For purposes of local administration the provinces are divided into departments.
In every department of administration and of government he was supreme.
In the 7th century he became the head of the administration and a veritable prime minister.
On the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army (1813), and became a member of the board of administration for north Germany.
The general council controls the departmental administration of the prefect, and its decisions on points of local government are usually final.
1 The administration of posts, telegraphs and telephones is assigr works.
The early Presbyterianism of Switzerland was defective in the following respects: (1) It started from a wrong definition of the Church, which, instead of being conceived as an organized community of believers in the Lord Jesus Christ, was made to depend upon the preaching of the gospel and the administration of the sacraments.
In 1451 the emperor Frederick III., as guardian of the young king Ladislas, entrusted Podébrad with the administration of Bohemia.
His means increased rapidly; serfs from neighboring estates came to beg him to buy them, and long after his death the memory of his administration was devoutly preserved among the serfs.
The decisive success of Hastings's administration alone postponed the inevitable solution.
The entire duties of administration were suffered to remain in the hands of the nawab, while a few irresponsible English traders had drawn to themselves all real power.
One of the first notable acts of the Roca administration was to declare the city of Buenos Aires the property of the national government.
As a sequel to this step, in 1884 the town of La Plata was declared to be the capital of the province of Buenos Aires, and the provincial administration was moved to that place.
We may clearly distinguish two periods in his administration of foreign affairs.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a united Germany.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Charles Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1895); L.
Mention may also be made of the Tribunal des Conflits, a special court whose function it is to decide which is the competent tribunal when an administration and a judicial court both claim or refuse to deal with a given case.
Equity as thus described would correspond rather to the judicial discretion which modifies the administration of the law than to the antagonistic system which claims to supersede the law.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
The administration of the affairs of the world by the God of Israel is represented, in a word, as determined not by ethical considerations but by personal preferences.
(d) Infallibility is the guarantee against error, not in all matters, but only in the matter of dogma and morality; everything else is beyond its power, not only truths of another order, but even discipline and the ecclesiastical laws, government and administration, &c.
After the time of Constantine, the administration of Sardinia was separated from that of Corsica, each island being governed by a praeses dependent on the vicarius urbis Romae.
The duma, or council, still attended to all the details of the administration; the old boyars still retained their ancient offices and dignities.
Their influence upon the young tsar was profoundly beneficial, and the period of their administration coincides with the most glorious period of Ivan's reign - the period of the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan.
Great expectations were entertained of the ability of President Pellegrini to establish a sound administration, and he succeeded in forming a ministry which gave general satisfaction throughout the country.
And reciprocally, whatever may be the absolute rights of the ecclesiastical society over the appointment of its dignitaries, the administration of its property, and the government of its adherents, the exercise of these rights is limited and restricted by the stable engagements and concessions of the concordatory pact, which bind the head of the church with regard to the nations.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
Subsidiary clubs affiliated to the central administration were formed throughout the length and breadth of the coilntry, and millions of leaflets and pamphlets were distributed broadcast to explain the importance of the movement.
A paternal administration, chosen from among yourselves, will form your municipality or city government.
The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.
The administration of justice, he declared, had fallen to so low an ebb as to be practically non-existent.
In his absence the administration was entrusted to a justiciar, a regent or lieutenant of the kingdom; and the convenience being once ascertained of having a minister who could in the whole kingdom represent the king, as the sheriff did in the shire, the justiciar became a permanent functionary."
Zaminddrs, or government renters, were arrested on mesne process; the sanctity of the zendna, or women's chamber, as dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the sheriff's officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire fabric of revenue administration were alike disregarded.
An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.
The greater development of railway construction between 1885 and 1891 was due, principally, to the dubious concessions of interest guarantees by the Celman administration, and also to the fever of speculation.
What followed in the second and third years of the Celman administration can only adequately be described as a debauchery of the national honour, of the national resources, of the rights of Argentines as citizens of the republic. Buenos Aires was still prostrate under the crushing blow of the misfortunes of 1880, and lacked strength and power of organization necessary to raise any effective protest against the proceedings of Celman and his friends when the true character of these proceedings was first understood.
Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
During the last months of President Uriburu's administration, matters had reached a climax, especially in connexion with the delimitation in a district known as the Puna de Atacama.
In a variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similar to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in the hands of laymen, and it works through local "conferences" or branches, the general council having been suspended because it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head.
The province of Buenos Aires was recognized as an independent state, and under the enlightened administration of Doctor Obligado made rapid strides in commercial prosperity.
The Celman administration, in violation of the trust, then sold the specie and squandered the proceeds, leaving the provincial bank notes without guarantee and value.
In 1801, on the formation of the Addington administration, he was appointed solicitor-general, and in 1802 he became attorneygeneral.
The administration of private communion to the sick and dying is extremely rare in Presbyterian churches, but there is less objection to it than formerly, and in some churches it is even encouraged.
All the officers of administration were transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which Hastings boasted at this early date that he would make the first city in Asia.
The new administration was headed by Buckingham, in whose toleration and comprehension principles Ashley shared to the full.
The wazir of Oudh had fallen into arrears in the payment due for the maintenance of the Company's garrison posted in his dominions, and his administration was in great disorder.
The conseil colonial, besides its advisory functions, discusses and votes the budget, determines the nature of the taxes, has supreme control over the tariffs, and extensive powers in the administration of colonial domains.
The kirk-session has oversight of the congregation in regard to such matters as the hours of public worship, the arrangements for administration of the sacraments, the admission of new Members and the exercise of church discipline.
The second governorship of Clive was marked by the transfer of the diwani or financial administration from the Mogul emperor to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations against the besetting sin of peculation.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
Under the deposed sultan the Civil List Administration had encroached in every direction not only on the revenues properly accruing to the state, but upon private and upon state property in most parts of the empire.
The president of the senate, Dr Vidal, nominally administered the government for two years, when General Santos, who had held the real power, became president: His administration was so vicious and tyrannical that the opposition organized a revolution.
His prestige as a minister, already injured by these two blows, suffered further during the autumn and winter from the cattledriving agitation in Ireland, which he at first feebly criticized and finally strongly denounced, but which his refusal to utilize the Crimes Act made him powerless to stop by the processes of the "ordinary law"; and the scandal arising out of the theft of the Dublin crown jewels in the autumn of 1907 was a further blot on the Irish administration.
