. In 342 Philip led a great expedition north "comparable to nothing in antiquity since Darius' famous march to Scythia."
Greece she controlled the Italian and Adriatic trade-routes and secured a large share of the commerce with the western Greeks.
coast of the Adriatic, and one of the best in Italy.
To the north this province comprises the middle portion of the Inn Valley, with its tributaries, as well as the upper portion of the Lech valley, all flowing towards the Danube and so to the Black Sea, while south of the pass is the great upper valley of the Adige or Etsch, with many tributaries, as well as (since 1500) a portion of the upper Drave valley, which physically belongs to Carinthia - all these (save the Drave) flow to the Adriatic Sea.
VIA SALARIA, an ancient highroad of Italy, which ran from Rome by Reate and Asculum to Castrum Truentinum (Porto d'Ascoli) on the Adriatic coast, a distance of 151 m.
In the same way a mean angle of slope of approximately half a degree was found for the Adriatic and the Black Sea.
The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
Even in the Mediterranean sea-ice is formed annually in the northern part of the Black Sea, and more rarely in the Gulf of Salonica and at the head of the Adriatic off Triest.
Seen from the Adriatic, Monte Corno, as it is someti, mes called, from its resemblance to a horn, affords a magnificent spectacle; the Alpine region beneath its summit is still the home of the wild boar, and here and there are dense woods of beech and pine.
Sebenico is built on a hill overlooking the river Kerka, which here forms a broad basin, connected by a winding channel with the Adriatic Sea, 3 m.
Potentia must be distinguished from Potentia in Picenum, on the Adriatic coast, near the modern Porto di Recanati, a colony founded in 184 B.C., the same year as Pisaurum, but of which little is known.
The number of Istrians and Dalmatians who came from the Adriatic to dig for kauri gum led to the passing of restrictive laws.
Banjaluka is probably the Roman fort, marked, in the Tabula Peutingeriana, as Castra, on the river Urbanus and the road from Salona on the Adriatic to Servitium in Pannonia.
As a ruler of a rising great power in search of a seaboard he was the natural adversary of the Venetian republic, which already aimed at making the Adriatic a purely Venetian sea and resented the proximity of the Magyars in Dalmatia.
The Germans of the Alpine lands were less ready to carry out the same principle in Tirol and the regions leading down to the Adriatic. The divided policy of the Germans led on all sides to their failure.
In Tirol they lost even purely German territories; they were pressed back from the Adriatic; and in the lands S.
The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Sla y s of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment.
Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.
Commerce is chiefly agricultural and is stimulated by a good position in the railway system, and by a canal which opens a water-way by the Panaro and the Po to the Adriatic. Modena is the point at which the railway to Mantua and Verona diverges from that between Milan and Bologna, and has several steam tramways to neighbouring places.
from Rome, and ran by Amiternum to the Adriatic coast, passing probably by Hadria.
The only portion of the community which had no privileges were the Jews, first introduced into Poland by Boleslaus the Pious, duke of Great Poland, in 1264, when bitter persecutions had driven them northwards from the shores of the Adriatic. Casimir the Great extended their liberty of domicile over the whole kingdom (1334).
bucintoro), the state gallery of the doges of Venice, on which, every year on Ascension day up to 1789, they put into the Adriatic in order to perform the ceremony of "wedding the sea."
The "Marriage of the Adriatic," or more correctly "of the sea" (Sposalizio del Mar) was a ceremony symbolizing the maritime dominion of Venice.
Caesar was soon joined by two legions from Gaul and marched rapidly down the Adriatic coast, overtaking Pompey at Brundisium (Brindisi), but failing to prevent him from embarking with his troops for the East, where the prestige of his name was greatest.
Adriatic Sea >>
VENETIA, a territorial division of northern Italy, lying between the Alps and the Adriatic, and stretching from the frontier of Carinthia and Istria (Austria) in the north-east to the lower Po and Lombardy in the south-west.
The territory differs much in character; the Po and other smaller rivers which fall into the Adriatic terminate in a huge and continually advancing delta which extends right along the coast, and is liable to inundation.
9), they dwelt beyond the Danube, and their frontiers extended almost as far as the Eneti on the Adriatic. Their horses (or rather, ponies) were small, with shaggy long hair, not strong enough to carry men, but very speedy when driven in harness.
He gathered a fine Norman army (perhaps the finest division in the crusading host), at the head of which he crossed the Adriatic, and penetrated to Constantinople along the route he had tried to follow in 1082-1084.
