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adrianople

adrianople

adrianople Sentence Examples

  • After his return from his Egyptian campaign, he was preparing an expedition against Rhodes when he was overtaken by sickness and died, on the 22nd of September 1521, in the ninth year of his reign, near the very spot where he had attacked his father's troops, not far from Adrianople.

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  • Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791, 1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812, it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829.

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  • He was also fond of hunting, and for this reason usually lived at Adrianople.

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  • ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N.

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  • This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.

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  • After the city of Adrianople (pop. 1905, about 80,000), which is the capital, the principal towns are Rodosto (35,000), [[Gallipoli (disambiguation)|Gallipoli (25,000), Kirk-Kilisseh (Kirk-Kilisse)|Kirk-Kilisseh]] (16,000), Xanthi (14,000), Chorlu (11,500), Demotica (10,000), Enos (8000), Gumuljina (8000) and Dedeagatch (3000).

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  • Adrianople, Turkey (Capital) >>

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  • The Begova Djamia (Djamia), or mosque of Husref Bey, is only surpassed, among European mosques, by those of Adrianople and Constantinople.

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  • In 1828-1829 he fought under Wittgenstein against the Turks, won an action at Aidos, and signed the treaty of peace at Adrianople.

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  • By the ensuing peace of Adrianople, Russia still further enlarged her Transcaucasian territories by the acquisition of the districts of Kars, Batum and Ardahan.

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  • The Turks continued their progress; in 1363 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1365 they entered Adrianople; the whole Balkan peninsula was threatened, and even Hungary itself seemed doomed.

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  • at Adrianople; Alexander Parker (1628-1689) went to Africa; others made their way to Rome; two women were imprisoned by the Inquisition at Malta; two men passed into Austria and Hungary; and William Penn, George Fox and several others preached in Holland and Germany.

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  • It corresponded roughly to ancient Thrace, Macedonia with Chalcidice, Epirus and a large part of Illyria, constituting the present administrative divisions of Stambul (Constantinople, including a small strip of the opposite Asiatic coast), Edirne (Adrianople), Salonica with Kossovo (Macedonia), Iannina (parts of Epirus and Thessaly), Shkodra (Scutari or upper Albania).

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  • The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.

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  • The headquarters of the ordus are I., Constantinople; II., Adrianople; III., Salonica; IV., Erzerum; V., Damascus; VI., Bagdad; VII., Yemen; 15th division, Tripoli; 16th division, Hejaz.

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  • The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.

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  • These duties vary in different parts of the empire: in the vilayets of Constantinople, Bagdad and Adrianople, and in the sanjaks of Bigha and Tchataljatheday'sworkis calculated at 5 piastres (about 11d.); in the vilayets of Aleppo, Trebizond, Angora, lannina, Konia, Sivas and Kastamuni at 4 piastres (about 9d.); and in most other parts of the empire at 3 piastres (about 7d.).

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  • Adrianople, small change is often supplemented by cardboard tickets, metal discs, &c., put into circulation by private establishments or individuals of good credit.

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  • When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.

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  • In 1367 Murad made Adrianople his capital and enriched it with various new buildings.

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  • Some years of strife followed between the sons of Bayezid, in which three of them fell; Mussa, seizing Adrianople, laid siege to Constantinople, and Manuel Palaeologus, the emperor, appealed for aid to Mahommed, the other son, who had established himself at Brusa.

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  • Mustafa, who had crossed the strait and fled northwards, was taken, brought to Adrianople, and hanged from a tower of the serai (1422).

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  • Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.

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  • While preparing an expedition against Rhodes to avenge the repulse sustained forty years before by Mahommed II., the sultan died at Orashkeui, near Adrianople, at the spot where he had attacked his father's troops.

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  • A truce, on the basis of uti possidetis, signed at Adrianople on the 19th of June 1547 for five years, between the sultan, the emperor and Ferdinand I.

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  • Successively transferred from Brusa to Adrianople and thence to Constantinople, the seat of government was at first little more than the camp of a conqueror.

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  • Near Peterwardein a great battle was fought, in which the Austrians completely routed the Turks; pursuing their advantage they took Temesvar and overran the Banat; in 1717 they captured Belgrade, the Turks retreating to Adrianople.

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  • A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.

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  • The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.

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  • The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.

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  • An armistice and preliminaries of peace were signed on the 31st of January 1878 at Adrianople, and a definitive treaty was concluded at San Stefano on the 3rd of March 1878.

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  • The greater part of the country is hilly and irregular, though there are considerable plains; but besides Rhodope two other tolerably definite chains intersect it, one of which descends from Haemus to Adrianople, while the other follows the coast of the Euxine at no great distance inland.

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  • In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.

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  • When Valens met his death fighting against the Goths near Adrianople on the 9th of August in the same year, the government of the eastern empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he ceded it to Theodosius (January 379) With Theodosius he cleared the Balkans of barbarians..

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  • In 1365 they transferred their capital from Brusa to Adrianople.

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  • The truce of Adrianople in 1568, nominally for eight years, but prolonged from time to time till 1593, finally suspended regular hostilities, and introduced the epoch known as " The Long Peace," though, throughout these twenty-five years, the guerilla warfare on the frontier never ceased for more than a few months at a time, and the relations between the Habsburgs and Transylvania were persistently hostile.

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  • Enver put himself at the head of the troops, and in July 1913 made a triumphal entry into Adrianople, which had already been evacuated by the Bulgarians.