On the 30th of November 1411 Chicheley, with two other bishops and three earls and the -4 prince of Wales, knelt to the king to receive public thanks for their administration.
Some light is thrown on the condition and administration of the island in the 1st century B.C. by Cicero's speech (of which a part only is preserved) in defence of M.
Embittered by his treatment in 1892, he openly preached the advisability of an armed rising to overthrow the existing administration.
The population of Buenos Aires assembled in armed bodies with the avowed intention of ejecting the governor from office, and electing in his stead a man who would give them a just administration.
Government and Administration.
The council of state (conseil detat) is the principal council of the head of the state and his ministers, who consult it on various legislative problems, more particularly on questions of administration.
The central administration (administration centrale) comprises three classes of functions which together constitute Ia police.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
The Customs(douane), at one time only a branch of the administration of the contributions indirectes, were organized in 1869 as a special service.
The collection of these excise duties as well as the sale of matches, tobacco and gunpowder to retailers, is assigned to a special service in each department subordinated to a central administration.
Important changes were also made in the provisions and administration of military law.
In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.
At the head of the administration is a governor under whom is a secretary-general, who replaces him at need.
In the second class of colonies the governor, sometimes assisted by a privy council, on which non-official members find seats, sometimes simply by a council of administration, is responsible only to the minister of the colonies.
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.
In 1754 he became attorney-general, and for the next two years acted as leader of the House of Commons under the administration of the duke of Newcastle.
He became by a singular arrangement, only repeated in the case of Lord Ellenborough, a member of the cabinet, and remained in that position through various changes of administration for nearly fifteen years, and, although he persistently refused the chancellorship, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords while the Great Seal was in commission.
In 1703 she supported the Methuen Treaty, which cemented still further the alliance between Portugal and England, and in 1704 she was appointed regent of Portugal during the illness of her brother King Pedro II., her administration being distinguished by several successes gained over the Spaniards.
In 1792 he entered the public service during the administration of General Dumouriez.
Then came General Sir Richard Bourke, whose wise and liberal administration proved most beneficial.
the great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.
The efficacy of this legislation is in its administration, the language in which coloured aliens are usually tested being European.
The constitution, parliament and laws of each state, subject to the federal constitution, retained their authority; state rights were carefully safeguarded, and an inter-state commission was given powers of adjudication and of administration of the laws relating to trade, transport and other matters.
The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
Margaret was assisted by a permanent council of regency, and there was a special minister charged with the administration of the finances, sometimes under the name of superintendent of the finances, sometimes under the title of treasurer-general and controller-general.
At the time of her accession to office Charles changed the form of administration by the creation of three separate councils, those of State, of Finance, and the Privy Council.
He redressed many grievances, regulated the administration of justice, encouraged commerce, reformed the coinage, but as time went on he was compelled to demand larger subsidies and to take severer measures against heretical opinions.
From early youth he took a prominent part in the politics of his clan, and owing to his extreme opinions with regard to the expediency of abolishing the Tokugawa administration, he was banished (1858) to the island of Oshima (Satsuma), where he attempted unsuccessfully to commit suicide.
The Turkestan Committee elects a small council, forming a kind of cabinet and having control of the different branches of the administration.
After serving under Stadion in Galicia, he was in 1848, after the outbreak of the revolution, appointed president of the administration and acting Stadthalter in Bohemia.
Notwithstanding this, in 1849 he accepted the office of minister of religion and education, which he held in 1860 under the autocratic and centralizing administration of Schwarzenberg and Bach.
But during his administration the influence of the church over the schools was really much less than, by the theory of the concordat, it would have appeared to be.
For the administration of local affairs the state is divided into 14 counties and 245 townships.
The new president was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy.
Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.
to demonstrate that military government had given place to civil; for he approached his task in the same spirit that had prompted his declaration to the Little Parliament of his wish "to divest the sword of all power in the Civil administration."
In the internal administration of the colonies Cromwell interfered very little, maintaining specially friendly relations with the New Englanders, and showing no jealousy of their desire for self-government.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
While therefore Cromwell's administration became in practice little different from that of Strafford, the aims and ideals of the two statesmen had nothing in common.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
Upon Andrew Jackson's election to the presidency, the Telegraph became the principal mouthpiece of the administration, and received printing patronage estimated in value at $50,000 a year, while Green became one of the coterie of unofficial advisers of Jackson known as the "Kitchen Cabinet."
In the quarrel between Jackson and John C. Calhoun, Green supported the latter, and through the columns of the Telegraph violently attacked the administration.
In 1841-1843 he was in Europe on behalf of the Tyler administration, and he is said to have been instrumental in causing the appointment of Lord Ashburton to negotiate in Washington concerning the boundary dispute between Maine and Canada.
In September 1844 Calhoun, then secretary of state, sent Green to Texas ostensibly as consul at Galveston, but actually, it appears, to report to the administration, then considering the question of the annexation of Texas, concerning the political situation in Texas and Mexico.
The administration of the royal province of Auvergne was organized under Louis XIV.
During his father's lifetime he had greatly distinguished himself by his administration of Transylvania, then a wilderness, which, with incredible patience and energy, he colonized and christianized.
At this time he was nominated to the pope as coadjutor of Geneva,' and after a visit to Rome he assisted Bishop de Granier in the administration of the newly converted countries and of the diocese at large.
De Granier died in September 1602, and the new bishop entered on the administration of his vast diocese, which, as a contemporary says, "he found brick and left marble."
His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent.
underground, and the total lengths of submarine cables of the world were 39,072 nautical miles under government administration and 194,751 nautical miles under the administration of private companies.
The territory in which a telephone administration operates is usually divided into a number of local areas, in each of which one or more exchanges are placed.
A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.
The province is divided for administration into 42 circles (Kreise), 24 in the government of Cassel and 18 in that of Wiesbaden.
In 1886 he was elected mayor of New York City, his nomination having been forced upon the Democratic Party by the strength of the other nominees, Henry George and Theodore Roosevelt; his administration (1887-1888) was thoroughly efficient and creditable, but he broke with Tammany, was not renominated, ran independently for re-election, and was defeated.
In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, who entrusted Pollio with the administration of Gallia Transpadana.
The result was that for the first two years of state administration the service was distinctly bad, and the lack of goods trucks at the ports was especially felt.