AQUILEIA, an ancient town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 6 m.
Though this disaster was retrieved by the successful defence of Edessa by George Maniakes and by the defeat of a Saracen 'fleet in the Adriatic, Romanus never recovered his popularity.
of Aquileia, at the northern extremity of the peninsula of Istria, in a bay at the head of the Adriatic Sea.
by Istria, the Triestine territory and the Adriatic, W.
before it reaches the Adriatic. At Gorz the Isonzo is still 138 ft.
In the interests of their temporal dominion, the 12th-century popes could not suffer an Italian power to dominate on the other side of the Adriatic and instal itself at Constantinople.
During the whole tenure of office the Marquis di San Giuliano was an ardent believer in the Triple Affiance, on which he thought that Italy's foreign policy should be based, and attached the greatest importance to a good understanding with Austria, an attitude not calculated to win him popularity in many circles; under his guidance consequently Italy opposed Serbia's desire for a port on the Adriatic and Greece's aspirations in Epirus, and supported the policy of creating an independent Albanian State.
ADRIATIC SEA (ancient Adria or Hadria), an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating Italy from the Austro-Hungarian, Montenegrin and Albanian littorals, and the system of the Apennine mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges.
But even then the Adriatic in the narrower sense only extended as far as the Mons Garganus, the outer portion being called the Ionian Sea: the name was sometimes, however, inaccurately used to include the Gulf of Tarentum, the Sea of Sicily, the Gulf of Corinth and even the sea between Crete and Malta (Acts xxvii.
The Adriatic extends N.W.
They can hardly have fetched it themselves from the Baltic or the North Sea; it came to them by two wellmarked routes, one from the Baltic to the Adriatic, the other up the Rhine and down the Rhone.
by the Adriatic; area 1908 sq.
m.), which stretches into the Adriatic Sea between the Gulf of Trieste and the Gulf of Quarnero, and the islands of Veglia, Cherso, Lussino and others.
In the south and west the surface gradually slopes down in undulating terraces towards the Adriatic. The Quieto in the west and the Arsa in the east, neither navigable, are the principal streams. The climate of Istria, although it varies with the varieties of surface, is on the whole warm and dry.
It owed its name to an old belief that the Danube (Ister, in Greek) discharged some of its water by an arm entering the Adriatic in that region.
It is interesting to remark how this list represents the Greek colonies, from Libya to Sicily, from the Euxine to the Adriatic. Greece proper, on the other hand, is represented only by Megara and Sicyon.
The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.
To the east this plain stretches in an unbroken level, as far as the eye can follow it, towards Venice and the Adriatic; on the southern side the line of the Apennines from Bologna to Genoa closes the view; to the west rise the Maritime, Cottian and Graian Alps, with Monte Viso as their central point; while northward are the Pennine, Helvetic and Rhaetian Alps, of which Monte Rosa, the Saasgrat and Monte Leone are the most conspicuous features.
towards the Adriatic. It is probable, indeed, that the fault took a large share in the formation of the Adriatic depression.
He was buried or mysteriously disappeared on one of the islands in the Adriatic called after him Diomedeae, his sorrowing companions being changed into birds by the gods out of compassion (Ovid, Metam.
He was worshipped as a hero not only in Greece, but on the coast of the Adriatic, as at Thurii and Metapontum.
It occupies a ridge or promontory, which juts out into the Adriatic Sea, under the bare limestone mass of Monte Sergio.
Its seaward fortifications rise directly from the water's edge, one fort, on the north mole, standing boldly on a tall rock almost isolated by a little inlet of the Adriatic. On the landward side a massive round tower dominates the city from a still higher eminence.
by the Adriatic Sea, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the German Empire, and N.
On the Adriatic coast, the naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defences; then come Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and Cattaro.
In addition to the canals, the cabinet proposed and the Chamber sanctioned the construction of a " second railway route to Trieste " designed to shorten the distance between South Germany, Salzburg and the Adriatic, by means of a line passing under the Alpine ranges of central and southern Austria.
And the influence of Greece on Sicily has been repaid in more than one shape by Sicilian rulers who have at various times held influence and dominion in Greece and elsewhere beyond the Adriatic. The connexion between Sicily and Italy begins with the primitive kindred between some of the oldest elements in each.
He further opened new fields for Greek settlement on both sides of the Adriatic. In short, under him Sicily became for the first time the seat of a great European power, while Syracuse, as its head, became the greatest of European cities.
