It has two important branches - at the south-west the Gulf of Aden, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-elMandeb; and at the north-west the Gulf of Oman, connecting with the Persian Gulf.
In the west and south the principal routes, other than those already mentioned, are from Yambu to Medina, from Jidda to Mecca, Hodeda to Sana, Aden to Sana, and from Mukalla to the Hadramut valley.
After exploring Persia, and again residing for some time at Mecca, he made a voyage down the Red sea to Yemen, and travelled through that country to Aden.
In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.
At Aden the minimum is a few degrees below 70°, the maximum not much exceeding 90°.
The natives, already prone to the immorality which must infect a mixed population living under a hot sun, the immorality which still infects a place like Aden, were not improved by the addition of convicts.
T Iusil (1: 300,000, 1907) or of the Aden territory (1905) are among the more interesting.
along the south shore of the Gulf of Aden westwards to Tajura Bay, and the east side skirts the Indian Ocean south-west for over r000 m.
The whole region is characterized by a remarkable degree of physical uniformity, and may be broadly described as a vast plateau of an average elevation of 3000 ft., bounded westwards by the Ethiopian and Galla highlands and northwards by an inner and an outer coast range, skirting the south side of the Gulf of Aden in its entire length from the Harrar uplands to Cape Guardafui.
The occupation of Aden by the British in 183 9 proved the starting-point in the opening up of the country, Aden being the chief port with which the Somali of the opposite coast traded.
The task of mapping the coast was largely undertaken by officers of the Indian navy, while the first explorers of the interior were officers of the Indian army quartered at Aden - Lieut.
The first person who reached the Indian Ocean, going south from the Gulf of Aden, was an American, Dr A.
the Gulf of Aden.
British Somaliland The British Somaliland protectorate extends along the Gulf of Aden for about 400 m.
Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
Thereupon Great Britain, partly to secure the route to the East via the Suez Canal, which the occupation of the country by another power might menace, occupied Zaila, Berbera and Bulhar, officials being sent from Aden to govern the ports.
From 1884 to 1898 the protectorate was attached for administrative purposes to Bombay, and was immediately dependent on Aden; in the last-named year it was transferred to the Foreign Office, and in 1905 passed under the control of the Colonial Office.
Monge, vice-consul of France at Zaila, had bought Ambabo, and shortly afterwards Henri Lambert, French consul at Aden, bought the town and territory of Obok.
The northern shore, along the Gulf of Aden, is backed by tablelands separated by the beds of mountain torrents - generally dry.
Alula, on the Gulf of Aden, is the chief town of the Mijertin Somali.
encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
A submarine cable from Durban goes to Zanzibar and Aden, whence there is communication with every quarter of the globe.
The temple is now in ruins, but the entire series of gorgeous pictures recording the expedition to "the balsam land of Punt," from its leaving to its returning to Thebes, still remains intact and undefaced.4 These are the only authenticated instances of the export of incense trees from the Somali country until Colonel Playfair, then political agent at Aden, in 1862-1864, collected and sent to Bombay the specimens from which Sir George Birdwood prepared his descriptions of them for the Linnean Society in 1868.
by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and E.
Except in the neighbourhood of Aden, no regular surveys exist, and professional work is limited to the marine surveys of the Indian government and the admiralty, which, while laying down the coast line with fair accuracy, give little or no topographical information inland.
east of Aden.
South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.
of Aden, and an inner plateau falling gradually to the north-east till it merges in the Nejd steppes or the sands of the great desert.
The lowland strip or Tehama consists partly of a gravelly plain, the Khabt, covered sparsely with acacia and other desert shrubs and trees, and furnishing pasturage for large flocks of goats and camels; and partly of sterile wastes of sand like the Ramla, which extends on either side of Aden almost from the seashore to the foot of the hills.
The south coast is free from the shoals that imperil the navigation of the Red Sea, and in Aden it possesses the only safe natural harbour on the route between Suez and India.
Several isolated volcanic hills crop out on the shore line between Aden and the straits; the most remarkable are J.
Shamshan, 1700 ft., at the base of which Aden itself is built.
Mefat which enters the Gulf of Aden near Balhaf.
An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
of Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.
At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3°, the lowest 67.4°.