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  • Soon after the great earthquake of 1509, which laid Constantinople in ruins, Selim, the ungovernable pasha of Trebizond, whose vigorous rule in Asia had given Europe an earnest of his future career as sultan, appeared before Adrianople, where Bayezid had sought refuge.

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  • After two hardly fought campaigns (1828, 1829) Mahmud was at length, on the 14th of September 1829, compelled to sign the peace of Adrianople.

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  • He was left to maintain the siege of Adrianople when Baldwin advanced to attack the relieving force, and with Dandolo had much to do in saving the defeated crusaders from utter destruction, and conducting the retreat, in which he commanded the rearguard, and brought his troops in safety to the sea of Rodosto, and thence to the capital.

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  • GUMULJINA, or Gumurdjina, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople.

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  • The Committee retained the support of the two army corps stationed at Salonika and Adrianople; and from these garrisons a force of 20,000 men was dispatched against Constantinople.

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  • The fortress of Adrianople, containing a large Turkish garrison, was thus isolated and left to Bulgarian investment.

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  • Subsequent Bulgarian operations were confined to resisting Turkish attempts to advance from Chatalja; to the occupation of Thrace down to the Sea of Marmora; to resisting an attack on the Bulgar lines across the isthmus of the Gallipoli Peninsula; and to the capture of Adrianople.

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  • The hope of advancing from Chatalja and relieving Adrianople - of in fact changing the whole course of the war - was sufficient to prevent all but small concessions on the part of the Turkish Government.

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  • The fall of Adrianople on March 26 ended these unrealities; and on May 30 1913 the Ottoman delegates signed the Treaty of London.

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  • Two months after the same Government had signed away their European provinces, Enver Bey at the head of a Turkish army overran Eastern Thrace and reentered Adrianople almost unopposed.

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  • Hereupon the Janissaries and other enemies of progress rose at Adrianople, and in view of their number, exceeding io,000, and the violence of their opposition, it was decided that the reforms must be given up for the present.

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  • In 1879 he organized a Bulgarian rising, but was arrested at Adrianople and sent back to Russia.

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  • of Sweden and his agents, and confirmed the good relations between Russia and Turkey by the treaty of Adrianople (June 5th, 1713).

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  • Adrianople, Turkey (Vilayet) >>

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  • NICEPHORUS BRYENNIUS (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople).

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  • An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.

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  • ADRIANOPLE (anc. Hadrianopolis; Turk.

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  • Odrin), the capital of the vilayet of Adrianople, Turkey in Europe; 137 m.

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  • Pop. (1905) about 80,000, of whom half are Turks, and half Jews, Greeks, Bulgars, Armenians, &c. Adrianople ranks, after Constantinople and Salonica, third in size and importance among the cities of European Turkey.

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  • Adrianople is on the railway from Belgrade and Sofia to Constantinople and Salonica.

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  • Adrianople has five suburbs, of which Kiretchhane and Yilderim are on the left bank of the Maritza, and Kirjik stands on a hill overlooking the city.

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  • The economic condition of Adrianople was much impaired by the war of 1877-78, and was just showing signs of recovery when, in 1885, the severance from it of Eastern Rumelia by a Customs cordon rendered the situation worse than ever.

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  • Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.

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  • But the separation of Eastern Rumelia isolated Adrianople, and transferred to Philippopolis at least two-thirds of its foreign trade which, as regards sea-borne merchandise, is carried on through the port of Burgas.

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  • Adrianople was originally known as Uskadama, Uskadama or Uskodama, but was renamed and enlarged by the Roman emperor Hadrian (117-138).

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  • Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad I., until 1453, when Constantinople fell.

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  • But quarrels soon took place, and the Goths under Fritigern defeated Valens in a great battle near Adrianople (378).

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  • In 1863 the Babis were, at the instance of the Persian government, removed from Bagdad to Constantinople, whence they were shortly afterwards transferred to Adrianople.

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  • Then followed the negotiations with the emperor Valens, the general adhesion of the Visigoths under Frithigern to Arian Christianity, the crossing of the Danube by himself and a host of his followers, and the troubles which culminated in the battle of Adrianople and the death of Valens (378).

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  • It may have been he who, as a "presbyter christiani ritus," conducted negotiations with Valens before the battle of Adrianople; but that he headed a previous embassy asking for leave for the Visigoths to settle on Roman soil, and that he then, for political motives, professed himself a convert to the Arian creed, favoured by the emperor, and drew with him the whole body of his countrymen - these and other similar stories of the orthodox church historians appear to be without foundation.

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  • KIRK - KILISSEH (KIRK-KILISSE or Kirk-KuISSIA), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, 35 m.

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  • of Adrianople.

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  • RODOSTO (Turkish, Tekir Dagh), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, on the coast of the Sea of Marmora, 78 m.

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  • Rodosto was long a great depot for the produce of the Adrianople district, but its trade suffered when Dedeagatch became the terminus of the railway up the Maritza, and the town is now dependent on its maritime trade, especially its exports to Constantinople.

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  • In July 1829 it was captured by the Russian general Paskevich, and the occupation continued until the peace of Adrianople (September 1829).

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  • At the peace of Adrianople (1829) the place was definitely assigned to Walachia; but before giving it up, the grand-duke Michael of Russia razed the citadel, and in this ruinous condition it was handed over to the Walachians.

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  • A Latin army was defeated by them at Adrianople (April 1205), and the emperor himself was captured and killed, the fragments of the force being saved only by Dandolo's prowess.

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  • Appointed vali of Adrianople in 1843, he returned as ambassador to Paris in the same year.

