John Adams was a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1778.
Since 1860 several visits have been paid to the group by scientific investigators - by Dr Habel in 1868; Messrs Baur and Adams, and the naturalists of the "Albatross," between 1888 and 1891; and in 1897-1898 by Mr Charles Harris, whose journey was specially undertaken at the instance of the Hon.
See eulogy by his friend Dr David Hosack (Essays, i., New York, 1824), with biographical details taken from a letter of Rush to President John Adams; also references in the works of Thacker, Gross and Bowditch on the history of medicine in America.
22 represents the thermal efficiency actually obtained in one of Adams and Pettigrew's experiments, namely, 0-I I, the pressure in the steam-pipe being 167 lb per square inch.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
I had a couple of Sam Adams and a roast beef sandwich and arrived at the 30th Street station in Philadelphia just before four o'clock.
Resigning the secretaryship in 1848, he was elected to the national House of Representatives as an anti-slavery Whig to succeed John Quincy Adams, and was re-elected in 1849, and, as an independent candidate, in 1850, serving until March 1853.
ADAMS, a township in the extreme N.
Journ., 1st August 1877, p. 178, also Adams, Journ.
Studies," Baltimore, 1897); Henry Adams, Documents relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815 (Boston, 1878); A.
Adams Smith's Wealth of Nations, if it has ever been, has long ceased to be a scientific text-book.
JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826), second president of the United States of America, was born on the 30th of October 1735 in what is now the town of Quincy, Massachusetts.
His father, a farmer, also named John, was of the fourth generation in descent from Henry Adams, who emigrated from Devonshire, England, to Massachusetts about 1636; his mother was Susanna Boylston Adams. Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1755, and for a time taught school at Worcester and studied law in the office of Rufus Putnam.
Years afterwards, when an old man, Adams undertook to write out at length his recollections of this scene; it is instructive to compare the two accounts.
John Adams had none of the qualities of popular leadership which were so marked a characteristic of his second cousin, Samuel Adams; it was rather as a constitutional lawyer that he influenced the course of events.
Adams's upright and patriotic conduct in taking the unpopular side in this case met with its just reward in the following year, in the shape of his election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives by a vote of 418 to 118.
On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption.
Before this question had been disposed of, Adams was placed at the head of the Board of War and Ordnance, and he also served on many other important committees.
Bowdoin and Samuel Adams, he formed a sub-committee which drew up the first draft of that instrument, and most of it probably came from John Adams's pen.
Conditions were not then favourable for peace, however; the French government, moreover, did not approve of the choice, inasmuch as Adams was not sufficiently pliant and tractable and was from the first suspicious of Vergennes; and subsequently Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay and Henry Laurens were appointed to co-operate with Adams. Jefferson, however, did not cross the Atlantic, and Laurens took little part in the negotiations.
Jay and Adams distrusted the good faith of the French government.
Throughout the negotiations Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the British-American coast should be recognized.
Before these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time in the Netherlands.
In 1785 John Adams was appointed the first of a long line of able and distinguished American ministers to the court of St James's.
intimated that he was aware of Mr Adams's lack of confidence in the French government.
Replying, Mr Adams admitted it, closing with the outspoken sentiment: " I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country " - a phrase which must have jarred upon the monarch's sensibilities.
While in London Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the United States (1787).
Differences of opinion with regard to the policies to be pursued by the new government gradually led to the formation of two well-defined political groups - the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans - and Adams became recognized as one of the leaders, second only to Alexander Hamilton, of the former.
In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket.
Adams's four years as chief magistrate (1797-1801) were marked by a succession of intrigues which embittered all his later life; they were marked, also, by events, such as the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which brought discredit on the Federalist party.
Moreover, factional strife broke out within the party itself; Adams and Hamilton became alienated, and members of Adams's own cabinet virtually looked to Hamilton rather than to the president as their political chief.
The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton's adherents in the cabinet.
In 1764 Adams had married Miss Abigail Smith (1744-1818), the daughter of a Congregational minister at Weymouth, Massachusetts.
President John Quincy Adams was their eldest son.
Adams, The Works of John Adams, with Life (Io vols., Boston, 1850-1856); John and Abigail Adams, Familiar Letters during the Revolution (Boston, 1875); J.
Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885; later edition, 1899), in the " American Statesmen Series"; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898).
John Couch Adams >>
Three cemeteries remain intact - King's chapel burying ground, with the graves of John Winthrop and John Cotton; the Old Granary burial ground in the heart of the city, where Samuel Sewall, the parents of Franklin, John Hancock, James Otis and Samuel Adams are buried; and Copp's Hill burial ground, containing the tombs of the Mathers.
Warner; of Samuel Adams by Anne Whitney; of John Winthrop and Benjamin Franklin by R.
