Adopted sentence example
They had two adopted children already.
No. He adopted me when I was ten.
That's why we went ahead and adopted her.
In a way, Carmen and Alex had adopted a family.
He knew I was adopted by my stepfather, but he wasn't sure what I'd been told, so he just kept quiet.Advertisement
Many times people gave up trying and adopted – only to immediately become pregnant.
The first constitution of 1863 was superseded by the present instrument which was adopted August 1872 and was amended in 1880, 1883 and 1902.
The men soon accepted Pierre into their family, adopted him, gave him a nickname ("our gentleman"), and made kindly fun of him among themselves.
It shouldn't make any difference if he's adopted.
Unfortunately, there is no one left alive to salute the LeBlanc and Betsy and I want our adopted daughter Claire to know she is fully a part of our lives.Advertisement
His memories and thoughts played like home videos, similar to those of her mate, Damian, and his adopted brothers.
No apologies, no regrets, she repeated the mantra she adopted when Wynn first diagnosed her as terminal.
It won't make any difference to you whether they are adopted or biological - not in how much you love them or how you treat them.
If that were the best Ne'Rin could say of the difficult woman … She should have settled by this point, adopted her role and been properly behaved.
Scouts are reporting it's overrun with demons and Darkyn has adopted it as his terra headquarters for his trips here from Hell.Advertisement
No one outside the woman who adopted me and turned me into a killing machine.
This is only one of the many Greek legends adopted by the Romans for the purpose of connecting places in Italy with others of likesounding name in Greece.
The answer came swiftly - because she no longer thought of him as adopted.
Still, if Señor Medena adopted Dulce when she was a baby and raised her, then he was her father - blood relative or not.
Back on the pavement, Dean pedaled past Tom, a well-known wild turkey who'd in past months adopted a location on the highway from which he never seemed to stray more than a few hundred yards.Advertisement
The Great Pyrenees dog had adopted the buffalo calves shortly after they were born.
She had thought of the stress on an adopted baby before, but in this instance, her entire focus had been on Lori.
Jenn ignored him and went to the punching bag she'd adopted as hers.
Her mate, the White God Damian, sat with his adopted brothers, the assassin Dusty and the Original Immortal Jule.
I know I said I wanted five children, but that was two adopted children and a set of twins ago.Advertisement
The ten-year-old child she adopted and turned into a killer started as a weapon with no more attachment to her than a sword or dagger.
The true method of science which he possessed forced him to condemn as useless the entire form which Schelling's and Hegel's expositions had adopted, especially the dialectic method of the latter, whilst his love of art and beauty, and his appreciation of moral purposes, revealed to him the existence of a transphenomenal world of values into which no exact science could penetrate.
The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.
During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
The old method of growing mushrooms in ridges out of doors, or on prepared beds either level or sloping from a back wall in sheds or cellars, may generally be adopted with success.Advertisement
For an account of the Virginia convention of 1861, which adopted the Ordinance of Secession, see Virginia.
In 1872, an entirely new constitution was adopted.
Apotheosis after his death, being in the hands of the senate, did not at once cease, even when Christianity was officially adopted.
Positive law, at least in progressive societies, is constantly tending to fall behind public opinion, and the expedients adopted for bringing it into harmony therewith are three, viz, legal fictions, equity and statutory legislation.
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.Advertisement
On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.
Her children he adopted as his own; and it was chiefly for her sake that he desired the peerage which was twice held out to him.
He adopted the name Grynaeus from the epithet of Apollo in Virgil.
The method of counting the total number of revolutions gives more friction and is less convenient than Repsolds', and no provision seems to be made for illuminating the micrometer head in the practical and convenient plan adopted by Repsolds.
Between 1283 and 1290, a Bavarian disciple of Wolfram's 2 adopted the story and developed it into an epic poem of nearly 8000 lines, incorporating episodes of Lohengrin's prowess in tournament, his wars with Henry I.Advertisement
His financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abbe Picot, and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted Mersenne.
In 1677 the university of Caen adopted not less stringent measures against Cartesianism.
Mitchell (1803-1884), who prepared a code that was immediately adopted in Scotland as the standard laws.
This name was adopted for the new gas.
He captured it in 1215, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol steppes by his grandson Kublai.Advertisement
The university adopted the reformed faith in 1 534, and in 1537 a Protestant theological seminary, a residential college - the so-called Stift - was incorporated with it.
