Knight, made under the direction of Professor Osborn.) Laws of Local Adaptive Radiation and Polyphyletic Evolution, illustrated by two Upper Miocene Horses of the Plains Region of North America.
The effect can also be demonstrated experimentally: thus it has been observed that a xerophyte grown in moist air will lose its characteristic adaptive features, and may even assume those of a hygrophyte.
II., and gives rise to adaptive hypertrophy.
adaptive in character but pursued without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the ends attained."
Do they originate through the natural selection of those variations which are the more adaptive; or do they originate through the inheritance of those acquired modifications which are impressed on the nervous system in the course of individual and intelligent use ?
In endeavouring to trace the causation of adaptation, it is obvious that it must be due quite as much to properties inherent in the plant as to the action of external conditions; the plant must possess adaptive capacity.
The rapid variation of certain groups of animals or the acceleration of certain organs is also not evidence of the sudden appearance of new adaptive characters.
Able as von Meyer was, his classification of the Reptilia failed because based upon the single adaptive characters of foot structure.
The distinctions between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms in which the primary differences between animals and plants fade out.
457) namely, by sharp separation of the primary or stem characters from the secondary or adaptive characters in all the known descendants or branches of a theoretical original form.
Exceptions to this rule, as exemplified by the cats, are due to special adaptive causes.
The stimulus of water on the breast may be regarded as a sensory presentation which is followed by a definite and adaptive application of behaviour.
Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
Their distinctive and adaptive characteristics doubtless began to be established as soon as the phanerogamic flora was constituted.
Fuller knowledge has shown that Macgillivray was ill-advised in laying stress on the systematic value of adaptive characters, but his contributions to anatomy were valuable, and later investigators, in particular H.
The evolution of the cysticercoid, cysticercus and other forms of larvae is a varied adaptive phenomenon.
Dr Einar Lonnberg has also recorded certain adaptive peculiarities in the stomach.
If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."
By it he became the first to raise a barbarian tongue to the dignity of a literary language; and the skill, knowledge and adaptive ability it displays make it the crowning testimony of his powers as well as.
The ingenuity of nature, however, in adapting animals is not infinite, because the same devices are repeatedly employed by her to accomplish the same adaptive ends whether in fishes, reptiles, birds or mammals; thus she has repeated herself at least twenty-four times in the evolution of long-snouted rapacious swimming types of animals.
- Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.
Great waves of extinction have followed the long periods of the slow evolution of relatively inadaptive types of tooth and foot structure, as first demonstrated by Waldemar Kowalevsky; thus mammals are repeatedly observed in a cul-de-sac of structure from which there is no escape in an adaptive direction.
A consideration of these regions makes it apparent that they are to a large extent adaptive.
In accordance with this we can regard the development as an adaptive one and the scolex as invaginated for protective FIG.
The consequences of this principle when applied to the adaptations of animals bring us to the very antithesis of Cuvier's supposed "law of correlation," for we find that, while the end results of adaptation are such that all parts of an animal conspire to make the whole adaptive, there is no fixed correlation either in the form or rate of development of parts, and that it is therefore impossible for the palaeontologist to predict the anatomy of an unknown animal from one of its parts only, unless the animal happens to belong to a type generally familiar.
Starting with the stem forms the descendants of which have passed through either persistent or changed habitats, we reach the underlying idea of the branching law of Lamarck or the law of divergence of Darwin, and find it perhaps most clearly expressed in the words "adaptive radiation" (Osborn), which convey the idea of radii in many directions.
There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
Because of the repetition of analogous physiographic and climatic conditions in regions widely separated both in time and in space, we discover that continental and local adaptive radiations result in the creation of analogous groups of radii among all the vertebrates and invertebrates.
The net result of observation is not favourable to the essentially Darwinian view that the adaptive arises out of the fortuitous by selection, but is rather favourable to the hypothesis of the existence of some quite unknown intrinsic law of life which we are at present totally unable to comprehend or even conceive.
With regard to adaptations, it is becoming more and more apparent, as experimental knowledge advances, that it is a fundamental property of every living organism in every stage of its existence to display adaptive response to its environment.
Some of the more striking adaptive modifications in the gametophyte and sporophyte, and certain effects of altered external conditions which have been ascertained experimentally, may be briefly mentioned.
adaptive to change.
adaptive optics slightly larger reference sources may be used.
adaptive thresholding may be a better answer.
