On the eastern hill of the acropolis, excavations initiated by F.
Little was known of the buildings on the Acropolis in the pre-Persian period before the great excavations of 1885-1888, which rank among the most surprising achievements of modern research.
The almost complete destruction of the buildings on the Acropolis and in the lower city, among them many temples and shrines which religious send- the walls of ment might otherwise have preserved, facilitated the Themis- realization of the magnificent architectural designs tocles .
The "Acropolis" is in some ways more remarkable than the great kraal which has just been described.
Farther west, along the north wall of the Acropolis, is the space probably occupied by the abode and playground of the Errephori.
With regard to the buildings on the east end of the Acropolis, where the present museums stand, no certainty exists; among the many statues here were those of Xanthippus, the father of Pericles, and of Anacreon.
On the inner side towards the Acropolis, this wall is faced with a portico of six Doric columns.
On the northern side Cimon completed the wall of Themistocles at both ends and added to its height; the ground behind was levelled up on this side also, the platform of the Acropolis thus receiving its present shape and dimensions.
There are three distinct though connected groups of ruins at Zimbabwe, which are commonly known as the "Elliptical Temple," the "Acropolis" and the "Valley Ruins."
The name is especially given to the great entrance hall of the Acropolis at Athens, which was begun in 437 B.C. by Pericles, to take the place of an earlier gateway.
The Acropolis had been dismantled as a fortress after the expulsion of Hippias; its defenders against the Persians found it necessary to erect a wooden barricade at its entrance.
To this enlarged city was applied, probably about the second half of the 6th century, the special designation To ceITV, which afterwards distinguished Athens from its port, the Peiraeus; the Acropolis was already 17 7roAts (Thucyd.
On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.
With this force he proceeded to make himself master of the Acropolis and tyrant of Athens.
Such in fact have been brought to light by the modern excavations on the Acropolis (1885-1889).
A few traces of the ancient acropolis and theatre are still visible.
The distance from the Acropolis to the nearest point of the sea coast at Phalerum is a little over 3 m.
In 1896 excavations with the object of exploring the whole northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis were begun by Kavvadias.
If Plutarch tells us that he superintended the great works of Pericles on the Acropolis, this phrase is very vague.
Curtius places the original Prytaneum south of the Acropolis in the Old Agora, speaks of a second identical with the Tholos in the Cerameicus, and regards that of Pausanius as a building of Roman times (Stadtgeschichte, p. 302).
According to DBrpfeld, this was the " old temple " of Athena Polias, frequently mentioned in literature and inscriptions, in which was housed the most holy image (oavov) of the goddess which fell from heaven; it was burnt, but not completely destroyed, during the Persian War, and some of its external decorations were afterwards built into the north wall of the Acropolis; it was subsequently restored, he thinks, with or without its colonnade - in the former case a portion of the peristyle must have been removed when the Erechtheum was built so as to make room for the porch of the maidens; the building was set on fire in 406 B.C. (Xen.
The Pelasgic wall enclosed the spring Clepsydra, beneath the north-western corner of the Acropolis, which furnished a watersupply to the defenders of the fortress.
Frazer maintains the hitherto current theory that the earlier temple of Athena and Erechtheus was on the site of the Erechtheum; that the Erechtheum inherited the name apXa ios veclis from its predecessor, and that the " opisthodomos " in which the treasures were kept was the west chamber of the Parthenon; Furtwangler and Milchh6fer hold the strange view that the " opisthodomos " was a separate building at the east end of the Acropolis, while Penrose thinks the building discovered by Dorpfeld was possibly the Cecropeum.
The earliest settlement on the Acropolis was doubtless soon increased by groups of dwellings at its base, inhabited by the dependents of the princes who ruled in the stronghold.
3 In 408 Hermocrates, returning from exile, occupied Selinus and rebuilt the walls; and it is to him that the fine fort on the neck of the acropolis must be attributed.
The district thus occupied sloped towards the sun and was sheltered by the Acropolis from the prevailing northerly winds.
Of these a portion may probably be attributed to the Peisistratids, in whose time the Acropolis once more became the stronghold of a despotism.
- The acropolis of this historic city looks on the Libyan Sea and commands the extensive plain of Messara.
433, accepts the name "Rock of Athena" and yet puts the acropolis on the site of the modern town, arguing further that the cathedral hill was an acropolis within an acropolis (II.
75), anterior to the occupation of the Acropolis and afterwards abandoned for the later settlement.
The peristyle, if we compare the measurements of the stylobate with those of the drums built into the wall of the Acropolis, may be concluded to have consisted of six Doric columns at the ends and twelve at the sides.
Minoan culture under its mainland aspect left its traces on the Acropolis at Athens, - a corroboration of the tradition which made the Athenians send their tribute children to Minoan influences Minos.
3.-[[Gold Signet From Acropolis Tween Lions, On A Lentoid Treasure, Mycenae, Showing The God Gem From Kydonia, Crete.
end of the acropolis are extensive remains of the fortifications of Hermocrates across the narrow neck connecting it with the rest of the hill.
portion, overlooking the sea, which was the acropolis, is surrounded by fine walls of masonry of rectangular blocks of stone, which show traces of the reconstruction of 408 B.C. It is traversed by two main streets, running N.