But the Philharmonic Society adopted the Diapason Normal in 1896, and the military bands have not gone with it.
There would then have been less disturbance owing to the breath of the players and heat of the theatres or concert-rooms. It would be a great advantage to get this higher grade generally adopted.
The name Gheg (Gege-a) is not adopted by the Ghegs themselves, being regarded as a nickname; the designation Tosk (Toske-a) is restricted by the Tosks to the inhabitants of a small region north of the lower Viossa (Toskeria).
The costume of the Tosks differs from that of the Ghegs; its distinctive feature is the white plaited linen fustanella or petticoat, which has been adopted by the Greeks; the Ghegs wear trews of white or crimson native cloth adorned with black braid, and a short, close-fitting jacket, which in the case of wealthy persons is embellished with gold lace.Advertisement
The groundwork, so far as it can be ascertained, and the grammar are Indo-European, but a large number of words have been borrowed from the Latin or Italian and Greek, and it is not always easy to decide whether the mutilated and curtailed forms now in use represent adopted words or belong to the original vocabulary.
In the use of these no uniform system has yet been adopted.
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
This method is frequently adopted in combined schemes of heating and ventilating; the fresh air is warmed by being passed over their surfaces previously to being admitted through the gratings into the room.
This method differs from that adopted in the cylinder system, where all services are led from the top of the cylinder.
With the success of this undertaking in view it is a matter of wonder that the example set in this instance has not been adopted to a much greater extent elsewhere.
There seems but little doubt that Napier was the first to make use of a decimal separator, and it is curious that the separator which he used, the point, should be that which has been ultimately adopted, and after a long period of partial disuse.
His own children, who sign deeds along with him, use every mode except Napier, the form now adopted by the family, and which is comparatively modern.
In 1902 a city-and-county of Denver was created with extensive powers of framing its own charter, and in 1904 a charter was adopted.
It adopted a confession of faith and a book of order or discipline.
At the close of the Civil War this Southern Church adopted the name of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.
The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
Recruiting and Strength.EJniversal compulsory service was adopted after the disasters of 1870-1871, though in principle it had been established by Marshal Niels reforms a few years before that date.
Some information as to the types of fortification adopted in.
It was afterwards adopted by other cities, and first appears on a Florentine battlefield in 1228.
He now took the lead in the reform of the pronunciation of Greek, his views after considerable controversy being universally adopted.
He early adopted Protestant views, a fact which brought him into prominence when Edward VI.
During the draft riots in July he proclaimed the city and county of New York in a state of insurrection, but in a speech to the rioters adopted a tone of conciliation - a political error which injured his career.
The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders.
During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.
A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.
This conference adopted an address to the queen expressing its loyalty and attachment, and submitting certain resolutions which affirmed the desirability of an early union, under the crown, of the Australasian colonies, on principles just to all, and provided that the remoter Australasian colonies should be entitled to admission upon terms to be afterwards agreed upon, and that steps should be taken for the appointment of delegates to a national Australasian convention, to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for a federal convention.
The third and final session was opened in Melbourne on the 10th of January 1898, but Queensland was still unrepresented; and, after further consideration, the draft bill was finally adopted on the 16th of March and remitted to the various colonies for submission to the people.
The Enabling Bill passed the various stages in the parliament of that colony, and the question was then adopted by referendum.
In New South Wales, whose example was followed by Western Australia, the machinery adopted for fixing the statutory rate of wages was of a somewhat different type.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
After being slightly modified, the plan was adopted in 1856 by an international commission of civil engineers to which it had been submitted.
In the course of centuries, however, they were absorbed into the Babylonian population; the kings adopted Semitic names and married into the royal family of Assyria.
On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems. Here he died on the 6th of September 1850.
The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.
Among the more civilized, however, the Malay numerals up to ten are adopted by the Sakai.
Vermont has been governed under the constitution of 1777, that of 1786 and that of 1793, with twentyeight amendments, of which the first was adopted in 1828, the second to thirteenth in 1836, the fourteenth to twenty-third in 1850, the twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth in 1870, and the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth in 1883.
The Latinizing Armenians adopted it from Rome in the crusading epoch.
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
He was not actually the personal disciple of either, but he adopted their methods, though without the consistency and boldness of the first-named.
Various arrangements are adopted; the one indicated in fig.
These children could be legitimized by their father's acknowledgment before witnesses, and were often adopted.
They then ranked equally in sharing their father's estate, but if not adopted, the wife's children divided and took first choice.
