The body of Gustavus Adolphus was embalmed at Weissenfels after the battle of Lutzen.
In the political interests which these contests involved he took no part; his favourite disciple, the princess Elizabeth, was the daughter of the banished king, against whom he had served in Bohemia; and Queen Christina, his second royal follower, was the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD (1837-), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, on the 2nd of December 1837, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge.
Other buildings of note are the massive episcopal palace (1470-1500), afterwards a royal palace, and the old gymnasium founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1627, which contains the valuable library of old books and manuscripts belonging to the diocese and state college, and collection of coins and antiquities.
Aremberg himself was killed, as was Adolphus of Nassau, a younger brother of William and Louis.
His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
As Sweden was known to be exhausted by the long wars of Gustavus Adolphus and his successors, and weakened by internal dissensions, the dismemberment seemed an easy matter, and Peter embarked on the scheme with a light heart; but his illusions were quickly dispelled by the eccentric young Swedish king, Charles XII., who arrived suddenly in Esthonia and completely routed the Russian army before Narva.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
Harte, the author of the Life of Gustavus Adolphus, acknowledged the aid which Carteret had given him.
Alaric died in the same year, and in 412 Honorius concluded peace with his brother-in-law and successor, Ataulphus (Adolphus), who married the emperor's sister Placidia and removed with his troops to southern Gaul.
In 1608 she appeared at court, where her beauty soon attracted admiration and became the theme of the poets, her suitors including the dauphin, Maurice, prince of Orange, Gustavus Adolphus, Philip III.
The victories of Gustavus Adolphus secured no permanent advantage, and his death at Liitzen was followed by that of the elector at Mainz on the 29th of November 1632.
The town was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus Adolphus.
Napoleon, then standing near the Gustavus Adolphus monument on the field of Liitzen, heard the roar of a heavy cannonade to his right rear.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
Lulea as founded by Gustavus Adolphus was 7 m.
Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Barwald of the 23rd of January 1631.
In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, remains of which are still extant.
The Swedes, at the desire of Elizabeth, accepted Adolphus Frederick, duke of Holstein, as their future king, and, in return, received back Finland, with the exception of a small strip of land up to the river Kymmene.
In 1631 the town was taken by Tilly, and in 1632 by Gustavus Adolphus.
In 1632 Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in 1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians.
CHRISTINA (1626-1689), queen of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, was born at Stockholm on the 8th of December 1626.
During the Thirty Years' War Mainz was occupied by the Swedes in 1631 and by the French in 1644, 'the fortifications being strengthened by the former under Gustavus Adolphus; in 1688 it was captured again by the French, but they were driven out in the following year.
In 1631 Gustavus Adolphus garrisoned it with 600 men, who remained in possession till they were expelled four years later by the imperial general Lamboy.
Sir James Lumsden, a soldier of fortune under Gustavus Adolphus, who distinguished himself in the Thirty Years' War, was born in the parish of Kilrenny about 1598.
ADOLPHUS FREDERICK (1710-1771), king of Sweden, was born at Gottorp on the 14th of May 1710.
During his whole reign (1751-1771) Adolphus Frederick was little more than a state decoration, the real power being lodged in the hands of an omnipotent riksdag, distracted by fierce party strife.
The town was given municipal privileges by Gustavus Adolphus in 1620, but is modern in appearance, having been rebuilt after fires in 1860 and 1865.
The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, Frederick and his uncles John and Adolphus, dukes of Holstein, dividing the land between them.
die jildisch-alexandrinische Theosophie, Stuttgart, 1831) was rapidly followed by an elaborate biography, in two volumes, of Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav Adolf, Konig von Schweden, and seine Zeit, Stuttgart, 1835-1837), and by a critical history of primitve Christianity (Kritische Geschichte des Urchristenthums, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1838).
In his early life he served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus, where he rose to the rank of colonel of cavalry.
[CHARLES GUSTAVUS] (1622-1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibriicken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at Nykoping Castle on the 8th of November 1622.
His father, a ribbon-weaver, was a descendant of a Swedish soldier who (in the service of Gustavus Adolphus) was left wounded at Rammenau and settled there.
The university was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632; but in 1699 teachers and students removed to Pernau on the advance of the Russians, and on the occupation of the country by Peter the Great again took flight to Sweden.
Adolphus of Sweden.
LUTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the 6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein.
STEPHEN CZARNIECKI (1599-1665), Polish general, learnt the science of war under Stanislaw Koniecpolski in the Prussian campaigns against Gustavus Adolphus (1626-1629), and under Wladislaus IV.