The argument of Otis on the writs of assistance Americans, including Charles Francis Adams and Edward Everett, and also various descendants of Cotton, united to restore the southwest chapel of St Botolph's church, and to erect in it a memorial tablet to Cotton's memory.
The city was warmly in favour of the adoption of the federal constitution of 1787; even Samuel Adams was rejected for Congress because he was backward in its support.
His great difficulty lay in managing his colleagues, who were, especially Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams, able men of strong wills and jarring tempers.
The election, undecided by the popular vote, was thrown into the house, and resulted in the choice of John Quincy Adams, who in 1826 drew Gallatin from his retirement and sent him as minister to England to conduct another complicated and arduous negotiation.
The Writings of Albert Gallatin, edited by Henry Adams, were published at Philadelphia, in three volumes, in 1879.
With these volumes was published an excellent biography, The Life of Albert Gallatin, also by Henry Adams; another good biography is John Austin Stevens's Albert Gallatin (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen" series.
In New York at this time the National Republicans, or "Adams men," were a very feeble organization, and shrewd political leaders at once determined to utilize the strong anti-Masonic feeling in creating a new and vigorous party to oppose the rising Jacksonian Democracy.
Adams was incorporated in 1778, and was named in honour of Samuel Adams, the revolutionary leader.
Part of Adams was included in the new township of Cheshire in 1793, and North Adams was set off as a separate township in 1878.
For several years after his retirement from office, he devoted himself to his law practice, and in 1856 succeeded James Buchanan as United States minister to England, where he remained until relieved by Charles Francis Adams in May 1861.
In the autumn of 1779 he was appointed secretary to John Adams, who had been selected as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain, and in December 1780 he was appointed diplomatic representative to the Russian government.
See Charles Francis Adams, Richard Henry Dana: a Biography (2 vols., Boston Mass., 1891).
In his method of employing illustration he is suggestive of Thomas Adams, Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, Thomas Manton and John Bunyan.
Crawford, and received the electoral vote of Georgia for vice-president; but he shrewdly kept out of the acrimonious controversy which followed the choice of John Quincy Adams. He early recognized the availability of Andrew Jackson, however, as a presidential candidate, and after the election sought to bring the Crawford and Jackson followers together, at the same time strengthening his control as a party leader in the Senate.
"The case," says Henry Adams, "proved impeachment to be an impracticable thing for partisan purposes, and it decided the permanence of those lines of constitutional development which were a reflection of the common law."
In 1820 he was re-elected, receiving all the electoral votes but one, which William Plumer (1759-1850) of New Hampshire cast for John Quincy Adams, in order, it is said, that no one might share with Washington the honour of a unanimous election.
Jefferson, Madison, John Quincy Adams, Calhoun, and Benton all speak loudly in Monroe's praise; but he suffers by comparison with the greater statesmen of his time.
Possessing none of their brilliance, he had, nevertheless, to use the words of John Quincy Adams, " a mind.
of his Republic (Chicago, 1887); John Quincy Adams, The Lives of James Madison and James Monroe (Buffalo, 1850); B.
Bond, jun., Monroe's Mission to France, 1794-1796 (Baltimore, 1907); Henry Adams, History of the United States (9 vols., New York, 1889-1891), containing a full but unsympathetic account of Monroe's career as a diplomatist; and James Schouler, History of the United States, vols.
Fries and two others were twice tried for treason (the second time before Samuel Chase) and were sentenced to be hanged, but they were pardoned by President Adams in April 1800, and a general amnesty was issued on 21st May.
In the field of the History of Medicine the work of scholars such as Francis Adams of Banchory (1796-1861), William A.
HASTINGS, a city and the county-seat of Adams county, Nebraska, U.S.A., about 95 m.
He was acting governor at the time of the "Boston Massacre" in 1770, and was virtually forced by the citizens of Boston, under the leadership of Samuel Adams, to order the removal of the British troops from the town.
HENRY ADAMS (1838-), American historian, son of Charles Francis Adams and grandson of John Quincy Adams, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 16th of February 1838.
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
In collaboration with his elder brother Charles Francis Adams, Jr., he published Chapters of Erie and Other Essays (1871), and, with H.
His elder brother, John Quincy Adams (1833-1894), a graduate of Harvard (1853), practised law, and was a Democratic member for several terms of the Massachusetts general court.
Another brother, Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (1835-), born in Boston on the 27th of May 1835, graduated at Harvard in 1856, and served on the Union side in the Civil War, receiving in 1865 the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army.
Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (1892); a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900); Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902); Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906); and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
Another brother, Brooks Adams (1848-), born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 24th of June 1848, graduated at Harvard in 1870, and until 1881 practised law.
Henry Carter Adams >>
In 1708 the town was divided into the North Precinct and the South Precinct, and it was in the former, now Quincy, that John Adams, John Hancock and John Quincy Adams were born.