There is a council of state with advisory functions, which can also decide certain questions of administration, especially applications from local authorities and conflicts between ministries, and a court of accounts, which has the right of examining all details of state expenditure.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
The acts of communal administration requiring the sanction of the provincial administrative junta are chiefly financial.
Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi, rulers of Lucca and Piombino, became the heads of the administration in Tuscany, Elisa showing decided governing capacity.
Rome thenceforth figured as its second city, and entered upon a new life under the administration of French officials.
One and all they underwent the influences emanating Character from Paris; and in respe& to civil administration, of Napo- law, judicial procedure, education and public works, Ieon~s they all experienced great benefits, the results of which rule, never wholly disappeared.
By an instrument signed on the 24th of April 1815, the Austrian territories in north Italy were erected into the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia, which, though an integral part of the Austrian empire, was to enjoy a separate administration, the symbol of its separate individuality being the coronation of the emperors with the ancient iron crown of Lombardy (Proclamation de lempereur dAutriche, &c., April 7, 1815, State Papers, ii.
The British government, which awarded a large annual subsidy to the king and queen at Palermo, claimed to have some control over the administration.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
At Milan, where there was a division of opinion between tha monarchists under Casati and the republicans under Cattaneo, a provisional administration was formed and the question of the form of government postponed for the moment.
In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
A provisional government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzzi, and was strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity.
For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the administration of a new domain distracted public attention from the real condition of Italian affairs.
At first the net revenue from the impost was less than 1,100,000; but under Sellas firm administration (1869-1873), and in consequence of improvements gradually introduced by him, the net return ultimately exceeded 3,200,000.
Fear of the advent of a Radical administration under Rattazzi alone prevented the Minghettian Right from revolting against the government.
The administration which thus fell was unquestionably the most important since the death of Cavour.
continued in essential points the work of the preceding administration.
Practically, therefore, the Right, of which the Minghetti cabinet was the last representative administration, left Italian finance with a surplus of 80,000.
Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding administration.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
Almost the only respect in which the Left could boast a decided improvement over the administration of the Right was the energy displayed by Nicotera in combating brigandage and the mafia in Calabria and Sicily.
Depretis thereupon reconstructed his administration, excluding Nicotera, Melegari and Zanardelli, placing Crispi at the home office, entrusting Magliani with finance, and himself assuming the direction of foreign affairs.
Cairoli succeeded in forming an administration, in which his friend Count Corti, Italian ambassador at Constantinople, accepted the portfolio of foreign affairs, Zanardelli the ministry of the interior, and Seismit Doda the ministry of finance.
On 12th July Cairoli formed a new administration, only to resign on 24th November, and to reconstruct his cabinet with the help of Depretis.
The administration of finance was as chaotic as the condition of parliament.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
Nevertheless his administration was by no means unfruitful.
On the I4th of April 1892 dissensions between ministers concerning the financial programme led to a cabinet crisis, and though Rudini succeeded in reconstructing his administration, he was defeated in the Chamber on the 5th of May and obliged to resign.
Sonnino applied, and subsequently amended, the Bank Reform Bill passed by the previous Administration (August 10, 1893) for the creation of a supreme state bank, the Bank of Italy, which was entrusted with the liquidation.
The foreign policy of the second Crispi Administration, in which the portfolio of foreign affairs was held by Baron Blanc, was, as before, marked by a cordial interpretation of CompI!ca- the triple alliance, and by close accord with Great ~ Britain.
The home administration of the Rudini cabinet compared unfavourably with that of foreign affairs.
No Italian administration since the death of Depretis underwent so many metamorphoses as that of the marquis di Rudini.
Crete (1896-1898), assumed the direction of foreign affairs in the first period of the Pelloux administration.
Soon after taking office he completed the negotiations begun by the Rudini administration for a new commercial treaty with France (October 1898), whereby Franco-Italian commercial relations were placed upon a normal footing after a breach which had lasted for more than ten years.
Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
The outset of his administration was marked by Franco-Italian fetes at Toulon (10th to I4th April 1901), when the Italian fleet returned a visit paid by the French Mediterranean squadron to Cagliari in April 1899; and by the despatch of three Italian warships to Prevesa to obtain satisfaction for damage done to Italian subjects by Turkish officials.
The Saracco administration, formed after the obstructionist crisis of 1899190o as a cabinet of transition and pacification, was ganar- overthrown in February 1901 in consequence of its dciii-.
The latter accepted the task, and the new administration included Signor Tittoni, late prefect of Naples, as foreign minister, Signor Luigi Luzzatti, the eminent financier, at the treasury, General Pedotti at the war office, and Admiral Mirabello as minister of marine.
Signor Fortis then became premier and minister of the interior, Signor Maiorano finance minister and Signor Carcano treasury minister, while Signor Tittoni, Admiral Mirabello 1905 and General Pedotti retained the portfolios they had held in the previous administration.
He made various reforms which were badly wanted in army administration, but on the whole the experiment of a civilian War Lord was not a complete success, and in April 1909 Senator Casana retired and was succeeded by General Spingardi, an appointment which received general approval.
Caesennius Paetus, governor of Cappadocia, was ordered to settle the question by bringing Armenia under direct Roman administration.
We now come to an important series of articles which deal with abuses in the administration of justice.
It checked temporarily the process of centralizing the administration of justice.
New provisions were introduced for the preservation of the peace - unlawful castles were to be destroyed - while others were directed towards making the administration of justice by the visiting justices less burdensome.
He was of good family, and after studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and was for many years employed in the office of the administration of finances.
As the result of a long series of legislation, beginning with him and ending with Catherine II., all church property of every kind was transferred to secular administration, allowances, according to fixed scales, being made for ministers, monks and fabrics (op. cit.
It did little more than arrange for the administration of justice by nominated jurats (scabini) under the count's bailli.
In 1858 he resumed this office in Lord Derby's second administration, being returned to the House of Commons as member for Stamford.
The two were associated in the administration and in the simple country occupations of the seaside villa of Lorium, the birthplace of Pius, to which he loved to retire.
It is believed that the senate urged Aurelius to take the sole administration.
The administration of the act was entrusted to the pharmaceutical society, and the duty of prosecuting unauthorized practitioners has been performed by the society ever since, without any pecuniary assistance from the state, although the legal expenses involved in prosecution amount to a considerable portion of its income.