In the Adriatic he helped Hellenic extension, desiring no doubt to secure the important trade route into central Europe.
He sought dominion too beyond the Adriatic: Corfu, Durazzo, and a strip of the Albanian coast became Sicilian possessions as the dowry of Manfred's Greek wife.
France has its " marais salants du midi " and also works on the Atlantic seaboard; whilst Austria has " Salzg rten " at various places on the Adriatic (Sabbioncello, Trieste, Pirano, Capo d'Istria, &c.).
With these they preyed upon the commerce of the Adriatic. Their ranks were soon swelled by outlaws from all nations, and by their own once peaceful neighbours, from Novi, Ottocac and other Croatian towns.
(2) The second Brennus is said to have been one of the leaders of an inroad made by the Gauls from the east of the Adriatic into Thrace and Macedonia (280), when they defeated and slew Ptolemy Ceraunus, then king of Macedonia.
Its northern boundary stretches from the Kilia mouth of the Danube to the Adriatic Sea near Fiume, and is generally regarded as marked by the courses of the rivers Danube, Save and Kulpa.
by the Ionian Sea and the Adriatic. With the exception of the Black Sea coast and the Albanian littoral, its shores are considerably indented and flanked by groups of islands.
The only considerable rivers flowing into the Adriatic are the Narenta, Drin and Viossa.
On two sides this area is bordered by belts of folded beds which form on the west the mountain ranges of the Adriatic and Ionian coasts, and on the north the chain of the Balkans.
Under their tsar Krum (802-815) the Bulgars invaded the districts of Adrianople and central Macedonia; under Simeon (893-927), who fixed his capital at Preslav, their empire extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
Only the mountain stronghold of Montenegro and the Italian city-states on the Adriatic coast escaped subjection.
Later the Portiuncula church at Assisi displaced all other religious resorts, with the exception of Rome; but in the 15th century it was overshadowed in turn by the "Holy House" at Loretto on the Adriatic. According to an extravagant legend, the house of Joseph and Mary in Nazareth was transported by angels, on the night of the 9th - 10th of May 1291 to Dalmatia, then brought to the Italian coast opposite (Dec. 10, 1294), till, on the 7th of September 1295 it found rest on its present site.
RUBICON, a small stream of ancient Italy, which flowed into the Adriatic between Ariminum and Caesena, and formed the boundary between Italy and the province of Cisalpine Gaul.
Thence it descended to Cales (where it turned N.E.), and through the pass of Intercisa to Forum Sempronii (Fossombrone) and Forum Fortunae, where it reached the coast of the Adriatic. Thence it ran N.W.
the Adriatic Sea), and a few large bodies of salt water entirely land-locked are also called seas - e.g.
Octavianus and Antonius crossed the Adriatic in 42 B.C. to reduce the last defenders of the republic. Brutus and Cassius were defeated, and fell at the battle of Philippi.
Equally obscure is the relation between the Paphlagonians and the Eneti or Heneti (mentioned in connexion with them in the Homeric catalogue) who were supposed in antiquity to be the ancestors of the Veneti, who dwelt at the head of the Adriatic. But no trace is found in historical times of any tribe of that name in Asia Minor.
538) at Fermo on the Adriatic coast.
The eunuch seems to have led his army round the head of the Adriatic Gulf.
It was not till the invasions of Hun and Langobard that fugitives from the Venetian mainland took refuge among the poor fishermen on the small islands in the lagoons and on the lido - the narrow stretch of coast-line which separates the lagoons from the Adriatic - some at Grado, some at Malamocco, others on Rialto.
The foreign policy of Venice was likewise mainly dictated by commercial motives, the chief objectives being commercial privilege in the Byzantine empire and in the Frankish states in the East, domination of the Adriatic, 1 H.
Barges from Pavia can pass down the Po to the Adriatic or to Milan by canal.
BARI (anc. Barium), a seaport and archiepiscopal see of Apulia, Italy, capital of the province of Bari, situated on a small peninsula projecting into the Adriatic, 69 m.
from the Adriatic, on the road from Ancona to Nuceria.
Frequent journeys to the Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and the North Sea gave him abundant materials for research on invertebrate anatomy and physiology, which he communicated first to the Munich academy of sciences, and republished in his Beitrdge zur vergleichenden Physiologie des Blutes (Leipzig, 1832-1833), with additions in 1838).