Before performing an adaptive behavior test, the examiner explains to the parents the purpose of the test.
R., et al. "Criterion-related validity of the three-factor model of psychopathy: personality, behavior, and adaptive functioning."
W. "Probing the adaptive significance of children's behavior and relationships in the school context: a child by environment perspective."
L., et al. "A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders."
Exclusion from a normal peer group can deprive rejected children of opportunities to develop adaptive social behaviors.
Occupational therapy is recommended to select adaptive techniques and devices such as safety railings, walkers, or other safety appliances.
The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to measure adaptive functioning in these individuals.
The NBAS examines a wide range of behaviors in newborns up to two months of age, creating a portrait of the infant's strengths, adaptive responses, possible vulnerabilities, and individuality.
It focuses on the baby's individuality and unique adaptive or temperamental style and is designed to develop parent-infant and clinician-family relationships.
Strategies may include modifications in the home, adaptive utensils and dressing aids, compensatory movements and positioning, wheelchair accessories, or communication aids.
A second component of personality comes from adaptive patterns related to a child's specific environment.
G., et al. "Concurrent and predictive validity of the cognitive adaptive test/clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale (CAT/CLAMS) and the Mental Developmental Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development."
The immune system has both innate and adaptive components.
Adaptive immunity develops throughout life.
The adaptive component of the immune system is extremely complex and is as of the early 2000s still not entirely understood.
The humoral response of adaptive immunity involves a type of cell called B lymphocytes.
The cellular response of adaptive immunity is useful for attacking viruses, some parasites, and possibly cancer cells.
Nightmares are a sleep disturbance that is part of a normal adaptive mechanism of the developing child.
U. "Cognitive and adaptive behavior profiles of children with Angelman syndrome."
Because social and pragmatic deficits are core characteristics of autism, it is important to look for dissociation among language, social adaptive skills, and motor behavior.
If there is a delay in fine-motor adaptive development combined with delays in other developmental domains, the doctor will consider whether the child is visually impaired or mentally handicapped.
It is important to assess the eyes and visual acuity of a child presenting with delayed fine-motor adaptive development.
Therefore, attachment behaviors, such as wanting to stay close to the primary caregiver and displaying occasional separation anxiety are adaptive processes, not regressive ones.
T and B lymphocytes are the only units of the immune system that have antigen-specific recognition powers; they are responsible for adaptive immunity.
Sometimes the idea of "being oneself" trumps the adaptive measure of "improving oneself to meet status quo."
Children may need to improve their ability to use adaptive equipment properly.
Goals may include mastery of these adaptive tools or just marked improvement.
A person with an Asperger's diagnosis does not show delays with self-help skills, and while social skills are significantly impaired, other adaptive behavior develops normally.
With high-tech options like a sensory gym, an innovative orthotics department and an adaptive aquatics center, the MCH Dan Merino Center is as fun as it is functional.
If you want to reduce the size of a graphic by specifying a palette, it is much better to use an "adaptive palette" and trust the computer to dither the colors in the best possible way.
Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
The former classification into Holochlamyda, Pneumochlamyda and Siphonochlamyda has been abandoned, as it was founded on adaptive characters not always indicative of true affinities.
Treviranus, in the beginning of the 10th century, laid stress on the indefiniteness of variation, but assumed that some of it was adaptive response to the environment, and some due to sexual crossing.
To what extent such responses are transmitted to offspring, and what part they play in the formation of the adaptive characters that are conspicuous in many animals, remain dubious, but it is at least clear that natural selection can favour those individuals and those races which show the greatest power of responsive plasticity in the individual.
There remains open a wide field for inquiry as to the precise relations between selection and variation on the one hand, and their products, specific differences and adaptive structures, but the advance of knowledge has supplied no alternative to the Darwinian principles.
With this comes the whole vast and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where the uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to those of the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of improvement and new invention into ever higher stages.
To other monocotyledonous families the resemblances are merely of adaptive or vegetative characters.
From this point of view the various adaptive modifications of mammalian dentition may be roughly grouped under the headings of piscivorous, carnivorous, insectivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous.
There are no risks associated with adaptive behavior tests.
Fenton, G., et al. "Vineland adaptive behavior profiles in children with autism and moderate to severe developmental delay."
adaptive immunity to Infection PART V. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IN HEALTH AND DISEASE 11.
adaptive Multi-rate Codec) files can be recorded using the phones built-in Recorder application.
Voluntary organizations are sometimes characterized as highly adaptive but so too are for-profits.
