How to use Action in a sentence
This book is a call to action, not complacency.
She turned away, embarrassed by the rush of excitement the action had triggered.
He slapped the team into action and they headed for town at a more leisurely pace.
Maybe now Youngblood would stay out of the news and Howie would back off insisting we take action to stop him.
The friendly action was the beginning of a strong relationship between my two favorite women.Advertisement
I define wisdom as deriving a course of action from applying a value system to a situation.
Two childish voices laughed merrily at this action, and Dorothy was sure they were in no danger among such light-hearted folks, even if those folks couldn't be seen.
Coming out onto a field under the enemy's fire, this brave general went straight ahead, leading his men under fire, without considering in his agitation whether going into action now, with a single division, would be of any use or no.
She froze, surprised by his action as well as the warm shock running through her.
A world where political action was represented in such guise was ripe for overthrow, or could only be saved by a great mental reformation."Advertisement
He asked me to indicate as far as I could the gestures and action that should go with the lines.
The wing housed an indoor basketball court, indoor pool, a small game room, and a huge theatre room where music blared from some action movie.
Action from principle--the perception and the performance of right--changes things and relations; it is essentially revolutionary, and does not consist wholly with anything which was.
Only unconscious action bears fruit, and he who plays a part in an historic event never understands its significance.
There is but little virtue in the action of masses of men.Advertisement
Think of a recluse who finds herself in possession of a marvelous gift, through no action on her part.
She couldn't yet determine if the action were pure chauvinism or old-fashioned civility.
Now it was time for action.
Of course, I have no sense whatever of dramatic action, and could make only random guesses; but with masterful art he suited the action to the word.
My frustration forced action of some sort so I picked up the phone and dialed Howie and Julie's room at the Four Seasons in Santa Barbara.Advertisement
A war which became general, as any limited action might, would only result in the virtual destruction of mankind.
On the field between Borodino and the fleches, beside the wood, the chief action of the day took place on an open space visible from both sides and was fought in the simplest and most artless way.
It was a step characteristic of his love for extreme and dramatic action, but it added to the dissensions between him and those who wished only for autonomy under the old dynasty, and his enemies did not scruple to accuse him of aiming at the crown himself.
I imitated this action, even wearing his spectacles, thinking they might help solve the mystery.
In actual life each historic event, each human action, is very clearly and definitely understood without any sense of contradiction, although each event presents itself as partly free and partly compulsory.Advertisement
All he knew was that at the commencement of the action balls and shells began flying all over his regiment and hitting men and that afterwards someone had shouted "Cavalry!" and our men had begun firing.
In this way the action began for the first, second, and third columns, which had gone down into the valley.
On the thirteenth of July the Pavlograds took part in a serious action for the first time.
An aide-de-camp, who had entered the bedroom to report to the Emperor the number of prisoners taken in yesterday's action, was standing by the door after delivering his message, awaiting permission to withdraw.
The chief action of the battle of Borodino was fought within the seven thousand feet between Borodino and Bagration's fleches.
Kutuzov's action decides the fate of the capital and of your empire!
He sat in the caleche, dozing and waking up by turns, and listening for any sound of firing on the right as an indication that the action had begun.
Dokhturov was unwilling to undertake any action, as it was not clear to him now what he ought to do.
The noncommissioned officers (of whom there are fewer) perform the action itself less frequently than the soldiers, but they already give commands.
The commander-in-chief never takes direct part in the action itself, but only gives general orders concerning the movement of the mass of the troops.
Is there any collective action which cannot find its justification in political unity, in patriotism, in the balance of power, or in civilization?
If in a thousand years even one man in a million could act freely, that is, as he chose, it is evident that one single free act of that man's in violation of the laws governing human action would destroy the possibility of the existence of any laws for the whole of humanity.
The proportion of freedom to inevitability decreases and increases according to the point of view from which the action is regarded, but their relation is always one of inverse proportion.
The degree of our conception of freedom or inevitability depends in this respect on the greater or lesser lapse of time between the performance of the action and our judgment of it.
My action seems to me free; but asking myself whether I could raise my arm in every direction, I see that I raised it in the direction in which there was least obstruction to that action either from things around me or from the construction of my own body.
For if I examine an action committed a second ago I must still recognize it as not being free, for it is irrevocably linked to the moment at which it was committed.
If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events.
I knew this conversation deserved more thought on my part but it felt good taking some action, even if it might prove misguided.
She stamped out her cigarette in the snow before pulling a large suitcase from the small rear seat, nearly yanking off the handle and serenading the action with a chorus of curses.
It was still early, but he would hang back for a bit and check things out thoroughly before going into action.