In the Tehama occasional showers fall during the winter months; at Aden the average rainfall for the year is 2.97 in., but during 1904 only 0.5 in.
The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.
Sabur, and in the Yafa district north-east of Aden.
The berries are dried in the sun and sent down to Hodeda or Aden, where they are subjected to a process for separating the husk from the bean; the result is about 50% of cleaned berries, bun safe, which is exported, and a residue of husk or kishr, from which the Yemenis make their favourite beverage.
Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.
They wear a distinctive garb and are not allowed to carry arms or live in the same quarter as Moslems. Another foreign element of considerable strength in the coast towns of Muscat, Aden and Jidda, is the British Indian trading class; many families of Indian origin also have settled at Mecca, having originally come as pilgrims.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
The total value of the trade of Aden for 1904 amounted to over £6,000,000.
Among the most famous remains of Ma'rib are those of a great dike reminding one of the restored tanks familiar to visitors at Aden.
A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.
Wushth -4KW,t4 Abu Dhabl ° ' Masira I Gulf) el Had Aden And Vicinity English ?
Gulf of Aden H 6001 aakhmid dynasty fell, and the Persian Chosroes (Khosrau) II.
At the same time Yemen, which since the 9th century had been in the power of a number of small dynasties ruling in Zubed, San`a, Sa`da and Aden, passed into the hands of the Turk.
Aden was occupied by the British in 1839.
This delimitation places the whole of southern Arabia, east of this line, within the British sphere of influence, which thus includes the district surrounding Aden (q.v.), the Hadramut and Oman with its dependencies.
Hunter, Aden (aondon, 1877).
KURIA MURIA ISLANDS, a group of five islands in the Arabian Sea, close under the coast of Arabia, belonging to Britain and forming a dependency of Aden.
the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Arica, or such caldron-depressions as the Gulfs of Genoa and Taranto, or rift-depressions like the Gulfs of Aden and Akaba.
31a level; thus fifteen years' observations at Aden show a maximum the first chart of the depths of the Atlantic between 52° N.
Between the Seychelles and Sokotra (0° - 9 ° N.) there are great stretches of the ocean floor forming an almost level expanse at a depth of 2800 fathoms. The Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Aden are also very uniform with depths of about 1900 fathoms, while the floor of the Bay of Bengal rises very gradually northwards and is 1000 fathoms deep close up to the Ganges Shelf.
of the ports of Zaila (British) and Jibuti (French) on the Gulf of Aden.
In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.
In 1521 the then sultan Abubekr transferred the seat of government to Harrar, probably regarding Zaila as too exposed to the attacks of the Turkish and Portuguese navies then contending for the mastery of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
by the Indian Theophilus, who built churches in afar and Aden.
- The territory comprises the peninsulas of Aden proper and Little Aden, a strip of mainland including the villages of Sheikh `Othman, 6 m.
The town of Aden and its port Tawahi, 4 m.
The harbour - known as Bandar Tawiya or Aden-West Bay - lies between the main and Little Aden peninsulas (Jebel Ihsan or Hasan); it extends 8 m.
The population of Aden proper in 1915 was 36,900 and of the whole settlement 46,000, of whom about 23,000 were Arabs and a large part of the remainder Somalis.
On March I 1921 the administration of Aden was transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office, which also exercises political influence, in varying degrees, over the confederations of tribes inhabiting the interior as far as the Yemen frontier and over certain tribes of the Hadhramaut.
£580,000), derived mainly from the Aden Port Trust Fund (£34,000), Aden Settlement Fund (£28,000), Local Supply Bills (£257,000), imperial and municipal receipts (£215,700), Post Office (£34,000), excise, customs and income tax.
A very large proportion represents simple transhipment; but Aden is also the centre of the exporting and importing business of the Red Sea commercial region made up of the Hejaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadhramaut, Eritrea, Abyssinia and British and French Somaliland.
Aden produces no foodstuffs.
A small British force sent to assist in its defence proved altogether inadequate and had to retreat to Aden.
The Turks occupied Sheikh `Othman, but were unable to threaten Aden itself.
On July 20 of the same year reinforced Aden troops surprised the Turks at Sheikh `Othman, inflicted on them considerable loss and they retired to Lahej.
1916, owing to the Turks again despatching troops to coerce the tribes in the east of the Protectorate, a demonstration in support of the latter was made by the Aden column.