They even, in some cases, found the estate for the adopted child who was to relieve them of a care.
If the adopted child failed to carry out the filial duty the contract was annulled in the law courts.
Slaves were often adopted and if they proved unfilial were reduced to slavery again.
A craftsman often adopted a son to learn the craft.
A man who adopted a son, and afterwards married and had a family of his own, could dissolve the contract but must give the adopted child one-third of a child's share in goods, but no real estate.
Vestals frequently adopted daughters, usually other vestals, to care for their old age.
If the adopted child discovered his true parents and wanted to return to them, his eye or tongue was torn out.
An adopted child was a full heir, the contract might even assign him the position of eldest son.
The subjection of the core to a hydraulic pressure of four tons to the square inch and an electric pressure of 5000 volts from an alternating-current transformer has been adopted, by one manufacturer at least, to secure the detection of masked faults which might develop themselves after submergence.
Since by international agreement the wilful damage of a cable has been constituted a criminal offence, and the cable companies have avoided crossing the fishing banks, or have adopted the wise policy of refunding the value of anchors lost on their cables, the number of such fractures has greatly diminished.
Four years later Varley patented his artificial cable, which was the first near approach to a successful solution of the duplex problem on the principle now adopted.
Delany (which was adopted to a limited extent in Great Britain, but has now been entirely discarded) had for its object the working of a number of instruments simultaneously on one wire.
This device was originally adopted in the d'Arlincourt copying telegraph.
The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
Evershed, and has been practically adopted at Lavernock and Flat Holme.
If the direct coupling is adopted then the lower end of the antenna is connected directly to the condenser circuit.
By the middle of 1905 a very large number of vessels had been equipped with the Marconi short distance and long distance wireless telegraph apparatus for intercommunication and reception of messages from power stations on both sides of the Atlantic, and the chief navies of the world had adopted the apparatus.
An important International Conference on radiotelegraphy was held in Berlin in 1906, and as a result of its deliberations international regulations have been adopted by the chief Powers of the world.
Soon after the dialect had reached its latest form, the Latin alphabet was adopted.
It is not practicable to connect each subscriber directly to all the others, hence a system of exchanges has been adopted.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
Aerial distribution from distributing poles is a method frequently adopted.
The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.
Free intercommunication was established by the agreement between the subscribers of the company and those of the Post Office, and a scale of charges was adopted or arranged to be agreed as binding on both the Post Office and the company.
Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
It was adopted by Augustus as the boundary of Gallia Cispadana; the far-famed Rubicon was a trifling stream a few miles farther north, now called Fiumicino.
Farther south no very lofty summits are found till we come to the group of Monti del Matese, in Samnium (6660 ft.), which according to the division here adopted belongs to Southern Italy.
In the province of Naples, Caserta, &c., the method of fallows is widely adopted, the ground often being left in this state for fifteen or twenty years; and in some parts of Sicily there is a regular interchange of fallow and crop year by year.
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
The property could now be disposed of like the other property of the domain; and except in Sicily, where the system of emphyteusis was adopted, the church lands began to be sold by auction.
She too, though twice married, died without issue, having at one time adopted Louis III.
Napoleon sought to push matters to an extreme, and on the 2nd of April Annexa- he adopted the rigorous measure of annexing to the tion of the kingdom of Italy the papal provinces of Ancona, Papal Urbino, Macerata and Camerina.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
He now prorogued parliament, adopted stringent measures against the Liberals, and retired to Gaeta, the haven of refuge for deposed despots.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
His bill, adopted by parliament on the 7th of June 1875, still forms the ground plan of the Italian army.
Count Corti had no suspicion that France had adopted a less disinterested attitude towards similar suggestions from Bismarck and Lord Salisbury.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
A month later (10th March I 882) Rubattino made over his establishment to the Italian government, and on the 12th of June the Chamber adopted a bill constituting Assab an Italian crown colony.
Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of FrancoItalian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute President Carnot at Toulon.
Intimately acquainted with the conditions of his native island, Crispi adopted efficacious remedies.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
In its original form the text of Magna Carta was not divided into chapters, but in later times a division of this kind was adopted.
Moreover she must not be compelled to marry, a proceeding sometimes adopted to get her lands into the possession of a royal minion.
The constables of these castles had adopted the custom of compelling these landholders to give money and not service, mercenaries being then hired to perform this.
The following is the main outline of the classification that is adopted in the present article.