The concerned look on Randy Byrne's face told Dean that Cynthia's action, while not of itself so unusual, was totally out of character for the boy's mother.
Jenn launched into action.
Before she could fully comprehend the action, he casually straightened and stretched.
His account of the notion of external existence, as derived, not from pure sensation, but from the experience of action on the one hand and resistance on the other, may be compared with the account of Bain and later psychologists.
These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.
He's definitely cranking up his action.
The way to end war is not to set up some big world government or eliminate nation-states, which will always retain the right to take unilateral military action to defend themselves.
In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
The former slackness which had shown itself even in his eyes was now replaced by an energetic readiness for action and resistance.
Restoring the essential condition of relation between those who command and those who execute, we find that by the very nature of the case those who command take the smallest part in the action itself and that their activity is exclusively directed to commanding.
And so the conception of the action of a man subject solely to the law of inevitability without any element of freedom is just as impossible as the conception of a man's completely free action.
I considered using the tools available as weapons but dismissed the action as folly.
He did not, however, in any way change either his opinions or his action.
Varley, who proposed to make use of it in a telegraphic receiving instrument.4 In Dolbear's instrument one plate of a condenser was a flexible diaphragm, connected with the telephone line in such a way that the varying electric potential produced by the action of the transmitting telephone caused an increased or diminished charge in the condenser.
The plaintiffs in each case were imperialists; and Fredericks first action was to redress their supposed grievances.
At the end of this century and a half, five principal powers divided the peninsula; and their confederated action during the next forty-five years (1447-1492) secured for Italy a season of peace and brilliant pro,sperity.
Here again he cited the action of Charlemagne, his august predecessor, who had merely given certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire.
As most of these credits were spread over a series of years, succeeding administrations found their financial liberty of action destroyed, and were obliged to cover deficit by constant issues of consolidated stock.
The direct action of changed conditions leads to definite or indefinite results.
The coup d'etat was favourable to Bonaparte; it ensured his hold over the Directors and enabled him to impose his own terms of peace on Austria; above all it left him free for the prosecution of his designs in a field of action which now held the first place in his thoughts - the Orient.
Stung to action by some words of Sieyes, Bonaparte appealed to the troops of the line in terms which provoked a ready response.
Bonaparte's powers were subsequently extended in the years 1802, 1804 and 1807; but it is clear that autocracy was practically established by his own action in the secret commission of 1799.
Bonaparte's action in this matter was so characteristic as to deserve close attention.
Bonaparte's action in the years1800-1802showed that he feared the old republican party far more than the royalists.
The autocrat felt cramped and chafed on all sides by the necessity of posing as a constitutional sovereign; and, while losing something of the old rigidity, he lost very much of the old energy, both in thought and action.
In the ordinary course the fleet would have been demobilized at the close of the week; but with the outlook so disturbed, the First Lord and the First Sea Lord (Prince Louis of Battenberg, afterwards Lord Milford Haven) took the responsibility of keeping it on a war footing, ready for action.
Sturdee, off the Falkland Islands, of the German squadron which had defeated Cradock, and by a successful action under Adml.
He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).
The remaining six, when, where, action, passion, position and habit, are relative and subordinate (formae assistentes).
Acids have practically no action on the metal, but it is soluble in solutions of the alkaline hypochlorites.
Ah well, I'll show that in action, and for me the honor of the flag...
We're going into action, gentlemen!
Prince Andrew, being always near the commander in chief, closely following the mass movements and general orders, and constantly studying historical accounts of battles, involuntarily pictured to himself the course of events in the forthcoming action in broad outline.
Bolkonski took the opportunity to go in to get some details of the coming action from Dolgorukov.
Five years have passed since then, and already I, with my petty understanding, begin to see clearly why she had to die, and in what way that death was but an expression of the infinite goodness of the Creator, whose every action, though generally incomprehensible to us, is but a manifestation of His infinite love for His creatures.
Our advanced line, already in action, could be heard briskly exchanging shots with the enemy in the dale.
Pierre felt himself to be an insignificant chip fallen among the wheels of a machine whose action he did not understand but which was working well.
The battle of Tarutino obviously did not attain the aim Toll had in view--to lead the troops into action in the order prescribed by the dispositions; nor that which Count Orlov-Denisov may have had in view-- to take Murat prisoner; nor the result of immediately destroying the whole corps, which Bennigsen and others may have had in view; nor the aim of the officer who wished to go into action to distinguish himself; nor that of the Cossack who wanted more booty than he got, and so on.
It is natural for a man who does not understand the workings of a machine to imagine that a shaving that has fallen into it by chance and is interfering with its action and tossing about in it is its most important part.