In the Thirty Years' War it was successively taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstein (1633), by the elector of Brandenburg (1634), and again by the Swedes, who held it from 1640 to 1644.
The edict of restitution, however, in 1629, opened his eyes to the emperor's projects, and he joined Gustavus Adolphus.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
and Gustavus Adolphus, when her forces were sorely needed elsewhere.
In 1625 he was appointed guardian of the Ukraine against the Tatars, but in 1626 was transferred to Prussia to check the victorious advance of Gustavus Adolphus.
Fogelberg of Gustavus Adolphus and of Odin, and of Oscar I.
Founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1619, Gothenburg was from the first designed to be fortified, a town of the same name founded on Hisingen in 1603 having been destroyed by the Danes during the Calmar war.
of Denmark, the emperor Ferdinand II., and for the Swedes both before and after the death of Gustavus Adolphus.
The revolution of that year compelled George's brother and successor, William, to dismiss Count Munster, who had been the actual ruler of the country, and to name his own brother, Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge, a viceroy of Hanover; one of the viceroy's earliest duties being to appoint a commission to draw up a new constitution.
Arranging a truce between Poland and Sweden, she unleashed Gustavus Adolphus.
In the war with Sweden, generally known as the "Kalmar War," because its chief operation was the capture by the Danes of Kalmar, the eastern fortress of Sweden, Christian compelled Gustavus Adolphus to give way on all essential points (treaty of Knared, 10th of January 1613).
For a time, however, he stayed his hand, but the urgent solicitations of the western powers, and, above all, his fear lest Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war against the combined forces of the emperor and the League, without any adequate guarantees of co-operation from abroad.
In his extremity Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden (1st of January 1628), whereby Gustavus Adolphus pledged himself to assist Denmark with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund.
of the Netherlands and Adolphus of Nassau jointly.
The Order of Adolphus of Nassau, for civil and military merit, in four classes, was founded in 1858, and the Order of the Oak Crown as a general order of merit, in five classes, in 1841, modified 1858.
(1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of Adolphus Frederick, king of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on the 7th of October 1748.
Meanwhile Gustavus Adolphus had landed in Germany, and the elector had refused to allow him to cross the Elbe at Wittenberg, thus hindering his attempt to relieve Magdeburg.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
His works include The Campaign of Chancellorsville (1881), A Bird's Eye View of our Civil War (1882, later edition 1897), a complete, accurate and remarkably concise account of the whole war, Patroclus and Penelope, a Chat in the Saddle (1883), Great Captains (1886), a series of lectures, Riders of Many Lands (1893), and a series of large illustrated volumes entitled A History of the Art of War, being lives of "Great Captains," including Alexander (2(2 vols., 1888), Hannibal (2(2 vols., 1889), Caesar (2 vols., 1892), Gustavus Adolphus (2 vols., 1896) and Napoleon (4(4 vols., 1904-1907).
Gustavus II Adolphus >>
Among the more conspicuous buildings are St Olaf's church (erected by Gustavus Adolphus in 1616 and rebuilt in 1765-1767); St Hedvig's, built by the German colony in 1670; the town hall, dating from the beginning of the 19th century; the high school (1868), and technical and weaving schools.
It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war of 1803 it suffered severely.
With the head of the Swedish branch of the Gottorps, the crown prince Adolphus Frederick, things had been arranged by the exchange of 1750; but an attempt to make a similar arrangement with the chief of the elder Gottorp line, the cesarevitch Peter Feodorovich, had failed.
A more inauspicious moment could not have been chosen for these two serious steps, because in the summer of 1630 Gustavus Adolphus left Sweden at the head of a strong army for the purpose of sustaining the Protestant cause in Gei~many.
Having captured Frankfort-on-Oder and forced the hesitating elector of Brandenburg, George William, to grant him some assistThe earn- ance, Gustavus Adolphus added the Saxon army to his paignof, own, and in September 1631 he met Tilly, at the heed Gustavus of nearly the whole force of the League, at Breitenfeld, P near Leipzig,, where he gained a victory which placed North Germany entirely at his feet.
Having quickly assembled this, h drove the Saxons from Bohemia, and then marched towards Franconia, with the intention of crossing swords with his only serious rival, Gustavus Adolphus, who had left Munich when he heard that this foe had taken the field.
These acquisitions, which surpassed the advantages Gustavus Adolphus had hoped to win, gave Sweden the command both of the Baltic and of the North Sea.
During 1870 and 1871 meetings were held by the Gustavus Adolphus Verein, and a great Protestant conference was called, at which resolutions were passed demanding the expulsion of the Jesuits and condemning the Vatican decrees.