Supported by the great authority of Haller, the doctrine of evolution, or development, prevailed throughout the whole of the 18th century, and Cuvier appears to have substantially adopted Bonnet's later views, though probably he would not have gone all lengths in the direction of " emboitement."
The original road, too, adopted in imperial times a more devious but easier route by Aeclanum instead of by Trevicum.
But the matter is now determined for all countries which have adopted codes, whether after the pattern of the Code Napoleon or otherwise.
When, in the generations after the Buddha's death, his disciples compiled the documents of the faith, the form they adopted became dominant.
This was so nearly correct that the usage has been followed by other European scholars, and is being increasingly adopted.
Marcus was three months old when his father died, and was thereupon adopted by his grandfather.
Hadrian adopted, as his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (uncle of Marcus), on condition that he in turn adopted both Marcus (then seventeen) and Lucius Ceionius Commodus, the son of Aelius Caesar, who had originally been intended by Hadrian as his successor, but had died before him.
Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.
This expedient of buying off the invader was first adopted in 991 on the advice of certain great men of the kingdom.
The educational course adopted in different countries varies as to the details of the subjects taught.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
It is interesting to observe that though deduced exclusively from the study of flowering plants, they are in substantial agreement with those now generally adopted by zoologists, and may therefore be presumed to be on the whole natural.
The Pythagorean school of philosophers adopted the theory of a spherical earth, but from metaphysical rather than scientific reasons; their convincing argument was that a sphere being the most perfect solid figure was the only one worthy to circumscribe the dwellingplace of man.
This argument was tacitly accepted or explicitly avowed by almost every writer on the theory of geography, and Carl Ritter distinctly recognized and adopted it as the unifying principle of his system.
During these critical years he adopted the "states' rights" attitude.
Squarcione adopted him as his son, and purposed making him the heir of his fortune.
He never changed, though he developed and perfected, the manner which he had adopted in Padua; his colouring, at first rather neutral and undecided, strengthened and matured.
As Hebrew became less familiar to the people, a system of translating the text of the Law into the Aramaic vernacular verse by verse, was adopted in the synagogue.
His system was' adopted by Abu'l-walid ibn Jannah, of Saragossa (died early in the nth century), in his lexicon (Kitab al-usul, in Arabic) and other works.
Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.
They are well known in cultivation, and owing to the wide distribution of the genus different methods are adopted with different species.
Canons were adopted, thirty according to the generally received tradition, although the most ancient texts contain but twentyeight, and, as Hefele points out, the so-called twenty-ninth and thirtieth are properly not canons, but repetitions of proposals made in a previous session.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
Their national character remains largely the same; but they have adopted a new religion, a new language, a new system of law and society, new thoughts and feelings on all matters.
They adopted the French tongue, and were presently among the first to practise and spread abroad its literature.
They adopted the growing feudal doctrines of France, and worked them, both in Normandy and in England, into a harmonious system.
From northern Italy, as it would seem, they adopted a style of architecture which grew in their hands, both in Normandy and in England, into a marked and living form of art.
The gifts of each were adopted and bore fruit on both sides of the Channel.
By the end of the 12th century the Normans in England might fairly pass as Englishmen, and they had largely adopted the use of the English language.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.
Where, as in Sicily, the Normans felt that they could not improve, they simply adopted the style of the country.
Where, as in England, they felt that they could improve, they substituted for the style of the country their own style - that is, a style which they had not created but which they had adopted, which they had made thoroughly their own, and which they went on improving in England no less than in Normandy.
In his translation he discarded the native Saturnian metre, and adopted the iambic, trochaic and cretic metres, to which Latin more easily adapted itself than either to the hexameter or to the lyrical measures of a later time.
The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but the old Spanish system is still in general use.
To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
Antisthenes adopted this principle in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing itself in the sphere of ordinary existence.
Along with this affirmation, the Church of Rome (if less decisively) has adopted the limitations of the Thomist theory by the condemnation of " Ontologism "; certain mysterious doctrines are beyond reason.
They adopted the Mahommedan religion and founded an empire which in the 17th and 18th centuries ruled over a large part of the eastern Sudan.
Aristotle's term was adopted by Linnaeus (1758), and has been universally used by zoologists.
In the classification adopted in this article, the attempt has been made to combine the best points in old and recent schemes, and to avoid the inconvenience of a large heterogeneous group including the vast majority of the families.