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  • He died at Adrianople in 1451, and was buried at Brusa.

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  • It is nowhere found in compact masses except in north-eastern Bulgaria and the region between Adrianople, .the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora.

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  • They are seldom found in large numbers at any great distance from the sea, and usually congregate in the principal towns and commercial centres, such as Adrianople, Constantza, Varna and Philippopolis; there are also detached colonies at Melnik, Stanimaka, Kavakly, Niegush and elsewhere.

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  • Under their tsar Krum (802-815) the Bulgars invaded the districts of Adrianople and central Macedonia; under Simeon (893-927), who fixed his capital at Preslav, their empire extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.

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  • In 1230 Theodore of Epirus, who had conquered Albania, Great Walachia and Macedonia, was overthrown at Klokotnitza by Ivan Asen II., the greatest of Bulgarian monarchs (1218-1241), who defeated Baldwin at Adrianople and extended his sway over most of the Peninsula.

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  • established his capital at Adrianople; in 1389 the fate of the Slavonic states was decided by the rout of the Servians and their allies at Kossovo.

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  • Largest of all is Sivatherium, typically from the Lower Pliocene of Northern India, but also recorded from Adrianople, in which the skull of the male is short and wide, with a pair of simple conical horns above the eye, and a huge branching pair at the vertex.

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  • He united in his person the best qualities of his predecessors, and possessed the gift of taking full advantage of the talents of the able generals, admirals and 1 Suleiman, eldest son of Bayazid I., who maintained himself as sultan at Adrianople from 1402 to 1410, is not reckoned as legitimate by the Ottoman historiographers, who reckon Suleiman the Magnificent as the first of the name.

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  • In 323 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July 323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium.

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  • The revolt of the Greeks (1821) put this claim to the test; by the treaty of Adrianople (1829) Russia stipulated for their autonomy as part of the price of peace, but the powers assembled in conference at London refused to recognize this settlement, and the establishment of Greece as an independent kingdom (1832) was really aimed at the pretensions and the influence of Russia.

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  • Accordingly, the enraged Goths, under their chief Fritigern, streamed across the Balkans into Thrace and the country round Adrianople, plundering, burning and slaughtering as they went.

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  • They were driven back for a time, but returned in the spring of 378 in greater force, with a contingent of Huns and Alans; and again, after some repulses, they penetrated to the neighbourhood of Adrianople.

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  • From the battle of Adrianople the Goths permanently established themselves south of the Danube.

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  • The encroachments of Russia upon Turkey, previous to the Crimean War, are registered in a series of treaties beginning with that of Kuchuk-Kainarji, 1774, and ending with that of Adrianople in.

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  • The subsequent invasions of the Goths, in battle with whom Valens fell at Adrianople (375), definitely precluded Roman intervention; and the end of the Armenian troubles was that (c. 390) Bahram IV.

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  • To assist the defense in the first, or waiting, period Adrianople was organized as a modern fortress, and Kirk Kilisse, an upland town on the edge of the Istranja Dagh, re-equipped with barrier-forts.

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  • Corps (Adrianople).

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  • To aid the Bulgarians in the siege of Adrianople, it sent the II.

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  • Corps at or in rear of Kirk Kilisse, with the fortress of Adrianople and the works of Kirk Kilisse acting as breakwaters in front.

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  • On the 22nd the first serious engagements took place in front of Adrianople.

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  • Thus the process of investing Adrianople began at the very outset, three out of eight divisions available in the theatre of war being employed in it.

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  • The operations round Adrianople will be summarized later.

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  • directly into contact with the Adrianople defences, the remainder (still with the 10th Div.

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  • Corps (garrison) Adrianople, while the XVI.

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  • At Adrianople, the XV.

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  • beginning the envelopment of Adrianople).

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  • Von der Goltz had intended that it should play the same part on the right flank as Adrianople on the left.

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  • Although the permanent works were few, and inferior to those of the great fortress, the natural positions afforded by spurs of the Istranja Balkan gave the place advantages of site which were lacking at Adrianople.

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  • from the Adrianople region was ordered up to support the 5th directly, which by a heavy forced march it was able to do on the evening of the 29th.'

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  • Army's movements were hampered by fears of a crisis at Adrianople, where a serious sortie-battle was being fought at the time.

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  • replaced before Adrianople by the new 11th joined the III.

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  • On Dec. 3, without further fighting on the Chatalja front, a general armistice was signed, more favourable to the Bulgarians perhaps than their military situation warranted, for it gave them the use of the railway through Adrianople without allowing the Turks to revictual that place.

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  • penetrating the difficult Rhodope country had carried out a vigorous offensive in several directions, as the result of which Adrianople was invested on the S.W.

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  • Practically, the story of the second phase is the final instalment of that of the sieges of Yannina, Scutari and Adrianople.

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  • An effort was indeed made by the Turkish field forces in Thrace to debouch from the lines of Bulair and those of Chatalja simultaneously with a view to relieving Adrianople, but after locally heavy fighting the Bulgarians succeeded in holding their own on each of these fronts, and thereafter Adrianople was left to its fate.'

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  • The sieges of Scutari and of Adrianople require, however, a rather more detailed account.

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  • C. E.) The Siege of Adrianople.

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  • - In the first operations of Oct., already described, Adrianople had come within the ambit of the general battle, and it was not till after the Turks had retreated away towards the Kara Aghach line that operations in front of the fortress assumed the typical siege characters of investment and concentric attack.