The unknown author, as may be inferred from the treatise itself, did not write to make money, but to oblige his relative and friend Herennius, for whose instruction he promises to supply other works on grammar, military matters and political administration.
The forms of government of colonies present a series of transitional types from the autocratic administration of a governor appointed by the home government to complete democratic selfgovernment.
The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).
Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in the administration of his kingdom.
During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.
A further curious fact, doubtless of very great significance, but hitherto lacking interpretation, is that the administration of colchicum during an acute attack of gout may often hasten the oncoming of the next attack; and this property, familiar to many gouty patients, may not be affected by the administration of small doses after the attack.
Although an, active guerrilla warfare was waged against the Dutch during a large part of that period, they did much to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, especially under the wise administration of Maurice of Nassau.
In1564-1566he accompanied the young king on an extended tour through France; and in 1566 he was instrumental in the promulgation of an important edict for the reform of abuses in the administration of justice.
He was afterwards attached to the administration of the railway from Lyons to the Mediterranean.
Though outside foreign affairs he played but a small part in the period of Liberal opposition between 1895 and 1905, he retained public confidence as one who was indispensable to a Liberal administration.
The administration of justice in Uruguay has long been of bad repute.
The Colorados now made General Tajes president, the practical direction of the administration being in the hands of Julio Herrera y Obes.
By the Sudan administration this region has been divided into mudirias (provinces), one, including the central portion, retaining the name of Sennar.
In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official.
The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
BE.) Government and Administration.
By the law of the 18th of October (November i) 1905, to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers (Sovyet Ministrov) was created, under a ministerresident the first a earance of a rime P, PP P minister in Russia.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
For purposes of provincial administration Russia is divided into 78 governments (guberniya), 18 provinces (oblast) and r district (okrug).
In 1896 the powers of the minister were extended at the expense of those of the under-secretary, who remained only at the head of the corps of gendarmes; but by a law of the 24th of September 1904 this was again reversed, and the under-secretary was again placed at the head of all the police with the title of undersecretary for the administration of the police.
Since about the same time a process of rigorous Russification has been carried through in the same provinces, in all departments of administration, in the higher schools and in the university of Dorpat, the name of which was altered to Yuriev.
In addition to these, notwithstanding government opposition, a series been given to the effort for improvement, and that the question had been seriously taken in hand by the imperial administration and the Duma.
The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants.
their ancient liberties, he abolished the popular assembly, removed the great bell to Novgorod, installed his own boyars in the administration, transported 300 of the leading families to other localities, replaced them by 300 families from Moscow, and left in the town a strong garrison of his own troops.
Their forefathers had been trained in the Tatar school of politics and administration, and in their ideas of government they had come to resemble Tatar khans much more than grand-princes of the old patriarchal type.
It was not till he was about seventeen that he took an active part in the administration, and one of his first acts foreshadowed his future policy: he insisted on the metropolitan crowning him, not as grand-prince of Muscovy, but as tsar of all Russia (1547).
For this purpose he organized, outside the regular administration, a large corps of civil officials and armed retainers, whose duty it was to obey him implicitly in all things; and with this force, which rose rapidly from 1000 to 6000 men, he acted like a savage invader in a conquered country.
This he did during fourteen years, and his administration was signalized by two important innovations - the attaching of the peasants to the land (adscriptio glebae) and the creation of the patriarchate - both of which deserve a passing notice.
In that year, when Lithuania and Poland were permanently united, it fell under Polish rule, and the Polish government considered it necessary to tame the wild inhabitants and bring them under regular administration.
In order to prevent such incidents in future, Peter the Great abolished the patriarchate altogether, and entrusted the administration of the Church to a synod entirely dependent on the government.
If Peter really thought of taking the administration into his own hands, he very soon abandoned the idea and returned to the irregular suburban life he had led during his half- Peter the sister's regency - associating with foreigners who could Great, teach him the mechanical arts of the West, drilling 1689- troops, building and sailing boats, forming projects 1725.
From this moment may be dated the personal reign of Peter, for he now began to direct personally all branches of the administration, and governed with indefatigable vigour for twenty-seven years, during which he greatly increased the area and profoundly modified the internal condition of his country.
At the same time the military and financial requirements dislocated the local and central administration, and consequently a series of radical administrative reforms had to be undertaken.
So inefficient, indeed, were the reforms as a whole, and so unsuited to the national character and customs, that the Slavophil critics of a later date could maintain plausibly the paradoxical thesis that in regard to internal administration Peter was anything but a national benefactor.
Her reign (1730-40) was a regime of methodical German despotism on the lines laid down by her uncle, Peter the Great, and as she was naturally indolent and much addicted to frivolous amusements, the administration was directed by her favourite Biren (q.v.) and other men of German origin.
As a true daughter of the great Russian reformer, Elizabeth (1741-61) relegated the German element to a subordinate position in the administration and gave her confidence to genuine Russians like Bestuzhev, Vorontsov, Razumovski (her morganatic husband) and the Shuvalovs.
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
Whilst Russia, Austria, Prussia and France were becoming powerful monarchies with centralized administration, Poland had remained a weak feudal republic with an elected king chosen under foreign influence and fettered by constitutional restrictions.
In the affairs of his own country he refrained from developing and extending the liberal institutions which he had created immediately after his accession, and he finally adopted in all departments of administration a strongly reactionary policy.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
In the imperial administration, the corruption and long-established abuses which had momentarily vanished, began to reappear.
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
They were accordingly replaced in great measure by the old autocratic methods of administration, and much of the administrative corruption which had been cured, or at least repressed, by the reform enthusiasm again flourished luxuriantly.
Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
But, partly from the usual laxity of the administration and partly from the readiness of the Jews to conciliate the needy officials, the rules had been by no means strictly applied.
The result of this policy of repression, associated as it was with gross incompetence and corruption in the organs of the administration, was the rapid spread of the revolutionary movement, which gradually permeated the intelligent classes and ultimately " Tolstoi - observed that that was argument and reason, and that he paid no attention to them; he only guided himself (he said) by sentiment, which he felt sure told him what was good and right!
See the section Government and Administration, above.
' See above, Government and Administration.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
Of this character are the expenditures necessary for maintenance of way, for general administration and for interest on capital borrowed, which are almost independent of the total amount of business done, and quite independent of any individual piece of business.