The sovereignty of the Luxemburg duchy passed to the next heir male of the house of Nassau, Adolphus, ex-duke of Nassau.
After numerous vicissitudes it fell into the hands of the Poles in 1520, and in 1626 it was captured by Gustavus Adolphus.
His failure, followed by the arrival of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany in 1630, proved the death blow of Austrian hopes.
In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was killed, in 1634 Wallenstein was assassinated, and in 1635 France entered into the war.
He consolidated the work of Gustavus Vasa, the creation of a great Protestant state: he prepared the way for the erection of the Protestant empire of Gustavus Adolphus.
By his first wife Marie, daughter of the elector palatine Louis VI., he had six children, of whom only one daughter, Catherine, survived; by his second wife, Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he had five children, including Gustavus Adolphus and Charles Philip, duke of Finland.
John Leycester Adolphus >>
Five years later Count Adolphus II.
Attempting to interpret the book of Revelation, he promised the millennium in 1672, and guaranteed miraculous assistance to those who would undertake the destruction of the Pope and the house of Austria, even venturing to prophesy that Cromwell, Gustavus Adolphus, and Rakoczy, prince of Transylvania, would perform the task.
In the Thirty Years' War it was stormed by Gustavus Adolphus (1632), and captured by King Ferdinand (1634).
1469), wife of Adolphus of Egmont, duke of Gelderland, with a brass of the duchess, and the heraldic achievements of the house of Bourbon.
Gustavus Adolphus gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, but William's rule only lasted for ten years.
After his cousin Gustavus Adolphus, whom in many respects he strikingly resembled, he was indubitably the most amiable and brilliant of all the princes of the House of Vasa.
The first blow to its prosperity was the discovery of the sea-route to India in 1497; and the second was inflicted by the Thirty Years' War, during which Gustavus Adolphus was besieged here in an entrenched camp by Wallenstein.
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
Riddarholmen (nobles' island), lying immediately west of Stadholmen, contains the old Franciscan church (Riddarholmskyrka), no longer used for regular service, which since the time of Gustavus Adolphus has been the burial-place of the royal family.
To the new town the Lubeck rights were granted by Adolphus IV.
Still worse, the war of Kalmar, prudently Peace of concluded by Charles's son, Gustavus Adolphus, Knared, in the second year of his reign, by the peace of Knared 1613.
Whilst in every other European country except England, the ancient popular representation by estates was about to disappear altogether, in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus it grew into an integral portion of the constitution.
The eleven Riksdags held by Gustavus Adolphus were almost exclusively occupied in finding ways and means for supporting the ever-increasing burdens of the Polish and German wars.
By the beginning of 1626 Livonia was conquered and the theatre of hostilities was transferred to the Prussian provinces of Poland (see Gustavus Adolphus; [[Koniecpolski [Stanislaus]]]).
of Gustavus Adolphus's two immediate successors, Christina' and Charles X., shook the flimsy fabric of his empire to its very base.
The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property.
A motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the war was skilfully evaded by obtaining precedence for the succession question (Queen Ulrica Leonora had lately died childless and King Frederick was old); and negotiations were thus opened with the new Russian empress, Elizabeth, who agreed to restore the greater part of Finland if her cousin, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, were elected successor to the Swedish crown.
Adolphus Adolphus Frederick (q.v.) would have given even less Frederick trouble than his predecessor but for the ambitious IL, 1751- promptings of his masterful consort Louisa Ulrica, 1771.
Adolphus Frederick died on the 12th of February 1771.
Adolphus, in 1634.
He awakened curiosity and roused a public sympathy with letters; nor was it without significance that two of the greatest Swedes of the century, Gustavus Adolphus and the poet Stjernhjelm, were his pupils.
The reign of Gustavus Adolphus was adorned by one great writer, the most considerable in all the early history of Sweden.
Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) was the most polished writer of its earlier half, and his speeches take an important place in the development of the language.
(1746-1792), king of Sweden, was the eldest son of Adolphus Frederick, king of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, and was born on the 24th of January 1746.
The Pomeranian dynasty became extinct in 1637, when the country was suffering from the ravages of the Thirty Years' War, and by the settlement of 1648 Stettin, the fortifications of which had been improved by Gustavus Adolphus, was ceded to Sweden.
Adolphus William Ward >>
In 1621 Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, took it from Poland, and held it against the Poles and the Russians, who besieged it in 1656.
To found a colony in the new world was long the desire of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but incessant European wars prevented the establishment of any settlement until after his death.
It was chiefly through his efforts that the estates issued a "national declaration" protesting against the arrogant attitude of the Russian ambassador, who attempted to dominate the crown prince Adolphus Frederick and the government.