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  • The Turkish war having again been brought to a conclusion by a general armistice, a few days after the fall of Adrianople, peace negotiations were resumed in London, and in these negotiations the settlement of peace as far as Turkey was concerned was, it may be said, the least of many preoccupations.

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  • Army, which had taken part in the siege of Adrianople, was extricated as rapidly as possible lest it be isolated and disarmed in the territory of its allies.

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  • For their part the Bulgarians used the railway lines Adrianople - Sofia and Dede Aghach - Seres (the latter secured by the conquest of the coastal region by the 7th and 2nd Divs.

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  • Only one division remained in Adrianople and some militia on the Dobruja frontier.

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  • At this stage, indeed, bolder strategy was hardly required, for already Rumania had declared war on Bulgaria and had begun an unopposed march on Sofia, while the Turks at Chatalja and Bulair, ignoring the Treaty of London, reoccupied Adrianople without firing a shot.

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  • DEMOTICA, or Dimotica, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; on the Maritza valley branch of the Constantinople-Salonica railway, about 35 m.

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  • nized the suzerainty of Turkey over the Danubian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia, modifying the " sovereignty " of Turkey recognized by the Treaty of Adrianople.

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  • the subsequently-formed principality of Bulgaria), and those of Adrianople, Salonica, Kossovo and Monastir (i.e.

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  • The exactions of the Roman governors, however, soon led to a quarrel, which ended in the total defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople in the year 378.

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  • In 378 the Goths won the great battle of Adrianople, and after this Theodosius the Great, the successor of Valens, made terms with them in 381, and the mass of the Gothic warriors entered the Roman service as foederati.

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  • Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, where he built a palace and added many embellishments to the town.

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  • He accompanied his father into Britain (368), and a little later distinguished himself by defeating the Sarmatians who had invaded Moesia (374) On his father's death he retired to his native place, where he lived quietly till after the great battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), when Gratian summoned him to share the empire.

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  • By the convention of Akkerman between the Russians and the Turks in 1826 the privileges of the principalities were once more confirmed, and they were again ratified in 1829, under Russian guarantee, by the peace of Adrianople.

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  • (For a detailed account of the subsequent campaign, in which Prince Charles and the Rumanian army contributed greatly to the success of the Russian arms, see Russo-Turkish Wars, and Plevna.) The fall of Plevna left the Russian army free to march on Constantinople, and on the 31st of January 1878 the preliminaries of peace were signed at Adrianople.

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  • When news came that the Russian armies had reached Adrianople, that they had concluded some arrangement with the Turks, and that they were pressing forward towards Constantinople, the fleet was again directed to pass theDardanelles~ Soon afterwards the government decided to call out the reserves and to bring a contingent of Indian troops to the Mediterranean.

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  • Gelibolu, anc. KaXX(IroXis), a seaport and city of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; at the north-western extremity of the Dardanelles, on a narrow peninsula 132 m.

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  • of Adrianople, in 40° 24' N.

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  • The line of railway between Adrianople and the Aegean Sea has been prejudicial to the transit trade of Gallipoli, and several attempts have been made to obtain concessions for the construction of a railway that would connect this port with the Turkish railway system.

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  • deliverance when attacked by the Goths, after the terrible defeat of Valens at Adrianople, A.D.

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  • of water), the cistern of Aspar, a short distance to the east of the gate of Adrianople, and the cistern of Mokius, on the 7th hill, are specimens of the open reservoirs within the city walls.

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  • He was the Russian plenipotentiary at the peace of Adrianople, and in 1833 was appointed Russian ambassador at Constantinople, holding at the same time the post of commanderin-chief of the Black Sea fleet.

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  • That autonomy was placed on an international basis by the treaty of Adrianople, concluded between Turkey and Russia in 1829.

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  • DEDEAGATCH, a seaport of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, io m.

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  • It is, however, one of the chief outlets for the grain trade of the Adrianople, Demotica and Xanthi districts.

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  • XANTHI (Turkish Eskije), a town of European Turkey in the vilayet of Adrianople; situated on the right bank of the river Eskije and at the S.

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  • By the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 Turkey seemed to become little better than a vassal state of the tsar, a relation intensified, after the first revolt of Mehemet Ali, by the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi in 1833 (see Mehemet Ali).

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  • After his return from his Egyptian campaign, he was preparing an expedition against Rhodes when he was overtaken by sickness and died, on the 22nd of September 1521, in the ninth year of his reign, near the very spot where he had attacked his father's troops, not far from Adrianople.

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  • Three times captured by the Russians, in 1791, 1807 and 1828, and twice restored by them, in 1792 and 1812, it was finally left in their hands by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829.

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  • He was also fond of hunting, and for this reason usually lived at Adrianople.

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  • ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N.

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  • This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.

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  • After the city of Adrianople (pop. 1905, about 80,000), which is the capital, the principal towns are Rodosto (35,000), [[Gallipoli (disambiguation)|Gallipoli (25,000), Kirk-Kilisseh (Kirk-Kilisse)|Kirk-Kilisseh]] (16,000), Xanthi (14,000), Chorlu (11,500), Demotica (10,000), Enos (8000), Gumuljina (8000) and Dedeagatch (3000).

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  • Adrianople, Turkey (Capital) >>

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  • The grand vizier nevertheless laid the blame of the failure on Thokbly, who thereupon hastened to Adrianople to defend himself before the sultan.

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  • The Begova Djamia (Djamia), or mosque of Husref Bey, is only surpassed, among European mosques, by those of Adrianople and Constantinople.