One of the most obvious and advantageous departures from the so-called laws of war is the action of scattered groups against men pressed together in a mass.
Such action always occurs in wars that take on a national character.
This procrastinator Kutuzov, whose motto was "Patience and Time," this enemy of decisive action, gave battle at Borodino, investing the preparations for it with unparalleled solemnity.
He felt that there was now a judge of his every word and action whose judgment mattered more to him than that of all the rest of the world.
What I say is widen the scope of our society, let the mot d'ordre be not virtue alone but independence and action as well!
For common action people always unite in certain combinations, in which regardless of the difference of the aims set for the common action, the relation between those taking part in it is always the same.
Men uniting in these combinations always assume such relations toward one another that the larger number take a more direct share, and the smaller number a less direct share, in the collective action for which they have combined.
Our conception of the degree of freedom often varies according to differences in the point of view from which we regard the event, but every human action appears to us as a certain combination of freedom and inevitability.
Similarly a man who committed a murder twenty years ago and has since lived peaceably and harmlessly in society seems less guilty and his action more due to the law of inevitability, to someone who considers his action after twenty years have elapsed than to one who examined it the day after it was committed.
If we consider a man alone, apart from his relation to everything around him, each action of his seems to us free.
If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.
For my action to be free it was necessary that it should encounter no obstacles.
Hopefully the fact that help was on the way would make him reconsider any violent action.
The mule lurched forward and the others followed, jerking the wagon into action.
The first time I was eight or nine and my action earned me a cracked lip.
Alice Burton tearfully thanked the authorities for their prompt action.
It was unclear if this action was prompted by Patsy Boyd herself or just some do-gooder trying to clear her desk of problems.
His quiet power was underwhelming, until one saw him in action.
Finally something clicked inside of her, forcing her into action.
Until he does something to warrant police action, I'd say he has every right to stay.
The ever-present list and pencil were poised on the kitchen counter, as if ready for action.
Unless they arrest me, I'm still in Bird Song, and that's where all the action is right at the moment.
Actually, I was looking forward to seeing you in action.
Connor still held the camera, recording the action.
Vinnie started a lot of action.
He slid in behind another biker and followed the crouched figure evenly, absentmindedly matching the rider stride for stride for several miles as he pondered his course of action.
He made mistakes, but he was willing to take ownership and responsible enough to take corrective action.
She didn't think he was celebrity material before seeing him in action.
Traube (1858), the active cause of fermentation is due to the action of different enzymes contained in yeast and not to the yeast cell itself.
In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.
Certain yeasts exercise a reducing action, forming sulphuretted hydrogen, when sulphur is present.
Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind action heaping water up against the land; but these nowhere rise to the dignity of a distinct current system, although they are often sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action characteristic of the Mediterranean.
By the action of phosphorus pentachloride, the hydroxyl group is replaced by chlorine.
In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
The last straw that determined action was the discovery of a paper docketed " Not to be opened till after my death," which was nothing but a railing accusation against herself.
She wrote a la diable, starting with some central thesis to set forth or some problem to investigate, but with no predetermined plot or plan of action.
The fundamental conception that underlay all Berthelot's chemical work was that all chemical phenomena depend on the action of physical forces which can be determined and measured.
The action of the collector is.
The Elster and Geitel apparatus is furnished with a cover, serving to protect the dissipator from the direct action of rain, wind or sunlight.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
Lava streams and other signs of volcanic action abound, but there has been no igneous activity since the Spaniards took possession.
When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.
He signed a blank treaty of peace with the Mahrattas, who were still in arms, reversed the action of the Madras government towards the nizam, and concentrated all the resources of Bengal against Hyder Ali.
In the language of the Christian Church the word " infallibility " is used in a more absolute sense, as the freedom from all possibility of error guaranteed by the direct action of the Spirit of God.
To the translation and interpretation of the Scriptures men might bring a fallible judgment, but this would be assisted by the direct action of the Spirit of God in proportion to their faith.
In accordance with his former action on all questions of religious toleration he opposed the shameful Five Mile Act of 1665.
His action led to an altercation with Ossory, the son of Ormonde, in which Ossory used language for which he was compelled to apologize.
The Convention refused, and the anti-revolutionary party, encouraged by this refusal, took action.
He accordingly declined to take any action, meanwhile indicating the direction of his sympathies by making Mortara his ward.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
Distraint on a debtor's corn was forbidden by the Code; not only must the creditor give it back, but his illegal action forfeited his claim altogether.
The apparatus for generating the electric action at one end is commonly called the transmitting apparatus or instrument, or the sending apparatus or instrument, or sometimes simply the transmitter or sender.
In this case no current flows from the battery through the line or instruments, the whole action being inductive.