All IT qualifications are now taken on-line and are either adaptive exams, multi-choice or interactive assessments.
Individuals skilled at accurately gaging affective responses in others are usually talented at choosing socially adaptive behaviors, in their response.
And today, as culturally adaptive as a missionary may be, there is that need for connectiveness with his home culture.
Attachment theory It is generally accepted that a history of secure attachment will increase the chances of responding to trauma in relatively adaptive ways.
In the project upon which this chapter is based, ICT supports research processes and thus adaptive learning.
For example if you use adaptive 0 a minimum of 4 rays will be shot at the light.
The Wiener-Hopf equation is derived as the optimum receive filter, illustrated with applications including adaptive filtering.
The new songs ' mix of styles is proving sufficiently adaptive to win him burgeoning audiences around the world.
designing adaptive Learning Support Agents based on Learning Object Reuse and Interaction Data.
Conventional programming languages only provide facilities for exact matching, a more adaptive approach is required in order to support data aggregation.
It is awarded for the best adaptive re-use of an historic building of any period.
AMR (Adaptive Multi-rate Codec) files can be recorded using the phones built-in Recorder application.
collaborates closely with the Center for Adaptive Systems.
C When one-way surface conflation is active it takes no action, thus preserving C the convection coefficients calculated by adaptive convection algorithm.
We have also been attempting to estimate the rate of adaptive amino acid substitution and the proportion of mutations which are slightly deleterious.
The adaptive thresholding is performed in both the time and frequency domains simultaneously.
It has quite a solid rim which is OK if you have an adaptive embouchure and very good for upper register playing.
The buntings exemplify local adaptive radiation, but may be hybridizing which could eventually produce a new species endemic to the island.
A key feature of adaptive information systems is the notion of cognitive ergonomics.
Adaptive radiation and molecular evolution of Cicindela tiger beetles.
This theory is based upon adaptive expectations people base their expectations of inflation on past levels of inflation.
Thanks to Edge Adaptive Noise Reduction, even fine color gradations, like skin tones, for example, are no longer a problem.
The test car was also fitted with optional adaptive halogen headlights, which see round corners for a worthwhile £ 250.
His current research interests include adaptive hypertext, on-line adaptive assessment and interoperability and architectural issues within eLearning systems.
Interaction has an adaptive mediating role, helping students to recognize and resolve inconsistency.
Such a differential structure, expressing the local versus global nature of brain structure, is lacking in adaptive linear algebra.
Adaptive re-use has in this case rescued a building of great historical and architectural merit from the brink of disaster.
The basic idea of these techniques, known as adaptive modulation, involves continuously modifying certain parameters of the transmitted signal.
Potassium - Adaptive processes increase potassium secretion in the distal nephron (collecting tubules) and also in the gut.
nitride membrane mirror which is suitable for adaptive optics.
For adaptive optics slightly larger reference sources may be used.
Two techniques, active optics and adaptive optics has been devised to overcome these.
Solution method: The program solves the Cauchy principal value integrals numerically using adaptive Gaussian quadrature.
Of more general use are in-camera red-eye removal and adaptive lighting.
Adaptive meshing automatically refines meshes in high stress areas without the rest of the mesh having to be refines meshes in high stress areas without the rest of the mesh having to be refined.
Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change?
BONO, P.R., ' Adaptive procedures for automatic document retrieval ', Ph.D.
Most of the others were discovered in visible light, using ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics.
The current value of the adaptive threshold also contributes to the adaptive threshold in adjacent channels.
In our testing with disabled users and these different adaptive technologies, we have found that some screen readers work better than others.
It is the sphere of adaptive behavior, and is essentially utilitarian.
Our idea relies on the use of adaptive methods that aim at reducing the asymptotic variance of the estimates.
While convincing us that the plants of past ages in the earths history were exposed to very similar conditions of life, and made very much the same adaptive responses as their modern representatives, one of the main results of this line of work has been to reveal important data enabling us to fill various gaps in our morphological knowledge and to obtain a more complete picture of the evolution of tissues in the vascular plants.
It is assumed, as an inevitable conclusion from the facts of evolution, that plant-protoplasm possesses (I) an inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) that it is irritable to external conditions, or to changes in them, and can respond to them by changes of form which may be either indefinite or definite (adaptive).