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  • In 1828-1829 he fought under Wittgenstein against the Turks, won an action at Aidos, and signed the treaty of peace at Adrianople.

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  • As the sultan rejected the mediation, his fleet was destroyed by the combined squadrons of the three Powers at Navarino; and as this " untoward event " did not suffice to overcome his resistance, a Russian army crossed the Danube and after two hard-fought campaigns advanced to Adrianople.

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  • In these two incidents the tsar perceived a diminution of Russian prestige and influence in Turkey, and Prince Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Constantinople to obtain reparation in the form of a treaty which should guarantee the rights of the Orthodox Church with regard to the Holy Places and confirm the protectorate of Russia over the Orthodox rayahs, established by the treaties of Kainarji, Bucharest and Adrianople.

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  • By the ensuing peace of Adrianople, Russia still further enlarged her Transcaucasian territories by the acquisition of the districts of Kars, Batum and Ardahan.

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  • The Turks continued their progress; in 1363 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1365 they entered Adrianople; the whole Balkan peninsula was threatened, and even Hungary itself seemed doomed.

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  • at Adrianople; Alexander Parker (1628-1689) went to Africa; others made their way to Rome; two women were imprisoned by the Inquisition at Malta; two men passed into Austria and Hungary; and William Penn, George Fox and several others preached in Holland and Germany.

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  • It corresponded roughly to ancient Thrace, Macedonia with Chalcidice, Epirus and a large part of Illyria, constituting the present administrative divisions of Stambul (Constantinople, including a small strip of the opposite Asiatic coast), Edirne (Adrianople), Salonica with Kossovo (Macedonia), Iannina (parts of Epirus and Thessaly), Shkodra (Scutari or upper Albania).

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  • The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.

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  • The headquarters of the ordus are I., Constantinople; II., Adrianople; III., Salonica; IV., Erzerum; V., Damascus; VI., Bagdad; VII., Yemen; 15th division, Tripoli; 16th division, Hejaz.

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  • The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.

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  • These duties vary in different parts of the empire: in the vilayets of Constantinople, Bagdad and Adrianople, and in the sanjaks of Bigha and Tchataljatheday'sworkis calculated at 5 piastres (about 11d.); in the vilayets of Aleppo, Trebizond, Angora, lannina, Konia, Sivas and Kastamuni at 4 piastres (about 9d.); and in most other parts of the empire at 3 piastres (about 7d.).

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  • The general monetary confusion is greatly intensified by the fact that the piastre unit varies for almost every province; thus, while the pound at Constantinople is counted at 108 piastres silver, it is at about 127 piastres for one kind of transaction and 180 for another in Smyrna, 135 piastres at Adrianople, 140 at Jerusalem, and so forth, accounts being kept in " abusive piastres," which exist no longer.

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  • Adrianople, small change is often supplemented by cardboard tickets, metal discs, &c., put into circulation by private establishments or individuals of good credit.

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  • When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.

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  • In 1367 Murad made Adrianople his capital and enriched it with various new buildings.

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  • Some years of strife followed between the sons of Bayezid, in which three of them fell; Mussa, seizing Adrianople, laid siege to Constantinople, and Manuel Palaeologus, the emperor, appealed for aid to Mahommed, the other son, who had established himself at Brusa.

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  • Mustafa, who had crossed the strait and fled northwards, was taken, brought to Adrianople, and hanged from a tower of the serai (1422).

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  • Little more than two years later Murad died at Adrianople, being succeeded by his son Mahommed.

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  • While preparing an expedition against Rhodes to avenge the repulse sustained forty years before by Mahommed II., the sultan died at Orashkeui, near Adrianople, at the spot where he had attacked his father's troops.

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  • A truce, on the basis of uti possidetis, signed at Adrianople on the 19th of June 1547 for five years, between the sultan, the emperor and Ferdinand I.

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  • Successively transferred from Brusa to Adrianople and thence to Constantinople, the seat of government was at first little more than the camp of a conqueror.

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  • Near Peterwardein a great battle was fought, in which the Austrians completely routed the Turks; pursuing their advantage they took Temesvar and overran the Banat; in 1717 they captured Belgrade, the Turks retreating to Adrianople.

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  • A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.

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  • The army hereupon retired to Adrianople, and the powerful pasha of Rustchuk, Mustafa Bairakdar, who had distinguished himself by his resistance to the Russians, and who thoroughly shared Selim's desire for reform, was now induced by the many officers who held similar views to march on Constantinople to restore Selim to the throne.

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  • In spite of the confusion due to the destruction of the Janissaries and army reforms as yet hardly begun, it cost the tzar two hardly fought campaigns before the audacious strategy of General Diebitsch enabled him to dictate the terms of the treaty of Adrianople (Sep. 14, 1829).

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  • The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.

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  • An armistice and preliminaries of peace were signed on the 31st of January 1878 at Adrianople, and a definitive treaty was concluded at San Stefano on the 3rd of March 1878.

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  • The greater part of the country is hilly and irregular, though there are considerable plains; but besides Rhodope two other tolerably definite chains intersect it, one of which descends from Haemus to Adrianople, while the other follows the coast of the Euxine at no great distance inland.

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  • In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.

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  • When Valens met his death fighting against the Goths near Adrianople on the 9th of August in the same year, the government of the eastern empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he ceded it to Theodosius (January 379) With Theodosius he cleared the Balkans of barbarians..

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  • In 1365 they transferred their capital from Brusa to Adrianople.