PESCARA, a river of Italy, formed by the confluence of the Gizio and Aterno, and flowing into the Adriatic at the small town of Pescara.
It is significant that the first iron swords in Cyprus are of a type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic. Gold and even silver become rare; 5 foreign imports almost cease; engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (fibulae) like those of south-eastern Europe.
The exasperation of the majority of the country at his policy, and the indignation aroused by his treatment of the Dalmatians in Rome, as well as his failure to secure a settlement of the Adriatic problem, led to his fall in June 1920, thus leaving the way open for the return of Giolitti.
Cattaro occupies a narrow ledge between the Montenegrin Mountains and the Bocche di Cattaro, a winding and beautiful inlet of the Adriatic Sea.
Above all, New Rome was again mistress of the sea, and especially of the gates of the Adriatic. Basil reigned nineteen years as sole sovereign.
Other examples are to be found in the cultivation of the lagoons of the Adriatic, and of the saltmarshes of various parts of France.
About 280 B.C. the Celts gathered a great host at the head of the Adriatic, and accompanied by the Illyrian tribe of Autariatae, they overthrew the Macedonians, overran Thessaly, and invaded Phocis in order to sack Delphi, but they were finally repulsed, chiefly by the efforts of the Aetolians (279 B.C.).
Further, Serbia was determined to carve for herself a way to the Adriatic through northern Albania.
This claim Serbia was in no mood to concede, all the less so since her advance to the Adriatic had been forbidden b y the Great Powers.
- In 568 Alboin, king of the Langobards, with the women and children of the tribe and all their possessions, with Saxon allies, with the subject tribe of the Gepidae and a mixed host of other barbarians, descended into Italy by the great plain at the head of the Adriatic. The war which had ended in the downfall of the Goths had exhausted Italy; it was followed by famine and pestilence; and the government at Constantinople made but faint efforts to retain the province which Belisarius and Narses had recovered for it.
His possessions extended from the Giant Mountains in Bohemia to the Adriatic, and included almost all the parts of the present Habsburg empire west of the Leitha.
Alaric's designs of settlement seem in his first stage to have still kept east of the Adriatic, in Illyricum, possibly in Greece.
After a stubborn contest, Attila took and utterly destroyed Aquileia, the chief city of Venetia, and then proceeded on his destructive course, capturing and burning the cities at the head of the Adriatic, Concordia, Altinum and Patavium (Padua).
The fugitives from these cities, but especially from the last, seeking shelter in the lagoons of the Adriatic, laid the foundations of that which was one day to become the glorious city of Venice.
SPALATO, or Spalatro (Serbo-Croatian Spljet or Split), an episcopal city, and the centre of an administrative district, in Dalmatia, Austria, and on the Adriatic Sea.
Salona under the early Roman emperors was one of the chief ports of the Adriatic, on one of the most central sites in the Roman world.
On the 18th of July 1374 his people found the old poet and scholar dead among his books in the library of that little house which looks across the hills and lowlands towards the Adriatic.
It contains a station of the Berlin Aquarium, with a fine collection of the fauna of the Adriatic Sea.
above the level of the Adriatic on an almost insular site in the midst of the swampy lagoons of the Mincio.
The old town is built inland, on a strip of country running between the Adriatic Sea and the Sutorman range of mountains, overshadowed by the peak of Rumiya (5148 ft.).
by the Adriatic Sea.
In 48 B.C. during the civil war he commanded his father's fleet in the Adriatic. After the battle of Pharsalus he set out for Africa with the remainder of the Pompeian party, but, meeting with little success, crossed over to Spain.
While returning to his dominions by the way of the Adriatic, the king was shipwrecked, and found himself obliged to enter the dominions of Leopold, duke of Austria, a prince whom he had offended at Acre during the Crusade.
Notwithstanding the exertions which Great Britain made to avert h06tilities, the provocation of Count Cavour induced Austria to declare war against Piedmont, and Napoleon thereupon moved to the support of his ally, promising to free Italy from the Alps.to the Adriatic. As a matter of fact, the attitude of northern~ Germany, which was massing troops on the Rhine, and the defenceless condition of France, which was drained of soldiers for the Italian campaign, induced the emperor to halt before he had carried out his purpose, and te~ms of peace were hastily concerted at Villafranca, and were afterwards confirmed at Zurich, by which Lombardy was given Unhficatioii to Piedmont, while Austria was left in possession of of Italy.