Protected as they were by the right of self-government, exempted from military service, and endowed with considerable allotments of good land, these colonies are much wealthier than the neighbouring Russian peasants, from whom they have adopted the slowly modified village community.
The methods adopted by the zemstvos for improving the condition of agriculture have included the formation of agricultural councils, the appointment of inspectors, and the founding of museums, meteorological stations and depots for the sale of agricultural machinery.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
Now the tsar of Muscovy and of all Russia adopted the airs and methods of a Tatar khan and surrounded himself with the pomp and splendours of a Byzantine emperor.
Those of them who lived on the outskirts of the pacified territory adopted a mode of life similar to that of their hereditary opponents, and constituted a peculiar class known as Cossacks, living more by flocks and The h e rds and by marauding expeditions than by a ri y g p ?'
During the Russian Dark Ages certain clerical errors had crept into the liturgical books Reforms a nd certain peculiarities had been adopted in the ritual.
Numerous foreigners had been allowed to settle in Moscow and to build for themselves a heretical church, and their strange unholy customs had been adopted by not a few courtiers and great dignitaries.
In foreign affairs Catherine devoted her attention mainly to pushing forward the Russian frontier westwards and south- Foreign wards, and as France was the traditional ally of policy of Sweden, Poland and Turkey, she adopted at first Cath- the so-called systeme du Nord, that is to say, a close erine.
In the affairs of his own country he refrained from developing and extending the liberal institutions which he had created immediately after his accession, and he finally adopted in all departments of administration a strongly reactionary policy.
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
On the Stockton & Darlington railway, which was authorized by parliament in 1821, animal power was at first proposed, but on the advice of Stephenson, its engineer, steam-engines were adopted.
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
It is a mistake to suppose that the question of public or private ownership will make any considerable difference in the system of rate-making adopted by a good railway.
America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
In cases where the route of a line runs across a river or other piece of water so wide that the construction of a bridge is either impossible or would be more costly than is warranted by the volume of traffic, the expedient is sometimes adopted of carrying the wagons and carriages across bodily with their loads on train ferries, so as to avoid the inconvenience and delay of transshipment.
Brunel adopted for the Great Western railway disappeared on the 20th-23rd of May 1892, when the main line from London to Penzance was converted to standard gauge throughout its length.
On the continent of Europe the standard gauge is generally adopted, though in France there are many miles of 4 ft.
This method of construction, however, has been adopted only to a very limited extent.
They are nearly always placed transversely, across the direction of the lines, the longitudinal position such as was adopted in connexion with the broad gauge on the Great Western in England having been abandoned except in special cases.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
According to the specification for 85 lb rails adopted by the Canadian Pacific railway about the same time, 36-77% of the metal was to be in the head, 22'21% in the web and 41 02% in the base.
Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.
Whatever the pattern adopted for the roof, a sufficient portion of it must be glazed to admit light, and it should be so designed that the ironwork can be easily inspected and painted and the glass readily cleaned.
Such troughs were first employed on the London & North-Western railway in 1857 by John Ramsbottom, and have since been adopted on many other lines.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
Compound locomotives have been tried, as stated in § 17, but the tendency in England is to revert to the simple engine for all classes of work, though on the continent of Europe and in America the compound locomotive is largely adopted, and is doing excellent work.
This construction was introduced into England from America about 1874, and has since been extensively adopted, being now indeed standard for main line stock.
Cars of this saloon type have been introduced into England for use on railways which have adopted electric traction, but owing to the narrower loading gauge of British railways it is not usually possible to seat four persons across the width of the car for its whole length, and at the ends the seats have to be placed along the sides of the vehicle.
Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
Automatic couplers resembling the Janney are adopted in a few special cases in Great Britain and other European countries, FIG.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
For their government the settlers adopted (1639) a plantation covenant.
But though the younger prophet adopted the ideas respecting personal religion and individual responsibility from the elder, the characters of the two men were very different.
The careful methods of work which he had adopted from the outset had borne admirable fruit.
In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.
In 986 it was taken by an invading force of Khitan Tatars, who adopted it as their headquarters and named it Nanking, or the "southern capital."
At this early period he seems already to have adopted in some degree the plan of study he followed in after life and recommended in his Essai sur l'etude - that is, of letting his subject rather than his author determine his course, of suspending the perusal of a book to reflect, and to compare the statements with those of other authors - so that he often read portions of many volumes while mastering one.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
Still following the wise maxim which he had adopted as a student, " multum legere potius quam multa," he reviewed again and again the immortal works of the French and English, the Latin and Italian classics.