Although the administration of the above-mentioned acts of parliament has had a beneficial effect upon the safety of the public, and has enabled an enormous volume of traffic Safety to be handled with celerity, punctuality and absence Y?
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
His administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.
He occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and administration of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title Views of an Ex-President.
The discovery of Anne's misdeeds coincided in an extraordinary manner with Henry's disappointment in not obtaining by her a male heir, while the king's despotic power and the universal unpopularity of Anne both tended to hinder the administration of pure justice.
A note of Fox, however, on the margin of a copy of The Decline and Fall records a very distinct remembrance of the historian's previous vituperation of the ministry; within a fortnight of the date of his acceptance of office, he is there alleged to have said that " there was no salvation for this country until six heads of the principal persons in administration were laid upon the table."
He endeavoured to combine his habits of theological study with the practical work of administration.
The administration of the school system is in the hands of a superintendent of public instruction.
In 1900 he was asked by President McKinley to accept the presidency of the Philippine Commission charged with the administration of the islands.
He supported the king's administration in parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on the abolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise.
His services in the administration of Ireland were especially valuable.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
Anyhow he enjoyed the emperor's favour until the death of the latter in 565 and (as he himself tells us) was entrusted with the administration of the entire revenues of the Monophysite Church.
Communal independence had probably been acquired as early as the end of the 10th century, but the first of the popes to reside in Orvieto and to recognize its communal administration was Hadrian IV.
In episcopal administration he far excelled most of his contemporaries.
While, under the control of Europeans, the Tongans have shown some aptitude for administration, they fail when left to themselves.
In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
The high commissioner is aided in the administration by a cabinet of three members, styled " councillors " (utµ ovXoe), who superintend the departments of justice, finance, education, public security and the interior.
Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.
After the conquest a large part of the inhabitants embraced Mahommedanism, and thus secured to themselves the chief share in the administration of the island.
The period of his administration has been called the " golden age " of Crete.
The Epitrope was at first nothing more than a handful of discontented politicians who had failed to find places in the administration, but some slight reverses which it succeeded in inflicting on the Turkish troops brought thousands of armed Christians to its side, and in April 1896 it found itself strong enough to invest the important garrison town of Vamos.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
On the 27th of April 1899 a new autonomous constitution was voted by a constituent assembly, and in the following June the local administration was handed over to Cretan officials by the international authorities.
The efforts of diplomacy were directed to allaying the resentment of the " Young Turks " on the one hand and the ardour of the Greek unionists on the other; and meanwhile the Cretan administration was carried on peaceably in the name of King George.
This pope reigned only ten months; his successor, John XXIII., raised Pierre d'Ailly to the rank of cardinal (June 6, 1411), and further, to indemnify him for the loss of the bishopric of Cambrai, conferred upon him the administration of that of Limoges (November 3, 1412), which was shortly after exchanged for the bishopric of Orange.
Under its auspices were conducted in 1916 an educational survey at a cost of $50,000, a survey for a community recreation programme in 1920, and a survey of the administration of justice in 1921.
In 1847 another revolt followed, and the Indians were practically independent throughout the greater part of the peninsula until near the beginning of the Diaz administration.
Perhaps the most notable feature about the administration is the weakness of the governor's position.
public instruction, and advising the governor in the administration of his office.
The headquarters of the administration for the Bechuanaland protectorate are in the town.
The island of Ceylon is distinguished from the neighbouring parts of British India by little more than its separate administration and the Buddhistic religion of its population.
town of southern Khorasan, directly connected with Meshed on the north; and the acquisition of rights of administration of the Nushki district secured to Great Britain the trade between Seistan and Quetta by the new Helmund desert route.
But he does not appear to have made any change in the old local administration of justice, or to have appointed a central tribunal (xv.
As heir-apparent he collected a bodyguard, and studiously courting personal popularity by a pretended interest in the administration of kingly justice, ingratiated himself with the mass.
Accordingly, David is not to be condemned for failing to subdue the sensuality which is the chief stain on his character, but should rather be judged by his habitual recognition of a generous standard of conduct, by the undoubted purity and lofty justice of an administration which was never stained by selfish considerations or motives of personal rancour, 5 and finally by the calm 3 See Hebrew Religion, Messiah, Prophet.
When in July of that year Rockingham gave place to Chatham, Conway retained his office; and when Chatham became incapacitated by illness he tamely acquiesced in Townshend's reversal of the American policy which he himself had so actively furthered in the previous administration.
During the short administration of Sir Robert Peel in 1834 and 1835, Aberdeen had filled the office of secretary for the colonies, and in September 1841 he took office again under Peel, on this occasion as foreign secretary; the five years during which he held this position were the most fruitful and successful of his public life.
His dislike of the Ecclesiastical Titles Assumption Bill, the rejection of which he failed to secure in 1851, prevented him from joining the government of Lord John Russell, or from forming an administration himself in this year.
After the occupation by the British in 1903 the province was organized for administration on the same system as that adopted throughout northern Nigeria.
He led the opposition in his state to the policy of Madison's administration, was elected by the Federalists a member of the National House of Representatives, and took his seat in May 1813.
Webster had been in the House less than three weeks when he greatly embarrassed the administration by introducing a set of resolutions asking for information relating to the immediate cause of the war.
He was the son of Richard Bright, the physician who first diagnosed " Bright's disease " in 1827, and his mother was Eliza Follett, sister of Sir William Follett, who was solicitor-general and attorney-general in Peel's administration (1834-44).
His domestic was sounder than his foreign policy: by his development of the star chamber, by his firm administration of justice and maintenance of order, and by his repression of feudal.
During the first half of his government he materially strengthened the Tudor monarchy by the vigorous administration of justice at home and by the brilliance of his foreign policy abroad.
But these principalities, though independent respecting internal administration, and making war or peace with their neighbours according to opportunity, owned allegiance to the peshwa at Poona as the head of the Mahratta race.
Desultory efforts were made to establish a civil government, but in the main there was no administration formed on statesmanlike principles.
While several displayed commanding abilities, and some possessed many virtues, one alone attempted to conduct an administration in an enlightened manner, and he died prematurely.
As Heber says, "No part of the administration of Ireland by the English crown has been more extraordinary and more unfortunate than the system pursued for the introduction of the Reformed religion."