For simplicity we will suppose direct action.
This allowed a shorter train and stronger wheelwork to be used, securing more certain action, and involving less risk of derangement.
These coils are drawn down, by the magnetic action of the field on the currents in the coils, into the annular spaces, against the pull of the springs, more or less strongly, according to the strengths of the two line currents.
When there is no current the shutter covers the perforations and no light passes, but when a current traverses the wires they are depressed by electromagnetic action, carrying the shutter with them, and a quantity of light proportional to the current strength is admitted through the perforations.
To eliminate the sluggish action of the selenium transmitter a selenium cell similar to that at the transmitting station is arranged at the receiving apparatus, and exposed to precisely similar variations of light, the arrangement being such that the lag of this cell counteracts the lag of the transmitting cell.
Its action was as follows.
Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.
The action of this bridge resembles the magnetic shunt in its effect on the received signals, as the direction of the winding is the same throughout its length, and thus the full inductive action is produced for curbing purposes.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
The difficulty of connecting lightships and isolated lighthouses to the mainland by submarine cables, owing to the destructive action of the tides and waves on rocky coasts on the wll- shore ends, led many inventors to look for a way out of the difficulty by the adoption of some form of inductive Smith.
Owing to the rough seas sweeping over the Fastnet, the conditions are such that any ordinary submarine cable would be broken by the wearing action of the waves at the rock boundary in a very short time.
Hence, when the coil at one fixed station was in action it generated high frequency alternating currents, which were propagated across the air gap between the ordinary telegraph wires and the metallic surfaces attached to one secondary terminal of the induction coil, and conveyed along the ordinary telegraph wires between station and moving train.
The peculiar action of electric sparks and waves in reducing the resistance of discontinuous conductors was rediscovered and investigated by Calzecchi Onesti,' by Branly, 2 Dawson Turner, 3 Minchin, Lodge, 4 and many others.
Lodge particularly studied the action of electric waves in reducing the resistance of the contact between two metallic surfaces such as a plate and a point, or two balls, and named the device a coherer."
But, as Branly showed, it is not universally true that the action of an electric wave is to reduce the resistance of a tube of powdered metal or cause the particles to cohere.
This receiving apparatus, with the exception of the Morse printer, was contained in a sheet-iron box, so as to exclude it from the action of the sparks of the neighbouring transmitter.
Marconi exhibited in October 1900 this apparatus in action, and showed that two or more receivers of different tunes could be connected to the same antenna and made to respond separately and simultaneously to the action of separate but tuned transmitters.
Experiments bearing on this subject were subsequently made by a great number of investigators.4 Page's discovery is of considerable importance in connexion with the theory of action of various forms of telephone, and was a very important feature in the early attempts by Reis to transit music and speech.
In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
Each of the subscribers controls a signal at A, and when either or both of the telephones are replaced, the action is indicated by the lamps there.
The idea of automatic telephony is to substitute for the operator of the manual exchange an electromechanical or other switching system, which, controlled in its movement by the action of the subscriber, will automatically select, connect and disconnect circuits as desired.
The movements of the shaft are controlled by relays and electro-magnets which operate in response to the action of the subscriber whose telephone is fitted with a 'calling mechanism which, when the subscriber calls, earths the line a certain number of times for each figure in the number of the wanted subscriber.
Though naturally passionate, Matthias's self-control was almost superhuman, and throughout his stormy life, with his innumerable experiences of ingratitude and treachery, he never was guilty of a single cruel or vindictive action.
On more than one occasion Bismarck had maintained direct relations with the chiefs of the Left, and had in I87o worked to prevent a FrancoItalian alliance by encouraging the party of action to press for the occupation of Rome.
Formerly a friend and disciple of Mazzini, with whom he had broken on the question of the monarchical form of government which Crispi believed indispensable to the unification of Italy, he had afterwards been one of Garibaldis most efficient coadjutors and an active member of the party of action.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
Again speaking in the Chamber, Mancini claimed for Italy the principal merit in the conclusion of the triple alliance, but declared that the alliance left Italy full liberty of action.
This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
Italian action was hastened by news that, in December 1884, an exploring party under Signor Bianchi, royal commissioner for Assab, had been massacred in the Aussa (Danakil) country, an event which aroused in Italy a desire to punish the assassins and to obtain satisfaction for the still unpunished massacre of Signor Giulietti and his companions.
General Orero, successor of Baldissera, pushed offensive action more vigorously, and on the 26th of January 1890 entered Adowa, a city considerably to the south of the Marchan imprudent step which aroused Meneleks suspicions, and had hurriedly to be retraced.
On the 11th of May 1893 he denounced the treaty of Uccialli, but the Giolitti cabillet, absorbed by the bank scandals, paid no heed to his action.
