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adductors

adductors Sentence Examples

  • The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the sockets in the dorsal valve.

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  • The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.

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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).

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  • On the other hand, the ligament h acts upon the short arm formed by the umbonal ridge of the shells; whenever the adductors relax, the elastic substance of the ligament contracts, and the shells gape.

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  • It is on this account that the valves of a dead Lamellibranch always gape; the elastic ligament is no longer counteracted by the effort of the adductors.

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  • Posteriorly beneath the posterior adductors, and covered only by a thin layer of elongated epidermal cells, are the visceral ganglia.

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  • The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.

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  • Symmetrical; mantle open throughout its extent; generally with well developed anterior and posterior adductors.

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  • Two adductors usually present.

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  • Galeommidae.-Mantle reflected over shell; shell thin, gaping; adductors much reduced.

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  • geniculated; pallial line without sinus; two adductors, Cardium; British.

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  • Limnocardiidae.-Siphons very long, united throughout; shell gaping; two adductors; brackish waters.

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  • Two adductors.

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  • First of all, the adductors or occlusors consist of two muscles, which, bifurcating near the centre of the shell cavity, produce a large quadruple impression on the internal surface of the small valve (fig.

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  • The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the sockets in the dorsal valve.

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  • The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.

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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).

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  • On the other hand, the ligament h acts upon the short arm formed by the umbonal ridge of the shells; whenever the adductors relax, the elastic substance of the ligament contracts, and the shells gape.

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  • It is on this account that the valves of a dead Lamellibranch always gape; the elastic ligament is no longer counteracted by the effort of the adductors.

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  • The state of closure of the valves of the shell is not, therefore, one of rest; when it is at rest - that is, when there is no muscular effort - the valves of a Lamellibranch are slightly gaping, and are closed by the action of the adductors when the animal is disturbed.

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  • Posteriorly beneath the posterior adductors, and covered only by a thin layer of elongated epidermal cells, are the visceral ganglia.

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  • The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.

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  • Symmetrical; mantle open throughout its extent; generally with well developed anterior and posterior adductors.

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  • Two adductors usually present.

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  • Galeommidae.-Mantle reflected over shell; shell thin, gaping; adductors much reduced.

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  • geniculated; pallial line without sinus; two adductors, Cardium; British.

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  • Limnocardiidae.-Siphons very long, united throughout; shell gaping; two adductors; brackish waters.

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  • Two adductors.

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  • conical elongated right valve; the free left valve is not spiral, and is furnished with prominent apophyses to which the adductors were attached.

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  • The adductors are located in the inner thigh.

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  • The adductors, or the inner thighs work to stabilize the knee during the leg press movement and the hamstrings provide dynamic stabilization.

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