Adams, Jr., Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (Boston, 1892 and 1896); W.
HELEN ADAMS KELLER (1880-), American blind deafmute, was born at Tuscumbia, Alabama, in 1880.
By President Washington's appointment he became chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in March 1796, and in 1799 President John Adams sent him, with William Vans Murray (1762-1803) and William R.
They held a convention at Cincinnati in May with the intention of nominating for the presidency Charles Francis Adams, who had ably represented the United States at the court of St James's during the Civil War.
In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic Republican, 1804; Federalist, 1808-1812; Democratic Republican, 1816-1820; Adams (Republican), 1824-1828; National Republican, 1832; Democratic, 1836; Whig, 1840-1848; Democratic, 1852; and Republican since 1856.
4 James Fenner was a Democratic Republican to 1826, a National Republican (Adams) to 1829 and a Democrat (Jackson) to 1831.
The Anthology Club was established at Boston in 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultivation of literature and the discussion of philosophy.
The collection has been submitted to the closest criticism in ancient and modern times by a large number of commentators (for full list of the early commentators, see Adams's Genuine Works of Hippocrates, Sydenham Society, i.
The general estimate of commentators is thus stated by Adams: " The peculiar style and method of Hippocrates are held to be conciseness of expression, great condensation of matter, and disposition to regard all professional subjects in a practical point of view, to eschew subtle hypotheses and modes of treatment based on vague abstractions."
Of these Adams accepts as certainly genuine the 2nd, 6th, 5th, 3rd (7 books), 4th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 12th, and as " pretty confidently acknowledged as genuine, although the evidence in their favour is not so strong," the 1st, Loth and 13th, and, in addition, (14) On Ulcers (IIEpi EXKc v); (15) On Fistulae (IIEpi vu piyywv); (16) On Hemorrhoids (IIEpi aipoppot&e); (17) On the Sacred Disease (IIEpi iepi l s yob o- According to the sceptical and somewhat subjective criticism of Ermerins, the whole collection is to be regarded as spurious except Epidemics, books i.
See also Adams (as cited above), and Reinhold's Hippocrates (2 vols., Athens, 1864-1867).
Leith Adams, " Monograph of British Fossil Elephants," part ii., Palaeontographical Society (1879).
Adams, Professor E.
SAMUEL ADAMS (1722-1803), American statesman, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 27th of September 1722.
He was a second cousin to the elder John Adams. His father, whose Christian name was also Samuel, was a wealthy and prominent citizen of Boston, who took an active part in the politics of the town, and was a member of the Caucus (or Caulker's) Club, with which the political term "caucus" is said to have originated; his mother was Mary Fifield.
Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1740, and three years later, on attaining the degree of A.M., chose for his thesis, "Whether it be Lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved."
Samuel Adams first came into wider prominence at the beginning of the Stamp Act episode, in 1764, when as author of Boston's instructions to its representatives in the general court of Massachusetts he urged strenuous opposition to taxation by act of parliament.
As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise.
There can be no question, however, that Samuel Adams was one of the first, if not the first, of American political leaders to deny the legislative power of parliament and to desire and advocate separation from the mother country.
The intense excitement which followed the "Boston Massacre" Adams skilfully used to secure the removal of the soldiers from the town to a fort in the harbour.
One of the objects of the expedition sent by Governor Thomas Gage to Lexington and Concord on April 18-19, 1775, was the capture of Adams and John Hancock, temporarily staying in Lexington, and when Gage issued his proclamation of pardon on June 12 he excepted these two, whose offences, he said, were "of too flagitious a Nature to admit of any other Consideration than that of condign Punishment."
As a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1774 to 1781, Samuel Adams continued vigorously to oppose any concession to the British government; strove for harmony among the several colonies in the common cause; served on numerous committees, among them that to prepare a plan of confederation; and signed the Declaration of Independence.
He was one of the three members of the sub-committee which actually drafted that instrument; and although John Adams is generally credited with having performed the principal part of that task, Samuel Adams was probably the author of most of the bill of rights.
In 1788, Samuel Adams was a member of the Massachusetts convention to ratify the Constitution of the United States.
From 1789 to 1794 Adams was lieutenant-governor of his state, and from 1794 to 1797 was governor.
- Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams (3 vols., Boston, 1865), by W.
Wells, Adams's great-grandson - a valuable biography, containing a mass of information, but noticeably biassed; J.
Hosmer's Samuel Adams (Boston, 1885), an excellent short biography in the "American Statesmen Series"; M.
Cushing (ed.), The Writings of Samuel Adams (4 vols., New York, 1904-1908).