Nevada is governed under the original constitution of 1864, with the amendments adopted in 1880, 1889, 1904 and 1906.
The constitution as adopted limited the suffrage to adult white males, but this provision was annulled by the fifteenth amendment to the Federal constitution; and in 1880 amendments to the state constitution were adopted striking out the word " white " from the suffrage clause and adding a new article granting rights of suffrage and office holding without regard to race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
Under this provision an amendment cannot be adopted until nearly four years after it is first proposed.
At the election of 1904 an amendment was adopted which provides that whenever 10% of the voters of the state, as shown by the votes of the last preceding election, express a wish that any law or resolution of the legislature shall be submitted to the people, the Act or Resolve shall be voted on at the next election of the state or county officers, and if a majority of the voters approve the measure it shall stand; otherwise, it shall become void.
The instrument was submitted to a vote of the people and was adopted, and a full set of state officers was chosen.
This was submitted to the people and adopted at the polls.
The incident has been assigned to various other localities - Crete, Eleusis, and Enna in Sicily, the last being most generally adopted.
In later times his regulations enjoyed a high reputation, and were adopted by the monks and nuns of Port Royal.
But the heads of the church carried the day, and, more stringent measures being adopted against dissenters, Schwenkfeld left Strasburg for a time, residing in various cities of south Germany and corresponding with many nobles.
Both lines of study were readily combined by applying to the interpretation of descriptions of natural objects the allegorical method adopted for the interpretation of Biblical texts.
In some measure we find this practice adopted by more than one of the Fathers, but it was the Alexandrian school, with its pronounced taste for symbolism, that made the most of it.
Julius Thomsen was the first investigator who deliberately adopted the principle of the conservation of energy as the basis of a thermochemical system.
In 1564 he entered Christ's College, Cambridge, where, after a short time, he formally adopted the reformed doctrines and was in consequence disinherited by his father.
Amid a great variety of motives the prominence of Kadesh in south Palestine is to be recognized, but it is uncertain what clans or tribes were at Kadesh, and it is possible that traditions, originally confined to those with whom the new conception of Yahweh is connected, were subsequently adopted by others who came to regard themselves as the worshippers of the only true Yahweh.
But two individuals exemplify the different attitudes which the nation adopted towards its new environment and its wider opportunities, Joseph the tax-farmer and Jesus the sage.
But, whatever means each head of a family adopted to get a livelihood, he must pay the priest's dues.
Idumaean or Philistine of Ascalon, Antipater had displayed the capacity of his adoptive or adopted nation for his own profit and theirs.
Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
The Greek penal code has been adopted with some modifications.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
At first an eight years' cycle was adopted, but it was found to be faulty, then the Jewish cycle of 84 years was used, and remained in force at Rome till the year 457, when a more accurate calculation of a cycle of 532 years, invented by Victorius of Acquitaine, took its place.
So far as Western Christendom is concerned the corrected calendar is now universally accepted, and Easter is kept on the same day, but it was not until 1752 that the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted in Great Britain and Ireland.
The present constitution, as amended, prescribes that no convention of the people of the state may be called by the legislature unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house followed by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting on the question; and that an amendment to the constitution may be adopted only by a three-fifths vote of each house followed by an affirmative vote of the majority of electors voting on the question.
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
There seems practically no basis for the contention that a declaration of independence was adopted on the 10th other than the tradition that independence was declared by the Mecklenburg Committee on that date, and the occasional.
When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation.
In the middle of the 14th century the famous Goslar statutes, a code of laws, which was adopted by many other towns, was published.
The Maronites, and the uniate Jacobites, Chaldaeans and Copts have adopted the Roman mitre.
It is doubtless to be regarded as a revival of ancient habits of thought and feeling among a people who had adopted the Koran, not by affinity, but by compulsion.
The negative theology is adopted, and God is stated to be predicateless Being, above all categories, and therefore not improperly called Nothing.
St Petersburg, again, is connected with Greenwich by European systems of triangulation; and the Greenwich meridian is adopted by Russia as the zero for all her longitude values.
The astronomical observatory at Tashkent is adopted for the initial starting-point of the trans-Caspian triangulation of Russia; the triangulation ranks as second-class only, and now extends to the Pamir frontier beyond Osh.
The final result of this latest determination is to place the Madras observatory 2' 27" to the west of the position adopted for it on the strength of absolute astronomical determinations.