The Italians, including camp-followers, numbered less than 25,000 men, a force too small for effective action, but too large to be easily provisioned at 200 m.
Marching rapidly, however, Albertone outdistanced the other columns, but, in consequence of allowing his men an hours rest, arrived upon the scene of action when the Abyssinians, whom it had been hoped to surprise at dawn, were ready to receive the attack.
On the 17th of April a general railway strike was ordered by the union, but owing to the action of the authorities, who for once showed energy, the traffic was carried on, Other disturbances of a serious character occurred among the steelworkers of Terni, at Grammichele in Sicily and at Alessandria.
The extreme parties now began to direct especial attention to propaganda in the army, with a view to destroying its cohesion and thus paralysing the action of the government.
In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, which was rendered more serious on account of the action of the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the ringleaders from the service.
Loubet, the French president, came to Rome; this action was strongly resented by the pope, who, like his predecessor since 1870, objected to the presence of foreign Catholic rulers in Rome, and led to the final rupture between France and the Vatican.
In one subdivision of the leeches, the Gnathobdellidae, the mouth has three chitinous jaws which produce a triangular bite, though the action has been described as like that of a circular saw.
He opposed the prosecution of Sir John Fenwick, but supported the action taken by members of both Houses in defence of William's rights in the same year.
Reciprocal action is explained away into a " preestablished harmony " between every monad and all others.
Of the dry antiseptics iodoform is constantly used in septic or tuberculous wounds, and it appears to have an inhibitory action on Bacillus tuberculosis.
The sense is largely eked out by manner and action.
This, he says, must not be conceived as resulting from the action of external causes, but is due to a natural disposition (Anlage).
The process is essentially a polar linear action, or differentiation from a common centre.
Lamarck introduced the conception of the action of an animal on itself as a factor in producing modification.
Dilapidations are now not made matters of suit before the court, but of administrative action by the bishop.
Inasmuch as its action changed very materially with age, " the buyer should in all instances be informed, so that he may not be deceived."
The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it.
Multitudes of such hairs on the branches of the roots cause the entry of great quantities of water, which by a subsequent similar osmotic action accumulates in the cortex of the roots.
Though this at first met with some acceptance, Strasburger showed that the action goes on in great lengths of stem the cells of which have been killed by poison or by the action of heat.
More recently, Dixon and Joly in Dublin and Askenasy in Germany have suggested the action of another force.
This action is found to take place only in the presence of light, preferably moderate sunlight.
It is not certain either whether the action of the chlorophyll apparatus is confined to the manufacture of carbohydrates or whether it is concerned, and if so how far, with the construction of proteids also.
As the action of the chlorophyll apparatus is directly dependent upon light, and the immediate result of its activity is the building up of complex compounds, it has become usual to speak of the processes it sets up under the name of photosynthesis.
If formed, as it probably is, it is immediately changed into some more complex combination, and so rendered incapable of exerting its poisonous action.
More emphasis is, however, now laid on the action of the plastid in polymerization, while the initial stages are still not definitely ezplaincd.
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
It splits it into a fatty acid and glycerine, but seems to have no further action.
In many cases the digestion of reserve food materials is effected by the direct action of the protoplasm, without the intervention of enzymes.
The protoplasm is sensitive to particular influences, perhaps of vibraticn, or of contact or of chemical action.
The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
Parasitic Fungi may be, as regards their direct action, purely locale.g.
In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Brilliantly colored spots and patches follow the action of acid fumes on the vegetation near towns and factories, and such particoloured leaves often present striking resemblance to autumn foliage.
Frost blisters are pustular swellings due to the up-growth of callus-tissue into cavities caused by the uprising of the superficial cortex under the action of intense cold.
Some wound in the succulent tissues has become infected by the organisms referred to, and their continued action prevents healing.
Outflows of resinResinosisalro come under this general heading; but although some resin-fluxes are traced to the destructive action of Agaricus melleus in Conifers, others, as well as certain forms of Gummosis, are still in need of explanation.
In many cases, however, monstrosities of flowers have been shown to be due to the irritating action of minute insects or Fungi, and others are known which, although induced by causes unknown to us, and regarded as internal, would not be likely to survive in the wild condition.
Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.
When the nature and effect of ecological factors have become more fully understood, it will be possible to dispense with the above artificial classification of factors, and to frame one depending on the action of the various factors; but such a classification is not possible in the present state of knowledge.
Obviously no more than this is possible until physiologists are able to state much more precisely than at present what is the influence of common salt on the plants of salt-marshes, of the action of calcium carbonate on plants of calcareous soils, and of the action of humous compounds on plants of fens and peat moors.