Again, with the accession of large territories, the Order became a governing aristocracy; the original care for the sick, and even the later crusading zeal of the period of conquest, gave way, when conquests were gained and administration was needed, to the problem, half military, half political, of governing a frontier state.
The statutes of the Order were altered to suit the new conditions, and a whole system of administration arose.
He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
1 For an account of Turgot's financial administration, see Ch.
In Turgot's proposed system landed proprietors alone were to form the electorate, no distinction being made between the three orders; the members of the town and country municipalites were to elect representatives for the district municipalites, which in turn would elect to the provincial municipalites, and the latter to a grande municipalite, which should have no legislative powers, but should concern itself entirely with the administration of taxation.
more especially the care of the sick and the arrangement of the externals of divine worship. Even thus early their close relation to the bishop and their employment in matters of episcopal administration gave them, though only in deacons' orders, great importance, which continually developed.
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
After a brief struggle with the task of directing the administration of the most extensive and the worst organized monarchy in Europe, he sank back into his pleasures and was governed by other favourites.
After the fall of Vitellius he was saluted as Caesar, or prince imperial, by the troops, obtained the city praetorship, and was entrusted with the administration of Italy till his father's return from the East.
Finally, he took a personal share in the administration of justice at Rome, checked the activity of the informers (delatores), and exercised a jealous supervision over the governors of provinces.
Their administration was attended by success, for from 192 outbreaks in Great Britain in 1891 the total fell to 35 in 1892 and to 9 in 1893.
Between 1879 and 1892 inclusive, administration with regard to swine fever was entrusted to local authorities.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
Every manor composing these great fiefs was likely to be affected by the policy or the character of the administration of the feudal lord, and he, again, by the policy or the difficulties, the strength or the weakness, of the central government.
It is useful and necessary, and plays somewhat the same part in economic investigation as ton-mile statistics do in the administration of a railway.
The scientific study of the economics of local administration is, however, in its infancy, and requires to be taken up in earnest by economists.
This determination closes the first chapter of his life; the second, from 1304 to 1314, is occupied by his contest for the kingdom, which was really won at Bannockburn, though disputed until the treaty of Northampton in 1328; the last, from 1314 to his death in 1329, was the period of the establishment of his government and dynasty by an administration as skilful as his generalship. It is to the second of these that historians, attracted by its brilliancy even amongst the many romances of history and its importance to Scottish history, have directed most of their attention, and it is during it that his personal character, tried by adversity and prosperity, gradually unfolds itself.
The relations between national and local authorities fluctuated considerably during the Directory; and it is noteworthy that the constitution of December 1799 placed local administration merely under the control of ministers at Paris.
(c) Administration, Finance, Education.
Monnet, Histoire de ?administration provinciale, departmentale et communale en France (Paris, 1885); F.
He had in the previous month announced the establishment of a naval war staff, and in the autumn he reorganized the internal administration of his office.
There would perhaps have been more general satisfaction with the results of Mr. Churchill's undoubtedly energetic and patriotic administration at the Admiralty, if he had not shown himself so vehement a partisan in internal politics.
His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.
Thus the lad was gradually initiated into all the minutiae of administration.
In 1902 the surrounding highlands were found to be suitable for European settlement, and Nairobi speedily grew in importance; in 1907 the headquarters of the administration were transferred to it from Mombasa.
During his brief administration Vitellius showed indications of a desire to govern wisely, but he was completely under the control of Valens and Caecina, who for their own ends encouraged him in a course of vicious excesses which threw his better qualities into the background.
There is little doubt that the original lagoon population depended for its administration, as far as it had any, upon the larger cities of the mainland.
His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state.
For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).
There are two excellent secondary accounts: Samuel P. Orth, The Centralization of Administration in Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, xvi.
Siebert, The Government of Ohio, its History and Administration (New York, 1904).
Butler, in regard to foreign governments, and reversed all those decisions to the entire satisfaction of the administration.
Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
The debt per capita is as high as the cost of current administration relatively to other cities.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
Titles of honour, offices of trust or relating to the administration of justice, and pensions granted by the crown for military services are also inalienable.
Mr. Harding based his campaign chiefly upon criticism of the Wilson administration, denouncing especially the excessive power that, as he maintained, had been exercised by the executive as a result of war centralization; he demanded as speedy as possible a return to normal conditions, political and industrial.
Hays to be Postmaster-General was in the nature of payment of a political debt to the man who had been the successful manager of the Republican campaign, it was early justified by his efficient administration of the postal service.
The most important step taken by President Harding during the first year of his administration was the calling of an international conference on the limitation of armaments.
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
in western Asia and the administration of Amenophis (Amenhotep) IV.
The brandydrinking habit, which, when the imperial government assumed control of the administration in 1884, threatened the existence of the nation, has been very largely checked.
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
Equally distinguishedin natural science,philosophy and the administration of civic affairs, he takes a high place among the versatile savants of the ancient Greek world.
In Italy itself the administration of justice and the finances required special attention.
The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden of maintaining the imperial posts.
In his Histoire du gouvernement de Venise he undertook to explain, and above all to criticize, the administration of that republic, and to expose the causes of its decadence.
For administration, see Wilbur F.
In 1913 he was appointed Solicitor-General in the Borden administration and in 1915 was sworn of the Privy Council for Canada.
The latter is a diary of events kept during Sir Stamford Raffles' administration by his Malay scribe.
This office he filled with great prudence and probity, removing many abuses in the administration of justice in Egypt.
So long as he lived he was a check upon the worst propensities of the king's administration.
His guiding principles were still simplicity of administration and speedy extinction of all debt, and everything bent to these objects.
From 1809 the new administration, drifting steadily towards war, struggled on from one abortive and exasperating negotiation to another.
He had lost his hold upon Pennsylvania and his support in the house, while a cabal in the senate, bitterly and personally hostile to the treasury, crippled the administration and reduced every government measure to mere inanity.
Under his administration the Church was severely taxed for the prosecution of Henry's foreign wars; and the chancellor incurred the reproach "of plunging his sword into the bowels of his mother."
At the head of the administration was placed the archchaplain, and an ecclesiastical chancellor was substituted for the ancient referendarius.
The north and Phaleric walls were perhaps founded by Cimon, and were completed about 457 B.C. in the early administration of Pericles; the middle wall was built about 445 B.C. The lines of the north and middle walls have been ascertained from the remnants still existing in the 18th century and the scantier traces now visible.