In Dec. 1917 the defensive line at Aden described an arc of about 11 m.
Large numbers of cattle and sheep, the former similar to the small species at Aden, are reared as well as, in Great Comoro, the zebra.
of Aden, in 10 26' N., 45° E.
Berbera stands at the head of a deep inlet which forms the only completely sheltered haven on the south side of the Gulf of Aden.
The trade is almost entirely with Aden, of which Berbera may be considered a commercial dependency.
According to this information, the area was ultimately limited as north of Aden, and afterwards it was agreed that the immunity from search should be extended to all places beyond a distance from the seat of war equal to the distance from it of Aden.
As a fact, the commanders-in-chief on the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope stations were instructed that in consequence of the great practical difficulty of proving - at ports so remote from the scene of war operations as Aden and Perim - the real destination of contraband of war carried by vessels visiting those parts, directions were to be given to the officers concerned to cease to search such vessels, and to merely report to the commander-in-chief at the Cape the names of ships suspected of carrying contraband, and the date of clearance.
Notwithstanding the rivalry of its newly created neighbour, the trade of Suakin continued to develop. The port is connected by submarine cables with Suez and Aden and with Jidda, which lies 200 m.
Capuchins: Aden and Arabia, India (dioceses of Agra, Allahabad, Lahore), Seychelles, Eritrea (Red Sea), Gallas, Cephalonia, Trebizond, Mardin, Crete, Caroline Islands, Araucania, Brazil, Bulgaria.
the United Free Church of Scotland at Aden, founded by Ion Keith-Falconer (1856-1887) son of the 9th earl of Kintore and Arabic professor at Cambridge; an American Presbyterian Mission on the Persian Gulf; and the Church Missionary Society's Mission at Bagdad.
of Jibuti on the Gulf of Aden.
If his campaigns were not always so wisely and prudently planned as those of some of his predecessors, they were in the main eminently fortunate, and resulted in adding to his dominions Belgrade, Budapest, Temesvar, Rhodes, Tabriz, Bagdad, Nakshivan and Rivan, Aden and Algiers, and in his days Turkey attained the culminating point of her glory.
In it is held a large market, chiefly for the disposal of live stock, camels, cattle, &c. The port is a regular calling-place and also a coaling station for the steamers of the Messageries Maritimes, and there is a local service to Aden.
From 1876 onward a small subsidy has been paid to the sultan of Kishin by the authorities at Aden; and in 1886 the sultan concluded a treaty forma;ly placing Sokotra and its dependencies under the protection of Great Britain.
Sokotra is regarded as a dependency of Aden, but native rule is maintained, the local governor or viceroy of the sultan of Kishin being a member of that chief's family, and also styled sultan.
For the topography, &c., see Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot (5th ed.
Two groups of islands in the Bay of Bengal, the Andamans and the Nicobars; one group in the Arabian Sea, the Laccadives; and the outlying station of Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea, with Perim, and protectorates over the island of Sokotra, along the southern coast of Arabia and in the Persian Gulf, are all politically included within the Indian empire; while on the coast of the peninsula itself, Portuguese and French settlements break at intervals the continuous line of British territory.
The only Semitic language is Arabic, found at Aden, where also the Hamitic Somali was returned.
Broadly speaking the salt consumed in India is derived from four sources: (1) importation by sea, chiefly from England and the Red Sea and Aden; (2) solar evaporation in shallow tanks along the seaboard; (3) the salt lakes in Rajputana; (4) quarrying in the salt hills of the northern Punjab.
Telegraphic communication with Europe is maintained by the cable of the Eastern Telegraph Company via Aden, and by the IndoEuropean system, of which the eastern portion from Teheran and Fao to Karachi belongs to the government of India.
Cable communication with Europe, via the Seychelles, Zanzibar and Aden, was established in 1893, and the Mauritius section of the Cape-Australian cable, via Rodriguez, was completed in 1902.
But as it was deemed inadvisable to allow him to visit the Punjab, he remained for some time as a guest at the residency at Aden, and was allowed to receive some of his relatives to witness his abjuration of Christianity, which actually took place within the residency itself.
As the climate began to affect his health, the maharaja at length left Aden and returned to Europe.