On the other hand, some plants did not respond to the action of common salt, whilst others were killed.
Schimper had previously maintained that the action of common salt in the cell-sap is detrimental as regards assimilation.
Darwins expression the nature of the organism has been interpreted in the preceding paragraph to mean an inherent tendency towards higher organization; that interpretation may now be completed by adding that the organism is susceptible to, and can respond to, the action of external conditions.
The definite results of the action of external conditions have still to be considered.
In endeavouring to trace the causation of adaptation, it is obvious that it must be due quite as much to properties inherent in the plant as to the action of external conditions; the plant must possess adaptive capacity.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
A transformation which is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow, but always continuous, is wrought by the reciprocal action of the innate variability of plants and of the variability of the external factors.
The action of the society in supplying practical instruction to intending travellers, in astronomy, surveying and the various branches of science useful to collectors, has had much to do with advancement of discovery.
It is usual to distinguish between the general coast-line measured from point to point of the headlands disregarding the smaller bays, and the detailed coast-line which takes account of every inflection shown by the map employed, and follows up river entrances to the point where tidal action ceases.
The dominant forms result from crustal movements, the subsidiary from secondary reactions o during the action of the primitive forms on mobile distri butions.
By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
It is, however, not the action of the running water on the land, but the function exercised by the land on the running water, that is considered here to be the special province of geography.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.
His first action was to besiege Ptolemais.
Their action is intelligible enough.
But with the decline of Venice the trade of the port fell off; the mouth of the Lido entrance became gradually silted up owing to the joint action of the tide and the current, and for many years complete stagnation characterized the port.
Venice made this action a casus belli.
In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.
In a great meeting at Cologne in March 1887 he defended and justified his action, and claimed for the Centre full independence of action in all purely political questions.
In the social reform he supported Bismarck, and as the undisputed leader of the largest party in the Reichstag he was able to exercise influence over the action of the government after Bismarck's retirement.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
Though pre-eminently a man of action, Boniface has left several literary remains.
His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood.
His sphere of action, however, was not in parliament.
His action, however, in the event, diminished rather than increased his chances of success, owing to the distrust of his intentions which it inspired.
Far in advance of his contemporaries on this question, whenever his personal action is don.
It has been said that his battles were decided by shock action; the real emphasis should be laid upon the word "decided."
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
With this " free " wave is combined a " forced " wave, generated, by the direct action of the sun and moon, within the Atlantic area itself.
Tone, who was on board the "Hoche," refused Bompard's offer of escape in a frigate before the action, and was taken prisoner when the "Hoche" was forced to surrender.
When a debtor tenders the amount due to his creditor and the creditor refuses to accept, the debt is not discharged, but if the debtor is subsequently sued for the debt and continues willing and ready to pay, and pays the amount tendered into court, he can recover his costs in the action.
By the action of dehydrating agents they are converted into aldehydes or ketones.
Rumford was engaged in superintending the boring of cannon in the military arsenal at Munich, and was struck by the amount of heat produced by the action of the boring bar upon the brass castings.
In order to be sure that the heat was not due to the action of the air upon the newly exposed metallic surface, the cylinder and the end of the boring bar were immersed in 18-77 lb.
The hydraulic crane is rapid in action, very smooth and silent in working, easy to handle, and not excessive in cost or upkeep, - advantages which have secured its adoption in every part of the world.
While the tendency is for the living forms to come into harmony with their environment and to approach the state of equilibriumby successive adjustments if the environment should happen to change, it is to be observed that the action of organisms themselves often tends to change their organisms environment.
On the seashore fishing naturally became a means of livelihood, and dwellers by the sea, in virtue of the dangers to which they are exposed from storm and unseaworthy craft, are stimulated to a higher degree of foresight, quicker observation, prompter decision and more energetic action in emergencies than those who live inland.
P. Marsh in Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as modified by Human Action (London, 1864).
O CH 3, is prepared either by the above method or by the action of diazomethane on phenol, C6HSOH+CH2N2=N2+C6H5.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
Nitro-phenols are readily obtained by the action of nitric acid on phenol.
By the action of dilute nitric acid; orthoand para-nitrophenols are obtained, the ortho-compound being separated from the para-compound by distillation in a current of steam.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
Carbolic acid is distinguished from all other acids so-called - except oxalic acid and hydrocyanic acid - in that it is a neurotic poison, having a marked action directly upon the nervous system.
Though this action doubtless contributes to its remarkable therapeutic power, it is very far from being an adequate explanation of the virtues of the drug in gout.
This is accelerated by a marked depressant action upon the heart, similar to that produced by veratrine and aconite.