The period of Cimon's administration, however, especially the interval between his victory on the Eurymedon and his ostracism (468-461 B.C.), was marked by great architectural activity in the lower city as well as on the citadel.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
The arrangements of the stage and orchestra as we now see them belong to Roman times; the cavea or auditorium dates from the administration of the orator Lycurgus (337-323 B.C.), and nothing is left of the theatre in which the plays of Sophocles were acted save a few small remnants of polygonal masonry.
Indeed the spread of democracy elsewhere increased the prestige of the Athenian administration, which had now reached a high pitch of efficiency.
He gave his support to the Republican party in 1856 and to the Lincoln administration throughout the Civil War.
For his administration in the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet see A.
Owing to failing health he gave up his lectures in 1904, and in May 1906 resigned his mastership, in which he was succeeded by James Leigh Strachan-Davidson, who had previously for some time, as senior tutor and fellow, borne the chief burden of college administration.
Under the administration of the Japanese the island has been largely developed.
The administration of justice is vested in a United States district court and a supreme court, district courts, municipal courts and justice of the peace courts of Porto Rico.
The new elector, Frederick Christian, dismissed him from office and caused an inquiry to be held into his administration.
He served as a nominee of the opposition on the committee of twenty-four which was appointed, in the Oxford parliament of that year, to reform the administration.
The influence of the administration was now thrown in favour of the compromise.
Its administration was in the hands of three praefecti aerarii militaris, at first appointed by lot, but afterwards by the emperor, from senators of praetorian rank, for three years.
The administration of the province is conducted by a chief commissioner on behalf of the governor-general of India in council, assisted by members of the Indian civil service, provincial civil service, subordinate civil service, district and assistant superintendents of police, and officers specially recruited for various departments.
The form of the administration of Berar was in 1903 entirely reorganized.
It remained under the administration of the resident until the 1st of October 1903, from which date it was amalgamated with the Central Provinces for administrative purposes.
As the immediate result of this change the offices of heads of departments in Berar, except the j udicial commissionership and the conservatorship of forests, were amalgamated with the corresponding appointments in the Central Provinces, and Berar is now treated as one of the divisions of that province for purposes of revenue administration, with a divisional commissioner as its immediate head.
On the 1st of October 1903 Berar also was placed under the administration of the commissioner of the Central Provinces (for history see Berar).
On the resignation of Lord North's administration, of which Lord George Germain was one of the least popular members, he left the civil service, and was nominated to a cavalry command in the revolted provinces of America.
In the middle is the office of the administration, and on the top of this a small watch-tower.
The three provinces are divided for local administration into 18 circles and 989 communes.
His first official appointment was that of under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, in the administration formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1841 - his chief being the earl of Aberdeen.
This post he held till January 1846; and from January to July of that year, when the Peel administration was broken up, Lord Canning filled the post of commissioner of woods and forests.
A "secret despatch," couched in arrogant and offensive terms, was addressed to the viceroy by Lord Ellenborough, then a member of the Derby administration, which would have justified the viceroy in immediately resigning.
Sodium salicylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected within fifteen minutes of its administration.
The rapid excretion by the kidneys is one of the cardinal conditions of safety, and also necessitates the very frequent administration of the drug.
The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria, since it rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheumatic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the temperature to normal.
The mode of their administration in rheumatic fever is of the utmost importance.
As in the case of quinine, the administration of small doses of hydrobromic acid often relieve the milder symptoms.
Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.
The financial administration was entrusted to separate officials; we hear of such in Lydia (Arr.
How far the financial administration was removed from the competence of the provincial governors, as it seems to have been in Alexander's system, we cannot say.
In December 1744 he became a lord of the admiralty in the Pelham administration.
He remained in office in 1761, when his brother Lord Temple and his brother-in-law Pitt resigned upon the question of the war with Spain, and in the administration of Lord Bute he was entrusted with the leadership of the House of Commons.
The most prominent measures of his administration were the prosecution of Wilkes and the passing of the American Stamp Act, which led to the first symptoms of alienation between America and the mother country.
Though few excelled him in a knowledge of the forms of the House or in mastery of administrative details, his tact in dealing with men and with affairs was so defective that there is perhaps no one who has been at the head of an English administration to whom a lower place can be assigned as a statesman.
Puri first came under British administration in 1803.
Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
The local despots of Romagna were dispossessed and an administration was set up, which, if tyrannical and cruel, was at least orderly and strong, and aroused the admiration of Machiavelli.
In 1894 he obtained cabinet rank as minister of marine in the administration of M.
Owing to the great number of tribes, sub-tribes and clans of the Kachins, the part of the Kachin hills which has been taken under administration in the Myitkyina and Bhamo districts was divided into 40 Kachin hill tracts (recently reduced to five).
Their maps, however, seem to have met the practical requirements of political administration and of military undertakings.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
In 1899 troubles arose between the administration and a mullah of the Habr Suleiman Ogaden tribe, who had acquired great influence in the Dolbahanta country and had married into the Dolbahanta Ali Gheri.
The latter course was decided upon, and during the first months of 1910 the advanced posts were withdrawn and the British administration confined to the coast towns.
The chief town and seat of administration is Jibuti (q.v.), pop. about 15,000, which has taken the place of Obok, on the opposite (northern) side of the Gulf of Tajura.
Thereafter the Italian government assumed the direct administration of the ports, a purely commercial undertaking replacing the Benadir Company.
It became a permanent French settlement in 1688, but did not rise to any importance till the time of Dupleix, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried on.
Administration, &c. - The local government of Alberta is carried on by a provincial organization resembling that of the other Canadian provinces.
Bartolome de las Casas, the celebrated bishop of Chiapa, accompanied Ovando to Haiti, and was a witness of the cruelties from which the Indians suffered under his administration.
Other ordinations for the administration of the sacraments in Scotland, the colonies and England followed.
Already a privy councillor, Mackintosh was appointed commissioner for the affairs of India under the Whig administration of 1830.
In February 1901 he was called upon to undertake the administration of the two Boer states, both now annexed to the British Empire, though the war was still in progress.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
A violent agitation for his recall, in which Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman joined, was organized, but without success, and in August he returned to South Africa, where he plunged into the herculean task of remodelling the administration.