He next sailed down the Red Sea to Aden (then a place of great trade), the singular position of which he describes, noticing its dependence for water-supply upon the great cisterns restored in modern times.
They have, for instance, attained a population of millions in such severe climates as Poland and Russia; in the towns of Algeria they have succeeded so conspicuously as to bring about an outburst of anti-semitism; and in Cochin-China and Aden they succeed in rearing children and forming permanent communities.
But by occupying Hormuz the Portuguese gained command of the Gulf route; and though they thrice failed to capture Aden (1513, 1517 5547), and so entirely to close the Red Sea, they almost destroyed the traffic between India and Suez by occupying Socotra and sending fleets to cruise in the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb.
There is a group of protectorates near Aden, including the island of Sokotra.
Between the valley of the Upper Nile and the low lands which skirt the south-western shores of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden is a region of elevated plateaus from which rise various mountain ranges.
This Scale, 1:9,000,000 35° second range sends a chain (the Harrar hills) eastward to the Gulf of Aden.
Aden Volcanic Series.
Of still more recent date are the basalts and ashes west of Massawa and around Annesley Bay and known as the Aden Volcanic Series.
long) to Jibuti on the Gulf of Aden.
The following towns are in Shoa: - Ankober, formerly the capital of the kingdom; AliuAmba, east of Ankober on the trade route to the Gulf of Aden; Debra-Berhan (Debra-Bernam) ("Mountain of Light"), once a royal residence; Liche (Litche), one of the largest market towns in southern Abyssinia.
Bonga, the commercial centre of Kaffa, and Jiren, capital of the neighbouring province of Jimma, are frequented by traders from all the surrounding provinces, and also by foreign merchants from the seaports on the Gulf of Aden.
- Abyssinia being without seaports, the external trade is through Massawa (Italian) in the north, Jibuti (French), Zaila and Berbera (British) in the south, and for all these ports Aden is a distributing centre.
The trade in skins is mainly with the United States through Aden; America also takes a large proportion of the coffee exported.
The imports consist chiefly of cotton goods and hardware from Great Britain; rice, flour and cotton from India, sugar and rum from Mauritius, coffee from Aden, wines and spirits and clothing from France.
Cables connect the colony with Europe (1) via Loanda and Bathurst, (2) via St Helena, Ascension and St Vincent; with Europe and Asia (3) via Natal, Zanzibar and Aden, and with Australia (4) via Natal, Mauritius and Cocos.
Within these limits lie the Portuguese settlements of Diu, Damaun and Goa, and the native state of Baroda which has direct relations with the government of India; while politically Bombay includes the settlement of Aden.
The total area, including Sind but excluding Aden, is 188,745 sq.
The 6th division, with headquarters at Poona, consists of three brigades, located at Bombay, Ahmednagar and Aden.
The period that followed is notable mainly for the enlargement of the presidency through the lapse of certain native states, by the addition of Aden (1839) and Sind (1843), and the lease of the Panch Mahals from Sindhia (1853).
Aden (addition) >>
Another large stream, the Hawash, rising in the Abyssinian mountains, is lost in a saline depression near the Gulf of Aden.
There are also services to Alexandria, the Red Sea ports of Arabia, Aden and India.
Hodeda and Aden are the only ports of commercial importance, Lohaia and Ghalefika have sunk to insignificant fishing villages, and Mokha, the old centre of the coffee trade, is now almost deserted.
A special characteristic of the Yemen highlands is that fields and inhabited sites are found at the highest elevations, the mountain-tops forming extensive plateaux, often scarped on every side and only accessible by difficult paths cut in the cliffs which encircle them like the escarpments of a natural fortress; a remarkable example of this is Jebel Jihaf on the Aden border, 8000 ft.
the Wadi Bana and its affluents draining to the Gulf of Aden.
to Aden; and two days journey to the E.
to the small town of Ka`taba through which the direct road passes from Aden to Sana.
ADEN, a seaport and territory in Arabia, politically part of British India, under the governor of Bombay.
The peninsula of Aden consists chiefly of a mass of barren and desolate volcanic rocks, extending five miles from east to west, and three from its northern shore to Ras Sanailah or Cape Aden, its most southerly point; it is connected with the mainland by a neck of flat sandy ground only a few feet high; and its greatest elevation is Jebel Shamshan, 1776 ft.