In more primitive ritual, however, set forms of prayer are the rule, and their function is mainly to accompany and support a ceremony the nerve of which consists in action rather than speech.
Figures slim, muscular and bony, action impetuous but of arrested energy, tawny landscape, gritty with littering pebbles, mark the athletic hauteur of his style.
Being ordered to co-operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in seventeen days, occupied Wilmington on the 22nd of February 1865, fought the action at Kinston on the 8 - 10th of March, and on the 23rd joined Sherman at Goldsboro.
The Bourgeois ministry appeared to consider that popular opinion would enable them to override what they claimed to be an unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house; but the public was indifferent and the senate triumphed.
Besides contributing to the Globe newspaper, he made appeals to the people by systematic preaching, and organized centres of action in some of the principal cities of France.
Livius himself took part in his plays, and in order to spare his voice he introduced the custom of having the solos (cantica) sung by a boy, while he himself represented the action of the song by dumb show.
The addition of more acid would produce an additional supply of sulphur (by the action of the H2S203 on the dissolved H 2 S); but this thiosulphate sulphur is yellow and compact, while the polysulphide part has the desired qualities, forming an extremely fine, almost white, powder.
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.
Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.
Persulphuric anhydride, S207, is a thick viscous liquid obtained by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur trioxide and oxygen.
In 1828-1829 he fought under Wittgenstein against the Turks, won an action at Aidos, and signed the treaty of peace at Adrianople.
He is an ardent royalist in politics, and was one of the group which in 1908 founded the royalist organ L' Action Francaise.
Antisthenes adopted this principle in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing itself in the sphere of ordinary existence.
A good deal of this absence of forest is directly due to the action of man.
These stridulating organs were mentioned by C. Darwin as probable examples of the action of sexual selection; they are, however, frequently present in both sexes, and in some families also in the larvae.
That this tragedy should have been reprinted in 1714 and acted in 1745 only shows that the public, as is often the case, had an eye to the catastrophe rather than to the development of the action.
He reconciled free-will and necessity by representing the divine decree not as temporarily antecedent, but as immediately related to the action of the created will.
If by a two-thirds majority the action of a minister be arraigned, the president of the Imperial Council lays the case before the emperor, who decides.
As these independent Tatar states were always jealous of each other, and their jealousy often broke out in open hostility, it was easy to prevent any combined action on their part; and as in each khanate there were always several pretenders and contending factions, Muscovite diplomacy had little difficulty in weakening them individually and preparing for their annexation.
However, in November 1411 Henry showed that he was still capable of vigorous action by discharging the prince and his supporters.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
It was this impotence of the state commission that furnished the strongest incentive to Congressional action.
In this way smoothness of working is ensured, the cog-wheel being constantly in action with the rack.
About this time an attack upon the city was made by the Achinese fleet, under the raja of Pedir in Sumatra; and Xavier's early biographers relate a dramatic story of how he roused the governor to action.
The investigation of Carpenter on unconscious cerebration and of Faraday on unconscious muscular action showed early in the movement that it was not necessary to look outside the medium's own personality for the explanation of even intelligent communications unconsciously conveyed through table-tilting, automatic writing and trance-speaking - provided the matter communicated was not beyond the range of the medium's own knowledge or powers.
By the rain wash and wind action detritus from the mountains is carried to these valley floors, raising their level, and often burying low mountain spurs, so as to cause neighbouring valleys to coalesce.
In 1877 the American consul hoisted his country's flag, but the action was repudiated by his government, which, however, in 1878 obtained Pago Pago as a coaling station and made a trading treaty with the natives.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.
This attempt to create a new state proved abortive, however, and it was not till the mineral wealth of the Washoe Country became generally known that Congress took any action.
The results vindicated the governor's action; he obtained a majority of 114,000 votes (out of a total of 510,000).
In 1681 Anglesey wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman Catholics.
But a year later he acquiesced in the establishment of a Labour council of action, and in the threat of a general strike in case of any military or naval intervention against the Soviet Government of Russia.
His great object, as it was also the great object of Faraday, was to overturn the idea of action at a distance.
That vigorous chemical action is accompanied by a brisk evolution of heat is evident from such familiar examples as the combustion of fuel or the explosion of gunpowder.
This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
It occasionally happens that a change in dilution affects the chemical action that occurs.
Thus if concentrated instead of dilute sulphuric acid acts upon zinc, the action takes place to a great extent not according to the equation given above, but according to the equation Zn +2H 2 SO 4 = ZnS04+S02+2 H20, sulphur dioxide and water being produced instead of hydrogen.
Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.
In the older type the combustion chamber (of metal or glass) is sunk in the calorimeter proper, tubes being provided for the entrance and exit of the gaseous substances involved in the action.