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
He left South Africa while the economic crisis was still acute and at a time when the voice of the critic was audible everywhere; but, in the words of the colonial secretary (Mr Alfred Lyttelton) he had in the eight eventful years of his administration "laid deep and strong the foundation upon which a united South Africa would arise to become one of the great states of the empire."
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the fees were greatly reduced.
They were intended to be the chief organs of internal administration, and have, in fact, discharged this function, especially under the First and Second Empire, surviving, though with diminished importance, under the other forms of government which modern France has seen.
In the administration of the ancien regime the term "prefect" was not employed; practically the only case in which it occurs was in the organization of the establishment of institutions opened by the religious orders, in which there was generally a "prefect of the studies" (prefet des etudes).
He serves as a local source of information to the government, and transmits to it complaints or representations from those under his administration.
He may make regulations (reglements) both on special points, in virtue of various laws, and for the general administration of the police.
The law created a departmental committee (commission departementale), elected by the conseil general which, in the interval of the sessions of the latter, takes part in matters concerning the administration of the departmental interests, either in virtue of the law, or by a delegation of pOwers from the conseil general.
The sous-prefecs, having very limited powers of deciding questions, serve above all as intermediaries between the prefect and the persons under his administration.
As a matter of fact their chief service to the administration lies in keeping up good relations with the maires of the communes in their arrondissement, and thus acquiring a certain amount of influence over them.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
The administration in the 16th century was loose and violent.
Very much was done for public works, sanitation, the reform of administration, civil service and education.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
On the domestic reform problem there is an enormous literature, from which may be selected (see general histories above and works cited under § Administration of this bibliography): M.
After the outbreak of the World War he endorsed the Administration's peace policy, supported the League to Enforce Peace, and urged that the national guard be tried fully before compulsory service be decided upon.
Order was restored in June 1882, when the administration was entrusted to Benjamin von Kallay, as imperial minister of finance.
and creeds were treated impartially; and, although the administration has been reproached alike for undue harshness and undue leniency, neither accusation can be sustained.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
The separate administration was, however, to be maintained, and the rescript did not promise that the new provincial diet would be more than a consultative assembly, elected on a strictly limited franchise.
But as the administration grew stronger, the position of the peasantry became worse.
SpalaIkovitch (Spalajkovic), in La Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1897), give a critical account of the AustroHungarian administration.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
Under the auspices of the Ottoman public debt administration silk culture is also carried on with much success, especially in the vilayets of Brusa and Ismid.
In 1888 a school of sericulture was founded by the public debt administration for the rearing of silkworms according to the Pasteur method.
The production of salt is also under the direction of the public debt administration.
Its general progress may be seen in the increase of the fishery revenue - derived from duties, permits, &c. - of the public debt administration.
The administration of the state revenues was managed by a government department known as the Beit-ul-Mal or Maliye, terms generally employed throughout Islamic countries since the commencement of Islam.
This vicious system, grafted as it was upon an inefficient administration, and added to the weight of a continually depreciated currenc y, debased both by ill-advised fiscal measures and by public cupidity, formed one of the principal causes of the financial embarrassments which assailed the treasury with ever increasing force in the latter part of the 16th and during the 17th and 18th centuries.
At this time (1657-1681) the brilliant administration of the two Kuprilis restored temporary order to Ottoman finance.
For these reasons, during the last two or three months of the financial year, the vilayets have not a para to remit to the central administration, and it has been considered imperatively necessary to draw on the revenues of the following year.
After pointing out the immense difficulties which he had had to encounter owing to the absence of any regular accounts, and above all of any of " those statistics which constitute the soul, indeed the very life of a public administration," and that it was therefore impossible for him to pretend that he had been able to free himself altogether from the effects of the past, the minister continues, " every time we have endeavoured to have recourse to the previous elements of appreciation, we found ourselves faced by the chaos which characterized former years.
The agents of the finance ministry, instead of being mere clerks, are now employed in " the assessment and collection of taxes, the control of expenditure, the preparation and execution of the budget, the estimates of the necessary cash required at different points of the empire - all that, in fine, constitutes the real financial administration of a great empire."
It is thought better here, for the sake of clearness, to reserve observations on revenues specially assigned to the international administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, and on the expenditure of that administration, and to deal with that subject separately, while, however, including the total figures of both in the general figures in order to reproduce exactly the totals shown in the budget of the empire.
The estimated receipts from the " Tithes " (including tobacco and silk, both hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration) are £T6, 73 1,107.
Of these, commercial stamps are among the revenues specifically hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration, £T460,079; the others, consisting of legal stamps of various kinds, registration and transfer-duties, &c., are estimated to produce £ T6 53,373 forming a combined total of £T1,113,452.
In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
By the provisions of the " Annex Decree," also described below, three-quarters of the additional revenue is assigned to the Turkish government, and one-quarter to the Public Debt Administration to swell the sinking-fund.
of the budget, and include in the first place the salt revenue (£T1, 227,750), which is assigned to the Public Debt Administration, and tobacco revenues of which the larger part, £ T86 5,737, is assigned to the same administration, the total (including share of Tumbeki profit) producing £T965,754; the remaining monopolies are: fixed payment from the Tumbeki Company, £T40,000; explosives, £T106,323; seignorage (Mint), £T10,466; and posts and telegraphs, £T912,129.
The Public Debt Administration plays so considerable a part in the finances of the Ottoman Empire, and its history is of such importance that a special section of this article will be devoted to it below.
The rates on these advances have now been generally reduced to 6% with the exception of that on the advances from the lighthouse administration, which refused to allow any reduction below 7%.
In this are included the expenses of the administration of both the central and provincial departments of the finance ministry, the mint, charitable allowances, expenses and presents in connexion with the holy cities (£T121,410), pension funds of state officials (£7628,038), administrative allowance made to the agricultural bank (ET225,380) and various other expenses.
The minister of finance points out the immense importance of the thorough reorganization of the customs administration.
In all other respects the council, provided that it kept within the limits of the laws the administration of which was entrusted to it, was to be entirely independent of the Ottoman government, free to appoint and dismiss its own officials from highest to lowest, and to carry on its administration on such lines as it thought best.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
This proposal was accepted by the Turkish government, which undertook to continue the annual payment of £T114,000 to the public debt administration until the extinction of the debt.
The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
The lottery bonds receive a special treatment both in regard to interest and sinking fund; full information as to the intricate arrangeme