The Parthians appear to have been a Turanian tribe who had adopted many Persian customs. They successfully withstood the Romans, and at one time their power extended from India to Syria.
The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine.
Benham's division into Phanerocephala in which the prostomium is plain, and Crytocephala in which the prostomium is hidden by the peristomium adopted by Sedgwick, can only be justified by the character used; for the Terebellids, though phanerocephalous, have many of the features of the Sabellids.
His life was strengthened by the love of his petite horde, Mme de Nehra, his adopted son, Lucas de Montigny, and his little dog Chico.
Mahommedanism was introduced at a period which, according to the system adopted for the dating of the annals, must be placed either in the 1 2 th or the 14th century.
The Hausa system of government and taxation was adopted by the Fula when in the early part of the 19th century that Mahommedan people overran the Hausa states.
The fact that they adopted the existing system of government and taxation, which are based upon Koranic law, would in itself be sufficient proof that this was not the case.
After the occupation by the British in 1903 the province was organized for administration on the same system as that adopted throughout northern Nigeria.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
His adopted son grew up to be the Nana Sahib, of infamous memory, who took a leading part in the Mutiny.
The United States government has greatly improved the harbour, and in 1899 adopted a project (modified in 1905) for constructing a channel 26 ft.
But he was no merely destructive critic. He was determined to find a solid foundation for both morality and law, and to raise upon it an edifice, no stone of which should be laid except in accordance with the deductions of the severest logic. This foundation is "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a formula adopted from Priestly or perhaps first from Beccaria.
In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as in the case of the apple.
The mode most commonly adopted of training wall pear-trees is the horizontal.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
Improved varieties, obtained by cross-impregnation either naturally or artificially brought about, were carefully propagated and generally adopted, and increased attention was bestowed on the cultivation of the natural grasses.
In 1747, by the royal decree establishing the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Attleborough Gore, with other territory formerly under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, was annexed to Rhode Island, and the township of Cumberland was incorporated, the name being adopted in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland.
There is evidence that the forms of Greek political life were more fully adopted under his sway by many of the Syrian cities.
To check them, " grease-banding " round the trees has been adopted; but as many other pests eat the leafage, it is best to kill all at once by spraying with arsenical poisons.
But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.
Taking advantage of an outbreak at Genoa, he overthrew that ancient oligarchy, replaced it by a form of government modelled on that of France (June 6th); and subsequently it adopted the name of the Ligurian Republic.
The name of Empire was not adopted until nearly two years later; but the change then brought about was scarcely more than titular.
The other councils adopted it almost unanimously.
A few years later Pitt adopted an identical policy, and professed that whatever he knew he had learnt from Carteret.
There are, however, in certain respects at certain periods, evidences of such changes as might be due to the intrusion of small conquering castes, which adopted the superior civilization of the conquered people and became assimilated to the latter.
On the 7th of June 1776 he seconded the famous resolution introduced by Richard Henry Lee that " these colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states," and no man championed these resolutions (adopted on the 2nd of July) so eloquently and effectively before the congress.
The classification here adopted is based on Sharp's scheme, with the addition of suggestions from some of the most recent authors - especially Bdrner and Enderlein.
His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.
Deeming it wise to suppress his name, he adopted the pseudonym Ursinus, with reference to his protection by Bern.
Like nearly all his predecessors since Aelian, he adopted an alphabetical arrangement, though this was not too pedantically preserved, and did not hinder him from placing together the kinds of birds which he supposed (and generally supposed rightly) to have the most resemblance to that one whose name, being best known, was chosen for the headpiece (as it were) of his particular theme, thus recognizing to some extent the principle of classification.3 Belon, with perhaps less book-learning than his contemporary, was evidently no mean scholar, and undoubtedly had more practical knowledge of birds - their internal as well as external structure.
With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
The classification was modified, chiefly on the old lines of Willughby and Ray, and certainly for the better; but no scientific nomenclature was adopted, which, as the author subsequently found, was a change for the worse.
There is, it is true, a smoothness and finish about them not often seen elsewhere; but, as though to avoid the exaggerations of Audubon, Gould usually adopted the tamest of attitudes in which to represent his subjects, whereby expression as well as vivacity is wanting.
He would not tolerate any of the " barbarous " generic terms adopted by other writers, though some had been in use for many years.
This proved a great success, and his arrangement, though by no means simple, 5 was not only adopted by many ornithologists of almost every country, but still has some adherents.