The remark may conveniently find its place here that plants which have reached a high degree of adaptive specialization have come to the end of their tether: a too complicated adjustment has deprived them of the elasticity which would enable them to adapt themselves to any further change in their surroundings, and they would pass away with conditions with which they are too inextricably bound up. Vast floras have doubtless thus found their grave in geologic change.
We are now in a position to give an expanded definition of instinctive behaviour as comprising those complex groups of co-ordinated acts which, though they contribute to experience, are, on their first occurrence, not determined by individual experience; which are adaptive and tend to the well-being of the individual and the preservation of the race; which are due to the co-operation of external and internal stimuli; which are similarly performed by all members of the same more or less restricted group of animals; but which are subject to variation, and to subsequent modification under the guidance of individual experience.
The influence of parasitism has so profoundly influenced its structure that its affinities are obscured by the development of specialized and adaptive features.
The most fundamental distinction in analysis is that which must be made between homogeny, or true hereditary resemblance, and those multiple forms of adaptive resemblance which are variously known as cases of " analogy," " parallelism," " convergence " and " homoplasy."
[[Adaptive Types Of Limbs And Feet Volant]] Short-limbed, plantigrade, Ambulatory pentadactyl, unguicuOR late Stem [[Terrestrial Adaptive Types Of Teeth]] Stem Insectivorous Law Of The Independent Adaptive Evolution Of Parts.
On a smaller scale are the local adaptive radiations which occur through segregation of habit and local isolation in the same general geographic region wherever physiographic and climatic differences are sufficient to produce local differences in food supply or other local factors of change.
Unusual features: The adaptive quadrature routine requires full recursivity qualities from the Fortran compiler.
Adaptive meshing automatically refines meshes in high stress areas without the rest of the mesh having to be refined.
This type of adaptive clothing can be found at Senior Superstores, Silverts and PPN.
Many people experience health problems as they age that require the use of adaptive clothing.
Some companies sell adaptive clothing with modifications such as easy to close closures so that you don't have to sacrifice fashion for comfort.
Adaptive clothing can be included for seniors who use wheelchairs or have conditions that make dressing and undressing difficult.
Adaptive clothing for seniors with limited use of their fingers or hands is available in beautiful styles.
Adaptive clothing stores, such as Silvert's, have many options that meet the needs of elderly people with a variety of limitations.
Consider the Ecotones Duet Sleep Sound Machine from Adaptive Sound Technologies.
Some of these elements involve customization of weapons and armor, as well as adaptive combat tactics.
An occupational therapist also assists patients and caregivers with activities of daily living and provide instructions on wheelchair use or other adaptive equipment.
Children who have a neurological disorder or illness such as encephalitis or meningitis may suddenly show signs of cognitive impairment and adaptive difficulties.
It is defined as an intellectual functioning level (as measured by standard tests for intelligence quotient) that is well below average and significant limitations in daily living skills (adaptive functioning).
A diagnosis of mental retardation is made if an individual has an intellectual functioning level well below average and significant limitations in two or more adaptive skill areas.
Adaptive skills are the skills needed for daily life.
At the other end of the spectrum, pervasive support, or life-long, daily support for most adaptive areas, would be required for profoundly retarded individuals.
Low IQ scores and limitations in adaptive skills are the hallmarks of mental retardation.
If retardation is caused by childhood illnesses or injuries, learning and adaptive skills that were once easy may suddenly become difficult or impossible to master.
The Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) are frequently used to test these skills.
Some children are more severely affected, requiring walkers and wheelchairs and other adaptive and assistive equipment.
Adaptive behavior scales are standardized tests used to describe and evaluate the behavior of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, especially those at risk for communication delays and behavior impairments.
Good adaptive behavior promotes independence at home, at school, and in the community.
Problems in developing adaptive skills can occur in children of any age.
Adaptive behavior scales are evaluation tools designed to help care providers improve their assessments of the abilities and needs of infants and children who have disabilities or are at risk for developmental delays.
Many different adaptive behavior scales are used in the United States for assessment purposes.
The SIBR assesses adaptive and maladaptive behavior to determine the type and amount of special assistance that children with disabilities may need.
The SIB-R adaptive behavior items include 14 subscales grouped into four clusters: motor skills, social interaction and communication skills, personal living skills, and community living skills.
Each SIB-R adaptive behavior item is a statement of a task.
Adaptive behavior-The ability to do things on one's own without getting into trouble and to adapt to and manage one's surroundings.
Adaptive immunity is divided into two components: humoral immunity and cellular immunity.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.