In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus besieged it in vain, and in 1634 it was pillaged and burnt by the Croats.
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS UNION (GUSTAV-ADOLF-STIFTUNG,
In 1631 Prague was occupied for a short time by the Saxon allies of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, but the Imperial army led by Wallenstein soon obliged them to retire.
In 1612 Gustavus Adolphus caused the inhabitants to destroy their town lest it should fall into the hands of the Danes; but it was rebuilt soon after, and in 1620 received special privileges from the king.
On the accession of the Caps to power in 1766, Fersen assisted the court in its struggle with them by refusing to employ the Guards to keep order in the capital when King Adolphus Frederick, driven to desperation by the demands of the Caps, publicly abdicated, and a seven days' interregnum ensued.
By the peace of Kna.red (1613) Gustavus Adolphus gave up the Swedish claim to Finmark; and in 1751 mutual renunciations brought the relations of Swedish and Norwegian (Danish) Lapland to their present position.
It may be interesting to mention that Lapps, armed with bows and arrows, were attached to certain regiments of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany during the Thirty Years' War.
These are the battles of Breitenfeld, fought on the 17th of September 1631, between the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus and the imperialists, and the great battle of Leipzig, known in Germany as the Volkerschlacht, fought in October 1813 between Napoleon and the allied forces of Russia, Prussia and Austria.
The kingdom at peace and the Huguenot Richeicu party ruined, he was now able to engage upon his and policy of prudent acquisitions and apparently dis- 6ustavus interested alliances, But Gustavus Adolphus, king Adoiphus.
Neither the prayers nor the threats of Richelieu, who wished indeed to destroy Spain but not Catholicism, nor the death of Gustavus Adolphus at Llltzen (1632), could repair the evils caused by this immoderate ambition.
Gustavus Adolphus, it is well known, was born in Finland, overran Germany, and died in 1632.
Marshall, Early History of Woodstock Manor (Oxford, 1873); Adolphus Ballard, Chronicles of Royal Borough of Woodstock; Victoria County History, Oxfordshire.
During the war with Poland, Gustavus Adolphus made it his headquarters for many months after its capture in 1626.
Brandenburg was ravaged impartially by both parties, and in 1627 George William attacked his brother-in-law, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who was using Prussia as a base of operations for his war against Poland.
In 1631, however, Gustavus Adolphus marched on Berlin, compelled the elector to cede the fortress of Spandau, and to aid him with men and money.
ADOLPHUS (1594-1632), king of Sweden, the eldest son of Charles IX.
and of Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, was born at Stockholm castle on the 9th of December 1594.
By his wife, Marie Eleonora, a sister of the elector of Brandenburg, whom he married in 1620, Gustavus Adolphus had one daughter, Christina, who succeeded him on the throne of Sweden.
Fletcher, Gustavus Adolphus (London, 1892); J.
Stevens, History of Gustavus Adolphus (London, 1885); J.
Adolphus Spriggs: [singing] I'm only a poor little vagabond... Fx: Gunshot Seagoon: Got ' im!
His Psychosophia followed, and "An invitation to a psychological community" (Einladung zu einer psychologischen Societat), for the realization of which Duke Gustavus Adolphus of Mecklenburg-Gustrow (d.
Accordingly, on his return from Vienna he wedded Catherine, the daughter of the elector of Brandenburg, and still more closely allied himself with the Protestant powers, especially with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who, he hoped, would assist him to obtain the Polish crown.
Af ter Gustavus Vasa and Gustavus Adolphus Charles XI.
Schweinfurt is well furnished with benevolent and educational institutions, including a gymnasium originally founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1631, and rebuilt in 1881.
Adolf, Latinized as Adolphus, the form used by Gibbon for the subject of this article), king of the Goths (d.
(See Lewes.) A more successful effort at colonization was made under the auspices of the South Company of Sweden, a corporation organized in 1624 as the " Australian Company," by William Usselinx, who had also been the chief organizer of the Dutch West India Company, and now secured a charter or manifest from Gustavus Adolphus.
William's daughter, Wilhelmina, succeeded to the throne of Holland, but under the Salic law' the grand-duchy passed to his kinsman, Adolphus, duke of Nassau, who died in 1905, and was succeeded by his son William (b.
By mediating in favour of the emperor, after the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, he tried to minimize the influence of Sweden in Germany, and did glean some minor advantages.
The crown prince, Oscar Frederick William Gustavus Adolphus, duke of Scania (b.
Adolphus Spriggs: [singing] I 'm only a poor little vagabond... Fx: Gunshot Seagoon: Got ' im !
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