The emperor's first efforts against him were unsuccessful (981), and the war was not resumed till 996, Samuel in the meantime extending his rule along the Adriatic coast and imposing his lordship on Servia.
6 (Metaurus) and Esino t may be mentioned, run north-east into the Adriatic, which is some 30 m.
This portion of the range is crossed near its southern termination by a railway from Foligno to Ancona (which at Fabriano has a branch to Macerata and Porto Civitanova, on the Adriatic coast railway), which may perhaps be conveniently regarded as its boundary.
On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some 25 m.
In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast.
The valley of the Ofanto (Aufidus), which runs into the Adriatic close to Barletta, marks the northern termination of the first range of the Lucanian Apennines (now Basilicata), which runs from east to west, while south of the valleys of the Sele (on the west) and Basiento (on the east) - which form the line followed by the railway from Battipaglia via Potenza to 1 This river (anc. Aesis) was the boundary of Italy proper in the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.
The least a city in that situation can claim as its appropriate sphere of influence is the vast domain extending from the Adriatic to the Persian Gulf, and from the Danube to the eastern Mediterranean.
Prizren-Timok, KossovoRessava, Shumadiya-Srem (Syrmia), Zetta-Bosnia, Adriatic coast.
The awakening of literary ambition among these Servians of the Adriatic coast was originally due to the influence of immigrant Greek scholars who came to Ragusa after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
But on the whole Servian literature on the Adriatic coast showed little originality in the 18th century; its writers were content to produce good translations of Latin, Italian and French works.
The literature of the Adriatic Servians was, with very few exceptions, Servian only in language, but Italian in form and spirit.
Delightful stories of old times and of the Adriatic coast were written by Stef an Mitrov Lyubisha (1824-1878).
His power stretches from the Adriatic to the Hellespont.
by the Adriatic Sea, Istria and Carniola.
The plateau of the Istrian Karst is prolonged in several of the bare and desolate mountain chains between the Save and the Adriatic, notably the Great and Little Kapella (or Kapela), which link together the Karst and the Dinaric Alps, culminating in Biela Lazica (5029 ft.); the Pljesevica or Plisevica Planina (5410 ft.), overlooking the valley of the river Una; and the Velebit Planina, which follows the westward curve of the coast, and rises above the sea in an abrupt wall, unbroken by any considerable bay or inlet.
Near Fiume, the Recina, Rjeka or Fiumara falls into, the Adriatic after a brief course.
The Croats formed the western division of the great migratory horde of Serbo-Croats which colonized the lands between Bulgaria and the Adriatic. Contemporary chroniclers called them Chrovati, Belochrobati (" White Croats"), Chrovati, Horvati, or by some similar Latin or Byzantine variant of the Slavonic Khrvaty.
The three most important Croatian dialects are known as the Cakavci, Caka y stina or, in Servian, Chaka y ski, spoken along the Adriatic littoral; the Stokavci (Stoka y stina, Shtokayski), spoken in Servia and elsewhere in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula; and the Kajkavci (Kajka y stina, Kayka y ski), spoken by the partly Slovene population of the districts of Agram, Warasdin and Kreuz.
Then the Austrian batteries began to bombard Venice itself, and when the Sardinian fleet withdrew from the Adriatic the city was also attacked by sea, while certain demagogues caused internal trouble.
by Hungary, the Adriatic Sea and Italy, W.
The Adriatic coast, which stretches for a distance of about moo m., is greatly indented.
On the other hand a string of islands extends along this coast, which offer many safe and easily accessible places of anchorage to ships during the fierce winter gales which rage in the Adriatic. The principal are Pago, Pasman, Isola Lunga and Isola Incoronata, Brazza, Lesina, Curzola and Meleda.
With the exception of the small streams belonging to it which fall into the Adriatic, all its rivers have their mouths in other countries, and its principal river, the Danube, has also its source in another country.
The principal river of Austria which falls into the Adriatic is the Adige or Etsch.
Of the streams which have their course entirely within the country, and fall into the Adriatic, the principal is the Isonzo, 75 m.
- The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is traversed by the great belt of folded beds which constitutes the Alps and the Carpathians; a secondary branch proceeding from the main belt runs along the Adriatic coast and forms the Julian and Dinaric Alps.
St Veit am Flaum), a royal free town and port of Hungary; situated at the northern extremity of the Gulf of Quarnero, an inlet of the Adriatic, and on a small stream called the Rjeka, Recina or Fiumara, 70 m.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.