Thomas Adams >>
With John Adams and Edward Rutledge he was selected by Congress to discuss with Admiral Howe (September 1776, at Staten Island) the terms of peace proposed by Howe, who had arrived in New York harbour in July 1776, and who had been an intimate friend of Franklin; but the discussion was fruitless, as the American commissioners refused to treat " back of this step of independency."
" Franklin's reputation," wrote John Adams with characteristic extravagance, " was more universal than that of Leibnitz or Newton, Frederick or Voltaire; and his character more esteemed and beloved than all of them..
In 1781 Franklin, with John Adams, John Jay, Jefferson, who remained in America, and Henry Laurens, then a prisoner in England, was appointed on a commission to make peace with Great Britain.
Before Franklin left Paris on the 12th of July 1785 he had made commercial treaties with Sweden (1783) and Prussia (1785; signed after Franklin's departure by Jefferson and John Adams).
In 1871 he gained the Adams prize and was elected to the council of the Royal Society.
According to the census of 1900 there were 33 incorporated cities in Massachusetts, of which 8 had between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants; 5 between 20,000 and 25,000 (Everett, North Adams, Quincy, Waltham, Pittsfield); 2 io between 25,000 and 50,000 (Holyoke, Brockton, Haverhill, Salem, Chelsea, Malden, Newton, Fitchburg, Taunton, Gloucester); 7 between 50,000 and ioo,000 (Lowell, Cambridge, Lynn, Lawrence, New Bedford, Springfield, Somerville); and 3 more than roo,000 inhabitants, viz.
The constitution of 1780, which still endures (the only remaining state constitution of the r8th century), was framed in the main by Samuel Adams, and as an embodiment of colonial experience and revolutionary principles, and as a model of constitution-making in the early years of independence, is of very great historical interest.
1 These two schools were removed subsequently to Framingham (1853) and Westfield (1844), where they are still active; while others flourish at Bridgewater (1840), Salem (1854), Worcester (1874), Fitchburg (1895), North Adams (1897), Hyannis (1897) and Lowell (1897), that at Framingham being open to women only.
The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.
The popular agitators, headed by Samuel Adams - with whom John Hancock, an opulent merchant and one of the few of the richer people who deserted the crown, leagued himself - forced on the movement, which became war in April 1775, when Gage sent an expedition to Concord and Lexington to destroy military stores accumulated by the patriots and to capture Adams and Hancock, temporarily staying at Lexington.
Adams; the Know-Nothings, Henry Wilson and N.
In oratory, James Otis, Fisher Ames, Josiah Quincy, junr., Webster, Choate, Everett, Sumner, Winthrop and Wendell Phillips; and, in addition, in statesmanship, Samuel Adams, John Adams and John Quincy Adams. In fiction, Hawthorne and Mrs Stowe.
When Massachusetts was called upon to select for Statuary Hall in the capitol at Washington two figures from the long line of her worthies, she chose as her fittest representatives John Winthrop, the type of Puritanism and state-builder, and Samuel Adams (though here the choice was difficult between Samuel Adams and John Adams) as her greatest leader in the heroic period of the War of Independence.
Samuel Adams (acting) Samuel Adams .
Adams, Massachusetts; its Historians and its History (Boston, 1893), for a critique of the " filiopietistic " traditions of Massachusetts writers; also his Three Episodes of Massachusetts History, - namely, Settlement of the Colony, Antinomianism, and church and town government in Quincy from1634-1888(2 vols., Boston, 1892).
Adams and others in Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings, 2nd series, vol.
On the revolutionary epoch, Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams ...
On New England discontent preceding 1812, Henry Adams, Documents Relating to New England Federalism, 1880-1815 (Boston, 1877); T.
Adams in maintaining the right of offering anti-slavery petitions, advocated the prohibition by Congress of the slave trade between the states, and favoured the exclusion of slavery from the District of Columbia.
These are Mount Rainier or Tacoma (14,363 ft.), Mount Adams (12,470 ft.), Mount Baker (10,827 ft.), Glacier Peak (10,436 ft.) and Mount St Helens (io,000 ft.).
Serpentine marble with seamed markings has been found in Adams and Stevens counties.
Oku's 2nd Army (4 divisions or 60,000 combatants) was about Port Adams. This last was the objective of the attack of Stakelberg's 35,000.
But it was definitely overruled by the House of Lords (Adams v.
From 1822 to 1829 he was a member of the National House of Representatives,' and there voted for John Quincy Adams for the presidency, and served as chairman of the committee on agriculture.
Soon after the schism of 1856 those who had rebelled against Cabet began to prepare a permanent home in Adams county, Iowa.
In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second Provincial Congresses respectively, and he shared with Samuel Adams the leadership of the Massachusetts Whigs in all the irregular measures preceding the War of American Independence.