In the newer type (which was first proposed by Andrews for the combustion of gases) the chemical action takes place in a completely closed combustion chamber of sufficient strength to resist the pressure generated by the sudden action, which is often of explosive violence.
To withstand the chemical action of the gases, the " calorimetric bomb " is lined either with platinum, as in Berthelot's apparatus, or with porcelain, as in Mahler's.
For ordinary combustions compressed oxygen is used, so that the combustible substance burns almost instantaneously, the action being induced by means of some electrical device which can be controlled from without the calorimeter.
With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.
Thus if we wish to ascertain the thermal effect of the action Mg+CaO =MgO+Ca, we may write, knowing the heats of formation of CaO and Mg0 to be 131000 and 146000 respectively, 0-131000 = 0-146000+x x =15000 cal.
For an account of work in this direction see Chemical Action.
Rasun and Pekah directed their blows from the north, Philistia threatened the west flank, and the Edomites who drove out the Judaeans from Elath (on the Gulf of 'Akaba) were no doubt only taking their part in the concerted action.
Continued intercourse between Egypt, Gaza and north Arabia is natural in view of the trade-routes which connected them, and on several occasions joint action on the part of Edomites (with allied tribes) and the Philistines is recorded, or may be inferred.
Whatever reforms Josiah actually accomplished, the restoration afforded the opportunity of bringing the Deuteronomic teaching into action; though it is more probable that Deuteronomy itself in the main is not much earlier than the second half of the 6th century B.C.'
But, before Vespasian took action to stop his raids, Simon had been invited to Jerusalem in the hope that he would act as a counterpoise to the tyrant John.
Cromwell, upon the inconclusive termination of the conference summoned in 1655 at Whitehall to consider the Jewish question, tacitly assented to the return of the Jews to this country, and at the restoration his action was confirmed.
Peddling had been forced on the latter by the action of the gilds which were still powerful in the 18th century on the Continent.
From time to time incidents arise which appeal to the Jewish sympathies everywhere and joint action ensues.
It is along the western side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active volcanoes) are lofty.
The line of volcanic action extends along the western side of the northern half of the chain.
The missionaries, finding their position secure, presently began to take action in political affairs, and persuaded the king to grant a constitution to the Tongans, who welcomed it with a kind of childish enthusiasm, but were far from fitted to receive it.
He followed up this action by strongly urging the Labour party to rally in Dec. 1916 to Mr. Lloyd George, and by accepting himself the position of an original member of the War Cabinet of four without portfolio.
Whereas the Hebrew verb is devoid of real tenses, and only expresses an action as completed or as in process without indicating time past, present or future, Syriac has by the help of an auxiliary verb constructed a set of tenses.
In the Crimean War Baker was present at the action of Traktir (or Tchernaya) and at the fall of Sevastopol, and in 1859 he became major in the 10th Hussars, succeeding only a year later to the command.
With this division Baker sustained the brilliant rearguard action of Tashkessan against the troops of Gourko.
This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
While yet an infant, his father was driven from his kingdom, either by a revolt of his subjects, caused by his own harshness (Lanzelet), or by the action of his enemy Claudas de la Deserte (Lancelot).
In the Perceval, Chretien's last work, he does not appear at all, and yet much of the action passes at Arthur's court.
It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
It does not evaporate or turn rancid, whilst its marked hygroscopic action ensures the moistness and softness of any surface that it covers.
Given by the mouth glycerin produces purging if large doses are administered, and has the same action if only a small quantity be introduced into the rectum.
Opposite the castle is the Dropping Well, the waters of which are impregnated with lime and have petrifying power, this action causing the curious and beautiful incrustations formed where the water falls over a slight cliff.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
He opposed the issue of paper money, supported Robert Morris's plan for a national bank, and was prominently connected with all Congressional action in regard to the peace with Great Britain.
This fruitful thought he illustrates by showing how geometry is applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrating by geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces.
Physical action is, therefore, impression, or transmission of force in lines, and must accordingly be explained geometrically.
The original King's chapel (1688, present building 1749-1754) was the first Episcopal church of Boston, which bitterly resented the action of the royal governor in 1687 in using the Old South for the services of the Church of England.
Therefore the flesh, especially of the larger kinds, is of a red colour; and the energy of their muscular action causes the temperature of their blood to be several degrees higher than in other fishes.
Properly speaking, tenancy at sufferance is not a tenancy at all, inasmuch as if the landlord acquiesces in it, it becomes a tenancy at will; and it is to be regarded merely as a legal fiction which prevented the rightful owner from treating the tenant as a trespasser until he had himself made an actual entry on or had brought an action to recover the land.