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  • The truce of Adrianople in 1568, nominally for eight years, but prolonged from time to time till 1593, finally suspended regular hostilities, and introduced the epoch known as " The Long Peace," though, throughout these twenty-five years, the guerilla warfare on the frontier never ceased for more than a few months at a time, and the relations between the Habsburgs and Transylvania were persistently hostile.

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  • Enver put himself at the head of the troops, and in July 1913 made a triumphal entry into Adrianople, which had already been evacuated by the Bulgarians.

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  • Soon after the great earthquake of 1509, which laid Constantinople in ruins, Selim, the ungovernable pasha of Trebizond, whose vigorous rule in Asia had given Europe an earnest of his future career as sultan, appeared before Adrianople, where Bayezid had sought refuge.

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  • After two hardly fought campaigns (1828, 1829) Mahmud was at length, on the 14th of September 1829, compelled to sign the peace of Adrianople.

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  • Licinius, after his defeat before Adrianople, retired to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine, and compelled to surrender (A.D.

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  • He was left to maintain the siege of Adrianople when Baldwin advanced to attack the relieving force, and with Dandolo had much to do in saving the defeated crusaders from utter destruction, and conducting the retreat, in which he commanded the rearguard, and brought his troops in safety to the sea of Rodosto, and thence to the capital.

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  • GUMULJINA, or Gumurdjina, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople.

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  • The Committee retained the support of the two army corps stationed at Salonika and Adrianople; and from these garrisons a force of 20,000 men was dispatched against Constantinople.

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  • The fortress of Adrianople, containing a large Turkish garrison, was thus isolated and left to Bulgarian investment.

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  • Subsequent Bulgarian operations were confined to resisting Turkish attempts to advance from Chatalja; to the occupation of Thrace down to the Sea of Marmora; to resisting an attack on the Bulgar lines across the isthmus of the Gallipoli Peninsula; and to the capture of Adrianople.

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  • The hope of advancing from Chatalja and relieving Adrianople - of in fact changing the whole course of the war - was sufficient to prevent all but small concessions on the part of the Turkish Government.

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  • The fall of Adrianople on March 26 ended these unrealities; and on May 30 1913 the Ottoman delegates signed the Treaty of London.

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  • Two months after the same Government had signed away their European provinces, Enver Bey at the head of a Turkish army overran Eastern Thrace and reentered Adrianople almost unopposed.

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  • Hereupon the Janissaries and other enemies of progress rose at Adrianople, and in view of their number, exceeding io,000, and the violence of their opposition, it was decided that the reforms must be given up for the present.

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  • In 1879 he organized a Bulgarian rising, but was arrested at Adrianople and sent back to Russia.

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  • of Sweden and his agents, and confirmed the good relations between Russia and Turkey by the treaty of Adrianople (June 5th, 1713).

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  • Adrianople, Turkey (Vilayet) >>

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  • NICEPHORUS BRYENNIUS (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople).

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  • An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.

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  • ADRIANOPLE (anc. Hadrianopolis; Turk.

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  • Odrin), the capital of the vilayet of Adrianople, Turkey in Europe; 137 m.

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  • Pop. (1905) about 80,000, of whom half are Turks, and half Jews, Greeks, Bulgars, Armenians, &c. Adrianople ranks, after Constantinople and Salonica, third in size and importance among the cities of European Turkey.

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  • Adrianople is on the railway from Belgrade and Sofia to Constantinople and Salonica.

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  • Adrianople has five suburbs, of which Kiretchhane and Yilderim are on the left bank of the Maritza, and Kirjik stands on a hill overlooking the city.

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  • The economic condition of Adrianople was much impaired by the war of 1877-78, and was just showing signs of recovery when, in 1885, the severance from it of Eastern Rumelia by a Customs cordon rendered the situation worse than ever.

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  • Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.

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  • But the separation of Eastern Rumelia isolated Adrianople, and transferred to Philippopolis at least two-thirds of its foreign trade which, as regards sea-borne merchandise, is carried on through the port of Burgas.

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  • Adrianople was originally known as Uskadama, Uskadama or Uskodama, but was renamed and enlarged by the Roman emperor Hadrian (117-138).

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  • Adrianople was the residence of the Turkish sultans from 1361, when it was captured by Murad I., until 1453, when Constantinople fell.

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  • But quarrels soon took place, and the Goths under Fritigern defeated Valens in a great battle near Adrianople (378).

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  • In 1863 the Babis were, at the instance of the Persian government, removed from Bagdad to Constantinople, whence they were shortly afterwards transferred to Adrianople.

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  • Then followed the negotiations with the emperor Valens, the general adhesion of the Visigoths under Frithigern to Arian Christianity, the crossing of the Danube by himself and a host of his followers, and the troubles which culminated in the battle of Adrianople and the death of Valens (378).

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  • It may have been he who, as a "presbyter christiani ritus," conducted negotiations with Valens before the battle of Adrianople; but that he headed a previous embassy asking for leave for the Visigoths to settle on Roman soil, and that he then, for political motives, professed himself a convert to the Arian creed, favoured by the emperor, and drew with him the whole body of his countrymen - these and other similar stories of the orthodox church historians appear to be without foundation.

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  • KIRK - KILISSEH (KIRK-KILISSE or Kirk-KuISSIA), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, 35 m.

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  • of Adrianople.

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  • RODOSTO (Turkish, Tekir Dagh), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, on the coast of the Sea of Marmora, 78 m.