The famous expedition sent by General Thomas Gage of Massachusetts to Lexington and Concord on the 18th-19th of April 1775 had for its object, besides the destruction of materials of war at Concord, the capture of Hancock and Adams, who were temporarily staying at Lexington, and these two leaders were expressly excepted in the proclamation of pardon issued on the 12th of June by Gage, their offences, it was said, being "of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration than that of condign punishment."
In Maine four peaks exceed 3000 ft., including Katandin (5200 ft.), Mount Washington, in the White Mountains (6279 ft.), Adams (5805), Jefferson (5725), Clay (5554), Monroe (5390), Madison (5380), Lafayette (5269); and a number of summits rise above 4000 ft.
It was in this house that Lord Howe on the nth of September 1776 held a peace conference with Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge representing the Continental Congress.
For the lily in the pharmacopoeia of the ancients see Adams's Paul.
In 1874-1876 he edited the North American Review with Henry Adams; and in 1879-1882, with John T.
His doctoral thesis at Harvard was published with essays by Henry Adams, L.
Adams (268 ft.
Eden Park, of 200 acres, on Mount Adams, about 1 m.
Adams), founded by Mrs Bellamy (Maria Longworth) Storer, named from her father's home near the city, the first American pottery to devote exclusive attention to art ware.
For the traditional view of Burr's conspiracy, see Henry Adams's History of the United States, vol.
C. Lodge, Life and Letters of George Cabot (Boston, 1877); and Henry Adams, Documents Relating to New England Federalism (Boston, 1877).
Adams, its presenter, perhaps the most violent storm in the long course of his defence of the right of petition.
Adams, Taxation in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1900), an historical account of the sources of the state's revenue and administration of its taxing system; A.
By 1800 all the men were dead except Alexander Smith, afterwards known as John Adams, who rose to a sense of his responsibility and successfully trained up the youthful generation left in his charge.
On the death of John Adams on the 29th of March 1829 George Hunn Nobbs, who had settled at Pitcairn in 1828, was appointed pastor and chief magistrate.
The old court party followed the lead of Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams in national politics, and became National Republicans and later Whigs.
Adams and opposing that of Jackson, which succeeded it.
Couch Adams in the Proc. Roy.
By means of these formulae Adams calculated the values of log e 2, log e 3, log e s, and loge?
to 276 places of decimals, and deduced the value of log e lo and its reciprocal M, the modulus of the Briggian system of logarithms. The value of the modulus found by Adams is Mo = 0-43429 44 81 9 03251 82765 11289 18916 60508 22 943 97 00 5 80366 65661 14453 78316 58646 4920-8870 77 47292 2 4949 33 8 43 17483 18706 106 74 47 6630-3733 64167 92871 58963 90656 92210 64662 81226 58521 27086 56867 03295 9337 0 86965 88266 88331 16360 773849 0514 28443 48666 76864 65860 85135 56148 212 34 87653 43543 43573 25 which is true certainly to 272, and probably to 273, places (Proc. Roy.
His best known productions are Adams and Liberty, a once popular song written in 1798, The Invention of Letters (1795), and The Ruling Passion, the Harvard Phi Beta Kappa poem of 1797.
in height: Mount Adams, 5805 ft.; Mount Jefferson, 5725 ft.; Mount Sam Adams, 5585 ft.; Mount Clay, 5554 ft.; Boot Spur, 5520 ft.; Mount Monroe, 5390 ft.; J.
Adams Peak, 5384 ft.; Mount Madison, 5380 ft.; and Mount Franklin, 5028 ft.
John Quincy Adams was an intimate friend of William Plumer, the Democratic leader, and carried the state both in 1824 and 1828, but a Jackson man was elected governor in 1827, 1829, 1830 and 1831.
James Adams Weston Ezekiel Albert Straw.
James Adams Weston Person Colby Cheney.
He now found Pitt and Dundas ready to listen, but, as neither of them would or could give him substantial help, he went to the United States, where President Adams only gave him fair words.
The Cascade Range is in essence a maturely dissected highland, composed in part of upwarped Colombian lavas, in part of older rocks, and crowned with several dissected volcanoes, of which the chief are (beginning in the north) Mts Baker (Io,827 ft.), Rainier (14,363 ft.), Adams (12,470 ft.) and Hood (11,225 ft.); the first three in \Vashington, the last in northern Oregon- These bear snowfields and glaciers; while the dissected highlands, with ridges of very irregular arrangement, are everywhere sculptured in a fashion that strongly suggests the work of numerous local Pleistocene glaciers as an important supplement to preglacial erosion.
Meanwhile, during the progress of the expedition, an act had been passed creating Manitoba a province, with full powers of self-government, and the arrival of the military was closely followed by that of the first governor, Mr (later Sir) Adams G.