The arrangement he subsequently adopted for them and for other groups is to be found in his Natiirliches System der Amphibien (pp. 77-128), published in 1830, and is too fanciful to require any further attention.
In the following year Vigors returned to the subject in some papers published in the recently established Zoological Journal, and found an energetic condisciple and coadjutor in Swainson, who, for more than a dozen years - to the end, in fact, of his career as an ornithological writer was instant in season and out of season in pressing on all his readers the views he had, through Vigors, adopted from Macleay, though not without some modification of detail if not of principle.
In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.
The two authors were in constant communication, and the classifications they adopted had much in common.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
For two years he acted as manager of his father's bank, and in 1830 was inducted to his first charge, Arbirlot, in Forfarshire, where he adopted a vivid dramatic style of preaching adapted to his congregation of peasants, farmers and weavers.
The corner towards the Ponte della Puglia was also restored, and the hideous device of walling up the five last arches, adopted in the 16th century by the architect Da Ponte, was removed without prejudice to the stability of the structure.
The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having a population of 11,800 or more.
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
This instrument provided a temporary government for the Territory with the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, the representative system should be adopted, and later that states should be formed and admitted into the Union.
For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).
This anonymous writer,' he says, acquired his learning by teaching others, and adopted a dogmatic tone, which has caused him to be received at Paris with applause as the equal of Aristotle, Avicenna, or Averroes.
His recommendations were adopted by the House of Commons, but his unpopularity in South Africa was great, and in 1830 he was convicted of libelling a Cape official.
In that year the present name was adopted, and in 1741 the township was incorporated.
The title of raja was recognized as hereditary in the family; that of maharaja was conferred as a personal distinction on Sir Venkataswetachalapati Ranga Rao, K.C.I.E., the adopted great-great-grandson of Chinna Ranga Rao.
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
For metaphysics Clauberg suggested the names ontosophy or ontology,, the latter being afterwards adopted by Wolff.
The fourth Council of Lateran fully adopted it (1215).
The methods of catching prey adopted by spiders are extremely varied.
A new form had therefore to be invented for the genuine b in Slavonic, to which there was, at the period when the alphabet was adopted, no corresponding sound in Greek.
The English doctrine that a verbal lease may be specifically enforced if there has been part performance by the person seeking the remedy has been fully adopted in nearly all the American states.
Ray was the first to formulate that definite conception of the species which was adopted by Linnaeus and emphasized by his binominal nomenclature.
After the withdrawal of Dalwigk from public life at this time a more liberal policy was adopted in Hesse.
It was governed under a "plantation covenant" until the 4th of June 1639, when, at a general meeting, the "free planters" adopted the fundamental principles of a new government.
The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.
The following rotation is frequently adopted.
By 1884, however, the advantages of " settlement terms " became so evident that they were adopted by the Cotton Association, at first for fortnightly periods, with the saving clause originally that they should not be compulsory.
In September 1909, at a special election, it adopted the commission charter described above.
This policy was adopted by Congress, which agreed upon a joint peace resolution, signed by him on July 2.
On May 25 1921 the Senate had adopted an amendment of Senator Borah to the Navy bill, authorizing and inviting the President to call such a conference.
His father, Emmanuel Mendel, is said to have been a Jewish pedlar, but August adopted the name of Neander on his baptism as a Christian.
The hymn has been used in Christian worship since at least the 9th century, and was adopted into the Anglican Order of Morning Prayer from the Roman service of matin-lauds.
His mission was very successful, and soon after his return he was made count of the domestics and received in marriage Serena, the emperor's niece and adopted daughter.
The name was adopted by a ruler who rose to power in the beginning of the 13th century.
On assuming the imperial yellow in China their chief adopted the title of Kin or " Golden " for his dynasty.
Being thus the sovereign of an empire, he, again like Jenghiz Khan, adopted for himself the title of Ying-ming, " Brave and Illustrious," and took for his reign the title of Tien-ming.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
In Galicia the Canadian system is nearly exclusively adopted.
The pumps employed to force the oil through the pipes were at first of the single-cylinder or " donkey " type, but these were found to cause excessive wear - a defect remedied by the use of the Worthington pump now generally adopted.
Those adopted by the National Transit Company are 90 ft.
In the United States, various methods of testing and various minimum standards have been adopted.
The one difficulty - and it was serious - was the attitude adopted by Alexius.