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  • Rodosto was long a great depot for the produce of the Adrianople district, but its trade suffered when Dedeagatch became the terminus of the railway up the Maritza, and the town is now dependent on its maritime trade, especially its exports to Constantinople.

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  • In July 1829 it was captured by the Russian general Paskevich, and the occupation continued until the peace of Adrianople (September 1829).

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  • At the peace of Adrianople (1829) the place was definitely assigned to Walachia; but before giving it up, the grand-duke Michael of Russia razed the citadel, and in this ruinous condition it was handed over to the Walachians.

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  • A Latin army was defeated by them at Adrianople (April 1205), and the emperor himself was captured and killed, the fragments of the force being saved only by Dandolo's prowess.

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  • Appointed vali of Adrianople in 1843, he returned as ambassador to Paris in the same year.

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  • He died at Adrianople in 1451, and was buried at Brusa.

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  • It is nowhere found in compact masses except in north-eastern Bulgaria and the region between Adrianople, .the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora.

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  • They are seldom found in large numbers at any great distance from the sea, and usually congregate in the principal towns and commercial centres, such as Adrianople, Constantza, Varna and Philippopolis; there are also detached colonies at Melnik, Stanimaka, Kavakly, Niegush and elsewhere.

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  • Under their tsar Krum (802-815) the Bulgars invaded the districts of Adrianople and central Macedonia; under Simeon (893-927), who fixed his capital at Preslav, their empire extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.

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  • In 1230 Theodore of Epirus, who had conquered Albania, Great Walachia and Macedonia, was overthrown at Klokotnitza by Ivan Asen II., the greatest of Bulgarian monarchs (1218-1241), who defeated Baldwin at Adrianople and extended his sway over most of the Peninsula.

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  • established his capital at Adrianople; in 1389 the fate of the Slavonic states was decided by the rout of the Servians and their allies at Kossovo.

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  • At the same time the frontiers of Servia and Montenegro were enlarged so as to become almost contiguous, and Montenegro received the ports of Antivari and Dulcigno on the Adriatic. From a strategical point of view the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty threatened Salonica, Adrianople and Constantinople itself; and the great powers, anticipating that the new state would become a Russian dependency, refused their sanction to its provisions.

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  • Largest of all is Sivatherium, typically from the Lower Pliocene of Northern India, but also recorded from Adrianople, in which the skull of the male is short and wide, with a pair of simple conical horns above the eye, and a huge branching pair at the vertex.

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  • He united in his person the best qualities of his predecessors, and possessed the gift of taking full advantage of the talents of the able generals, admirals and 1 Suleiman, eldest son of Bayazid I., who maintained himself as sultan at Adrianople from 1402 to 1410, is not reckoned as legitimate by the Ottoman historiographers, who reckon Suleiman the Magnificent as the first of the name.

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  • In 323 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July 323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium.

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  • The revolt of the Greeks (1821) put this claim to the test; by the treaty of Adrianople (1829) Russia stipulated for their autonomy as part of the price of peace, but the powers assembled in conference at London refused to recognize this settlement, and the establishment of Greece as an independent kingdom (1832) was really aimed at the pretensions and the influence of Russia.

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  • Accordingly, the enraged Goths, under their chief Fritigern, streamed across the Balkans into Thrace and the country round Adrianople, plundering, burning and slaughtering as they went.

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  • They were driven back for a time, but returned in the spring of 378 in greater force, with a contingent of Huns and Alans; and again, after some repulses, they penetrated to the neighbourhood of Adrianople.

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  • From the battle of Adrianople the Goths permanently established themselves south of the Danube.

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  • The encroachments of Russia upon Turkey, previous to the Crimean War, are registered in a series of treaties beginning with that of Kuchuk-Kainarji, 1774, and ending with that of Adrianople in.

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  • The subsequent invasions of the Goths, in battle with whom Valens fell at Adrianople (375), definitely precluded Roman intervention; and the end of the Armenian troubles was that (c. 390) Bahram IV.

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  • To assist the defense in the first, or waiting, period Adrianople was organized as a modern fortress, and Kirk Kilisse, an upland town on the edge of the Istranja Dagh, re-equipped with barrier-forts.

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  • Corps (Adrianople).

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  • To aid the Bulgarians in the siege of Adrianople, it sent the II.

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  • Corps at or in rear of Kirk Kilisse, with the fortress of Adrianople and the works of Kirk Kilisse acting as breakwaters in front.

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  • On the 22nd the first serious engagements took place in front of Adrianople.

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  • Thus the process of investing Adrianople began at the very outset, three out of eight divisions available in the theatre of war being employed in it.

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  • The operations round Adrianople will be summarized later.

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  • directly into contact with the Adrianople defences, the remainder (still with the 10th Div.

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  • Corps (garrison) Adrianople, while the XVI.

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  • At Adrianople, the XV.

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  • beginning the envelopment of Adrianople).

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  • Von der Goltz had intended that it should play the same part on the right flank as Adrianople on the left.

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  • Although the permanent works were few, and inferior to those of the great fortress, the natural positions afforded by spurs of the Istranja Balkan gave the place advantages of site which were lacking at Adrianople.

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  • from the Adrianople region was ordered up to support the 5th directly, which by a heavy forced march it was able to do on the evening of the 29th.'

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  • Army's movements were hampered by fears of a crisis at Adrianople, where a serious sortie-battle was being fought at the time.

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  • replaced before Adrianople by the new 11th joined the III.

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  • On Dec. 3, without further fighting on the Chatalja front, a general armistice was signed, more favourable to the Bulgarians perhaps than their military situation warranted, for it gave them the use of the railway through Adrianople without allowing the Turks to revictual that place.