Adams, learning that this treaty was not approved by the entire Creek nation, authorized a new one, signed at Washington in 1826, by which the treaty of 1825 was abrogated and the Creeks kept certain lands W.
In reply to a communication of President Adams early in 1827 that the United States would take strong measures to enforce its policy, Governor Troup declared that he felt it his duty to resist to the utmost any military attack which the government of the United States should think proper to make, and ordered the military companies to prepare to resist " any hostile invasion of the territory of this state."
Adams treated the Cherokees with the courtesy due to a sovereign nation, and held that the United States had done all that was required to meet the obligation assumed in 1802.
See C. F Adams, Jr., "Wessagusset and Weymouth" in No.
At Buffalo in 1848 met the Free-Soil convention that nominated Martin van Buren for the presidency and Charles Francis Adams for the vice-presidency.
In 1817, at the instance of John Quincy Adams, the United States and Great Britain entered into a compact whereby the Great Lakes, and the waterways from them to the ocean by the St Lawrence river, which divide the United States from the Dominion of Canada, were practically excluded from any possible hostilities.
with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin to confer on terms of peace with Lord Howe on Staten Island in September 1776.
He graduated in 1856 at the Biblical Institute at Concord, New Hampshire (now a part of Boston University), became a minister in the Episcopal Church in 1857, and during the next three years was a rector first at North Adams, and then at Newton Lower Falls, Mass.
Under Washington he was postmaster-general (1791-1795), secretary of war (1795), and after December 1795 secretary of state, to which position he was reappointed (1797) by Adams. In 1783, while he was quartermaster-general, he had presented a plan for a military academy at West Point, and now, as secretary of war, he supervised the West Point military post with a view to its conversion into a military academy.
As head of the state department he soon came into conflict with Adams. His hatred of France made it impossible for him to sympathize with the president's efforts to settle the differences with that country on a peaceabl e basis.
Burlington's charitable institutions include the Mary Fletcher hospital, the Adams mission home, the Lousia Howard mission, the Providence orphan asylum, and homes for aged women, friendless women and destitute children.
Bayan Adams ("Princess Royal"), B under Lt.
Bryan Adams ran out along them, followed closely by the Royal Marines led by Capt.
Adams advanced towards it for some 40 yd.
Lieutenant-Commander Adams met Maj.
Adams' request for reinforcements and sent a platoon and the remains of another to help him.
Lieutenant-Commander Adams and his men were some 40 or 50 yd.
The city is the seat of Lawrence college (changed from university in 1908), an interdenominational (originally a Methodist Episcopal) co-educational institution, founded in 1847 as the Lawrence Institute of Wisconsin and named in honour of Amos Adams Lawrence (1814-1886) of Boston, son of Amos Lawrence, and giver of $io,000 for the founding of the Institute.
In the ensuing presidential election Van Buren and Adams received a popular vote of 291,263, of which 120,510 were cast in New York.
After cruising round the world (1837-1840) in the " John Adams," he was assigned to the Philadelphia Naval Asylum, and later (1846-1848) to the Boston Navy Yard.
For his scientific work see Professor Adams's address, Monthly Notices, xxxvi.
Later friendly relations between the United States and Great Britain, where, among the upper classes, there was a strong sentiment in favour of the Confederacy, were seriously threatened by the fitting out of Confederate privateers in British ports, and the Administration owed much to the skilful diplomacy of the American minister in London, Charles Francis Adams. A still broader foreign question grew out of Mexican affairs, when events culminating in the setting up of Maximilian of Austria as emperor under protection of French troops demanded the constant watchfulness of the United States.
Arnold, History of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery (Chicago, 1867), revised and enlarged as Life of Abraham Lincoln (Chicago, 1885), valuable for personal reminiscences; Gideon Welles, Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), the reply of Lincoln's secretary of the navy to Charles Francis Adams's eulogy (delivered in Albany in April 1873) on Lincoln's secretary of state, W.
Seward, in which Adams claimed that Seward was the premier of Lincoln's administration; F.
Adams's Review of Mr Ames's Works (1809), New England Patriot, being a Candid Comparison of the Principles and Conduct of the Washington and Jefferson Administrations (1810), Appeals to the People on the Causes and Consequences of War with Great Britain (1811) and Mr Madison's War (1812).
Adams, Village Communities of Cape Ann and Salem (Baltimore, 1883); Eleanor Putnam (the pen-name of Mrs Arlo Bates), Old Salem (Boston, 1886); C. H.
Adams (1905), all three published in America.
In 1828 he was induced to establish the Journal of the Times at Bennington, Vermont, to support the re-election of John Quincy Adams to the presidency of the United States.
Abu Gemaiza attacked a portion of Osman Adams force, under Abd-elKader, at Kebkebia, 30 m.