There are two harbours, an outer, facing the town, protected by the island of Sirah, but now partially choked with mud; and an inner, called Aden Back-bay, or, by the Arabs, Bandar Tawayih, on the western side of the peninsula, which at all periods of the year admits vessels drawing less than 20 ft.
On the whole, Aden is a healthy place, although it suffers considerably from the want of good water, and the heat is often very intense.
m.), and that of the Aden Protectorate is about 900° sq.
The seaport of Aden is strongly fortified.
From its admirable commercial and military position, Aden early became the chief entrepot of the trade between Europe and Asia.
In the following century the Turks themselves relinquished their conquests in Yemen, and the sultan of Sana established a supremacy over Aden, which was maintained until the year 1735, when the sheikh of Lahej, throwing off his allegiance, founded a line of independent sultans.
In 1837 a ship under British colours was wrecked near Aden, and the crew and passengers grievously maltreated by the Arabs.
The withdrawal of the trade between Europe and the East, caused by the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, and the misgovernment of the native rulers, had gradually reduced Aden to a state of comparative insignificance; but about the time of its capture by the British the Red Sea route to India was reopened, and commerce soon began to flow in its former channel.
Aden was made a free port, and was chosen as one of the coaling stations of the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company.
The Aden brigade belongs to the western army corps of India.
Thence, packed in sheepand goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to 40 lb, it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment either to Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay.'
The Jaguar is equipped with two 30mm Aden cannons installed in gun bays in the lower center fuselage.
In 1837 a ship under British colors was wrecked near Aden, and the crew and passengers grievously maltreated by the Arabs.
The Moluccas were, from the first, the objective of the Portuguese invaders, and no sooner had the white men found their way round the Cape of Good Hope and established themselves successively upon the coast of East Africa, in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Aden and the Malabar coast, than Malacca, then the chief trading centre of the Malayan Archipelago, became the object of their desire.
At Aden the minimum is a few degrees below 70Ã‚°, the maximum not much exceeding 90Ã‚°.
The incline is uniformly to the south-east, and apart from the few coast streams that reach the Gulf of Aden during the rains, all the running waters are collected in three rivers - the Nogal in the north, the Webi Shebeli in the centre, and the Juba (q.v.) I See also Abyssinia.
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland extends on the coast from Bandar Ziyada, a point on the Gulf of Aden intersected by 49Ã‚° E., eastward to Cape Guardafui, and thence southward to the mouth of the river Juba in oÃ‚° 15' S.
The length of its western side from Port Said to Aden is 1500 m.; its base from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb (or Bab al Mandab) to Ras el Had is 1300 m., its northern side from Port Said to the Euphrates 600 m.; its total area approximately 1,200,000 sq.
At Aden at the sea-level the mean temperature for the year is 83Ã‚°; the highest observed temperature in 1904 was 97.3Ã‚°, the lowest 67.4Ã‚°.
Wushth -4KW,t4 Abu Dhabl Ã‚° ' Masira I Gulf) el Had Aden And Vicinity English ?
31a level; thus fifteen years' observations at Aden show a maximum the first chart of the depths of the Atlantic between 52Ã‚° N.
Between the Seychelles and Sokotra (0Ã‚° - 9 Ã‚° N.) there are great stretches of the ocean floor forming an almost level expanse at a depth of 2800 fathoms. The Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Aden are also very uniform with depths of about 1900 fathoms, while the floor of the Bay of Bengal rises very gradually northwards and is 1000 fathoms deep close up to the Ganges Shelf.
The action of the Red Sea water affects the whole of the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea, raising the temperature at the depth of 55 o fathoms to 52Ã‚° or 53Ã‚° F.
During the World War, Turkey brought pressure to bear on certain of the tribes of the Aden Protectorate (see Arabia) and in July 1915 a Turkish army several thousand strong advanced on Lahej, the `Abdali capital (21 m.
of Aden, in 10 26' N., 45Ã‚° E.
This Scale, 1:9,000,000 35Ã‚° second range sends a chain (the Harrar hills) eastward to the Gulf of Aden.
m.), and that of the Aden Protectorate is about 900Ã‚° sq.
But why, you may ask, does Aden feature at all in a website devoted to East Africa?
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