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  • penetrating the difficult Rhodope country had carried out a vigorous offensive in several directions, as the result of which Adrianople was invested on the S.W.

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  • Practically, the story of the second phase is the final instalment of that of the sieges of Yannina, Scutari and Adrianople.

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  • An effort was indeed made by the Turkish field forces in Thrace to debouch from the lines of Bulair and those of Chatalja simultaneously with a view to relieving Adrianople, but after locally heavy fighting the Bulgarians succeeded in holding their own on each of these fronts, and thereafter Adrianople was left to its fate.'

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  • The sieges of Scutari and of Adrianople require, however, a rather more detailed account.

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  • C. E.) The Siege of Adrianople.

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  • - In the first operations of Oct., already described, Adrianople had come within the ambit of the general battle, and it was not till after the Turks had retreated away towards the Kara Aghach line that operations in front of the fortress assumed the typical siege characters of investment and concentric attack.

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  • The Turkish war having again been brought to a conclusion by a general armistice, a few days after the fall of Adrianople, peace negotiations were resumed in London, and in these negotiations the settlement of peace as far as Turkey was concerned was, it may be said, the least of many preoccupations.

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  • Army, which had taken part in the siege of Adrianople, was extricated as rapidly as possible lest it be isolated and disarmed in the territory of its allies.

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  • For their part the Bulgarians used the railway lines Adrianople - Sofia and Dede Aghach - Seres (the latter secured by the conquest of the coastal region by the 7th and 2nd Divs.

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  • Only one division remained in Adrianople and some militia on the Dobruja frontier.

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  • At this stage, indeed, bolder strategy was hardly required, for already Rumania had declared war on Bulgaria and had begun an unopposed march on Sofia, while the Turks at Chatalja and Bulair, ignoring the Treaty of London, reoccupied Adrianople without firing a shot.

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  • DEMOTICA, or Dimotica, a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; on the Maritza valley branch of the Constantinople-Salonica railway, about 35 m.

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  • nized the suzerainty of Turkey over the Danubian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia, modifying the " sovereignty " of Turkey recognized by the Treaty of Adrianople.

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  • the subsequently-formed principality of Bulgaria), and those of Adrianople, Salonica, Kossovo and Monastir (i.e.

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  • The exactions of the Roman governors, however, soon led to a quarrel, which ended in the total defeat and death of Valens at Adrianople in the year 378.

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  • In 378 the Goths won the great battle of Adrianople, and after this Theodosius the Great, the successor of Valens, made terms with them in 381, and the mass of the Gothic warriors entered the Roman service as foederati.

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  • The capture of Adrianople, followed by other conquests, brought about a coalition under the king of Hungary against Murad, but his able lieutenant Lalashahin, the first beylerbey of Rumelia, defeated the allies at the battle of the Maritsa in 1363.

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  • Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, where he built a palace and added many embellishments to the town.

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  • He accompanied his father into Britain (368), and a little later distinguished himself by defeating the Sarmatians who had invaded Moesia (374) On his father's death he retired to his native place, where he lived quietly till after the great battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), when Gratian summoned him to share the empire.

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  • By the convention of Akkerman between the Russians and the Turks in 1826 the privileges of the principalities were once more confirmed, and they were again ratified in 1829, under Russian guarantee, by the peace of Adrianople.

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  • (For a detailed account of the subsequent campaign, in which Prince Charles and the Rumanian army contributed greatly to the success of the Russian arms, see Russo-Turkish Wars, and Plevna.) The fall of Plevna left the Russian army free to march on Constantinople, and on the 31st of January 1878 the preliminaries of peace were signed at Adrianople.

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  • When news came that the Russian armies had reached Adrianople, that they had concluded some arrangement with the Turks, and that they were pressing forward towards Constantinople, the fleet was again directed to pass theDardanelles~ Soon afterwards the government decided to call out the reserves and to bring a contingent of Indian troops to the Mediterranean.

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  • Gelibolu, anc. KaXX(IroXis), a seaport and city of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople; at the north-western extremity of the Dardanelles, on a narrow peninsula 132 m.

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  • of Adrianople, in 40° 24' N.

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  • The line of railway between Adrianople and the Aegean Sea has been prejudicial to the transit trade of Gallipoli, and several attempts have been made to obtain concessions for the construction of a railway that would connect this port with the Turkish railway system.

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  • deliverance when attacked by the Goths, after the terrible defeat of Valens at Adrianople, A.D.

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  • of water), the cistern of Aspar, a short distance to the east of the gate of Adrianople, and the cistern of Mokius, on the 7th hill, are specimens of the open reservoirs within the city walls.

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  • He was the Russian plenipotentiary at the peace of Adrianople, and in 1833 was appointed Russian ambassador at Constantinople, holding at the same time the post of commanderin-chief of the Black Sea fleet.

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  • That autonomy was placed on an international basis by the treaty of Adrianople, concluded between Turkey and Russia in 1829.

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  • DEDEAGATCH, a seaport of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, io m.

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  • It is, however, one of the chief outlets for the grain trade of the Adrianople, Demotica and Xanthi districts.

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  • XANTHI (Turkish Eskije), a town of European Turkey in the vilayet of Adrianople; situated on the right bank of the river Eskije and at the S.

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  • By the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 Turkey seemed to become little better than a vassal state of the tsar, a relation intensified, after the first revolt of Mehemet Ali, by the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi in 1833 (see Mehemet Ali).

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