After the organization of the Federal government, President Washington offered him at different times appointments as associate justice of the Supreme Court (1791), secretary of war (1795) and secretary the document sent by Pinckney to Adams in 1818 is a genuine copy of his original plan.
Gratz Brown governor; and in 1872 he presided over the Liberal Republican convention which nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency (Schurz's own choice was Charles Francis Adams or Lyman Trumbull) and which did not in its platform represent Schurz's views on the tariff, but Greeley's.
Three other candidates, however, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay, were otherwise put in the field.
During the campaign Crawford was stricken with paralysis, and when the electoral vote was cast Jackson received 99, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37.
It remained for the house of representatives to choose from Jackson, Adams and Crawford, and through Clay's influence Adams became president.
Crawford was invited by Adams to continue as secretary of the treasury, but declined.
Consequently, although a skilful political organizer, he incurred the bitter enmity of other leaders of his time - Jackson, Adams and Calhoun.
SUSAN BROWNELL ANTHONY (1820-1906), American reformer, was born at Adams, Massachusetts, on the 15th of February 1820, the daughter of Quakers.
In 1842 he was admitted to the bar and began the practice of law at North Adams, where for a time he conducted The Transcript.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1767-1848), eldest son of President John Adams, sixth president of the United States, was born on the 11th of July 1767, in that part of Braintree that is now Quincy, Massachusetts, and was named after John Quincy (1689-1767), his mother's grandfather, who was for many years a prominent member of the Massachusetts legislature.
In 1778, and again in 1780, young Adams accompanied his father to Europe; studying in Paris in1778-1779and at the university of Leiden in 1780.
In 1781, at the age of fourteen, he accompanied Francis Dana (1743-1811), American envoy to Russia, as his private secretary; but Dana was not received by the Russian government, and in 1782 Adams joined his father at Paris, where he acted as "additional secretary" to the American commissioners in the negotiation of the treaty of peace which concluded the War of American Independence.
In 1796 Washington appointed him minister to Portugal, but before his departure thither his father John Adams became president and changed his destination to Berlin (1797).
On Thomas Jefferson's election to the presidency in 1800, the elder Adams recalled his son, who returned home in 1801.
Up to this time, John Quincy Adams was regarded as belonging to the Federalist party, but he now found its general policy displeasing to him, was frowned upon, as the son of his father, by the followers of Alexander Hamilton, and found himself nearly powerless as an unpopular member of an unpopular minority.
The support of a measure so unpopular in New England caused him to be hated by the Federalists there and cost him his seat in the Senate; his successor was chosen on the 3rd of June 1808, several months before the usual time of filling the vacancy, and five days later Adams resigned.
From 1806 to 1809 Adams was professor of rhetoric and oratory at Harvard.
In 1809 President Madison sent Adams to Russia to represent the United States.
Adams therefore met with a favourable reception and a disposition to further the interests of American commerce in every possible way.
Madison precipitately accepted this proposition and sent Albert Gallatin and James Bayard to act as commissioners with Mr Adams; but England would have nothing to do with it.
After this Adams visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of Napoleon from Elba, and then went to London, where, with Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin, he negotiated (1815) a "Convention to Regulate Commerce and Navigation."
Soon afterwards he became U.S. minister to Great Britain, as his father had been before him, and as his son, Charles Francis Adams, was after him.
As secretary of state, Adams played the leading part in two most important episodes, - the acquisition of Florida and the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine.
In 1819, after long negotiations, Adams succeeded in bringing the Spanish minister to the point of signing a treaty in which the Spaniards abandoned all claims to territory east of the Mississippi, and the United States relinquished all claim to what is now known as Texas.
Before the Spanish government ratified the treaty in 1820, Mexico, including Texas, had thrown off allegiance to the mother country, and the United States had occupied Florida by force of arms. The Monroe Doctrine (q.v.) rightly bears the name of the president who in 1823 assumed the responsibility for its promulgation; but it was primarily the work of John Quincy Adams. The eight years of Monroe's presidency (1817-1825) are known as the "Era of Good Feeling."
As his second term drew to a close, there was a great lack of good feeling among his official advisers, three of whom - Adams, secretary of state, Calhoun, secretary of war, and Crawford, secretary of the treasury - aspired to succeed him in his high office.
Of the other four, Jackson received 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37; as no one had a majority, the decision was made by the House of Representatives, which was confined in its choice to the three candidates who had received the largest.
Clay, who was speaker of the House of Representatives, and had for years assumed a censorious attitude toward Jackson, cast his influence for Adams and thereby secured his election on the first ballot.
A few days later Adams offered Clay the secretaryship of state, which was accepted.
The wholly unjust and baseless charge of "bargain and corruption" followed, and the feud thus created between Adams and.
Up to this point Adams's career had been almost uniformly successful, but his presidency (1825-1829) was in most respects a failure, owing to the virulent opposition of the Jacksonians; in 1828 Jackson was elected president over Adams. It was during his administration that irreconcilable differences developed between the followers of Adams and the followers of Jackson, the former becoming known as the National Republicans,.
In 1829 Adams retired to private life in the town of Quincy; but only for a brief period, for in 1830, largely by Anti-Masonic. votes, he was elected a member of the national House of Representatives.
On its being suggested to him that his acceptance of this position would degrade an ex-president, Adams replied that no person could be degraded by serving the people as a representative in congress or, he added, as a selectman of his town.
These petitions were generally sent to Adams for presentation.
Adams contended that these "Gag Rules" were a direct violation of the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and refused to be silenced on the question, fighting for repeal with indomitable courage, in spite of the bitter denunciation of his opponents.
Each year the number of anti-slavery petitions received and presented by him increased; perhaps the climax was in 1837, when Adams presented a petition from twenty-two slaves, and, when threatened by his opponents with censure, defended himself with remarkable keenness and ability.
Few men in American public life have possessed more intrinsic worth, more independence, more public spirit and more ability than Adams, but throughout his political career he was handicapped by a certain reserve, a certain austerity and coolness of manner, and by his consequent inability to appeal to the imaginations and affections of the people as a whole.
Morse, John Quincy Adams (Boston, 1883; new edition, 1899); Josiah Quincy, Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams (Boston, 1858); C. F.
Adams (ed.), Memoirs of John Q uincy Adams, comprising portions of his diary from 1795 to 1848 (12 vols., Philadelphia, 1874-1877).
Samuel Adams >>
He has been described by the historian Henry Adams, writing of the Chase trial, as at that time the "most formidable of American advocates."
HERBERT BAXTER ADAMS (1850-1901), American historian and educationalist, was born at Shutesbury (near Amherst), Massachusetts, on the 16th of April 1850.
It was as a teacher, however, that Adams rendered his most valuable services, and many American historical scholars owe their training and to a considerable extent their enthusiasm to him.
Adams: Tributes of Friends (Baltimore, 1902), extra volume (xxiii.) of "Studies in Historical and Political Science."
John Adams >>
The village of Bennington is served by the Rutland railway, and is connected by electric railway with North Adams and Pittsfield, Mass., and Hoosick Falls, N.Y.
Another visionary American colony, led by a certain Adams, came in 1866.
From 1784 to 1789 Jefferson was in France, first under an appointment to assist Benjamin Franklin and John Adams in negotiating treaties of commerce with European states, and then as Franklin's successor (1785-1789) as minister to France.
In the presidential election of 1796 John Adams, the Federalist candidate, received the largest number of electoral votes, and Jefferson, the Republican candidate, the next largest number, and under the law as it then existed the former became president and the latter vice-president.
Moreover, Jefferson's ideals were high; his reasons for changes were in general excellent; he at least so far resisted the great pressure for office - producing by his resistance dissatisfaction within his party - as not to have lowered, apparently, the personnel of the service; and there were no such blots on his administration as President Adams's "midnight judges."
He died on the 4th of July 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, on the same day as John Adams. He chose for his tomb the epitaph: "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and father of the university of Virginia."
See also Henry Adams, History of the United States 1801-1817, vols.
Adams, Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia (U.
His trained regiments were defeated in two pitched battles by Major Adams, at Gheria and at Udha-nala, and he himself took refuge with the nawab wazir of Oudh, who refused to deliver him up. This led to a prolongation of the war.
Cooke & Sons of York, has been employed by Franklin Adams for making his maps of the sky.
In 1781 Jay was commissioned to act with Franklin, John Adams, Jefferson and Henry Laurens in negotiating a peace with Great Britain.
He arrived in Paris on the 23rd of June 1782, and jointly with Franklin had proceeded far with the negotiations when Adams arrived late in October.
Thereupon Washington, fearing that war might result, appointed Jay minister extraordinary to Great Britain to negotiate a new treaty, and the Senate confirmed the appointment by a vote of 18 to 8, although the non-intercourse resolution which came from the house a few days later was defeated in the senate only by the casting vote of Vice-President John Adams. Jay landed a Falmouth in June 1794, signed a treaty with Lord Grenville on the 19th of November, and disembarked again at New York on the 28th of May 1795.
In politics he was throughout inclined toward Conservatism, and after the rise of parties under the federal government he stood with Alexander Hamilton and John Adams as one of the foremost leaders of the Federalist party, as opposed to the Republicans or Democratic-Republicans.
From this, as from previous troubles, John Quincy Adams, then secretary of state, extricated him.
The rival candidates for the office of president in the campaign of 1824 were Jackson, John Quincy Adams, W.
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