To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles.
which must have been the ancient acropolis, but the modern town, like the Roman town before it, extends to the slopes of the hill and to the low ground by the sea.
137) that the wall was " around " (7rept) the Acropolis, and that of Thucydides (ii.
The sites of Lindus, lalysus, and Camirus, which in the most ancient times were the principal towns of the island, are clearly marked, and the first of the three is still occupied by a small town with a medieval castle, both of them dating from the time of the knights, though the castle occupies the site of the ancient acropolis, of the walls of which considerable remains are still visible.
portion of the acropolis, which contains several temples, has been excavated: in the rest private houses seem to predominate.
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
These early fortifications of the Acropolis, ascribed to the primitive non-hellenic Pelasgi, must be distinguished from the Pelasgicum or Pelargicum, which was in all prob ab i l i ty an encircling wall, built round the base of the g citadel and furnished with nine gates from which it derived the name of Enneapylon.
Such a wall would be required to protect the clusters of dwellings around the Acropolis as well as the springs issuing from the rock, while the gates opening in various directions would give access to the surrounding pastures and gardens.
The northern portion of it consists of a lofty ridge with two summits, the westernmost of which is occupied by the modern town (985 ft.), while the easternmost, which is slightly higher, bears the name of Rock of Athena, owing to its identification in modern days with the acropolis of Acragas as described by Polybius, who places upon it the temple of Zeus Atabyrius (the erection of which was attributed to the half mythical Phalaris) and that of Athena.'
Many animal sacrifices were known; of especial importance is the annual sacrifice of a goat on the Acropolis, though at other times the animal was not permitted to enter the temple.
21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it.
During the excavations on the Acropolis at Athens, terminated in 1888, many potsherds of the Mycenaean style were found; but Olympia had yielded either none, or such as had not been recognized before being thrown away, and the temple site at Delphi produced nothing distinctively Aegean.
The earliest known description of Athens was that of Diodorus, o ireptryris, who lived in the second half of the 4th century B.C. Among his successors were Polemon of Ilium (beginning of 2nd century B.C.),whose great irepco)ynvcs gave a minute account of thevotiveofferings'on the Acropolis and the tombs on the Sacred Way; and Heliodorus (second half of the 2nd century) who wrote fifteen volumes on the monuments of Athens.
It seems inconceivable, however, that any other site should have been preferred by the primitive settlers to the Acropolis, which offered the greatest advantages for defence; the Pnyx, owing to its proximity to the centres of civic life, can never have been deserted, and that portion which lay within the city walls must have been fully occupied when Athens was crowded during the Peloponnesian War.
In view of the ancient law which forbade burial within the city, the tombs within the circuit of the city walls must either be earlier than the time of Themistocles or several centuries later; in the similar rocktombs on the neighbouring slopes of the Acropolis and Areopagus both Mycenaean and Dipylon pottery have been found.
681 seq.) may be taken as indicating its military importance for an attack on the Acropolis; the Persians used it as a point d'appui for their assault.
The site of the primitive Agora (apXaia etyopa) was probably in the hollow between the Acropolis and the Pnyx, which formed a convenient meetingplace for the dwellers on the north and south sides of the fortress as well as for its inhabitants.
In the time of the Peisistratids the Agora was enlarged so as to extend over the Inner Ceramicus on the north-west, apparently reaching the northern declivities of the Areopagus and the Acropolis on the south.
Close to it are a series of steps hewn in the rock which connect with those discovered in 1886 within the Acropolis wall.
Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
Acropolis is a reverse semi-rimless frame.
A portion of the outer wall has been recognized in a piece of primitive masonry discovered near the Odeum of Herodes Atticus; other traces will probably come to light when the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis have been completely explored.
Separated from Lycabettus by a depression to the south-west, through which flows a brook, now a covered drain (probably to be identified with the Eridanus), stands the remarkable oblong rocky mass of the Acropolis (512 ft.), rising precipitously on all sides except the western; its summit was partially levelled in prehistoric times, and the flat area was subsequently enlarged by further cutting and by means of retaining walls.
To the south-east of the Acropolis, beyond the narrow valley of the Ilissus, is the hill Ardettus (436 ft.).
The Thesean synoecism led to the introduction of new cults and the foundation of new shrines partly on the Acropolis, partly in the inhabited district at its base both within and without the wall of the Pelasgicum, Some of the shrines in this region are mentioned by Thucydides in a passage which is of capital importance for the topography of the city at this period (ii.
In 1892 Dorpfeld began a series of excavations in the district between the Acropolis and the Pnyx with the object of determining the situation of the buildings described by Pausanias as existing in the neighbourhood of the Agora, and more especially the position of the Enneacrunus fountain.
Temple C is the earliest of those on the acropolis.
For the ceramic art admirable material was at hand in the district north-west of the Acropolis.
The hill occupied by the Pisan fortifications and the medieval town within them must have been the acropolis of the Carthaginian settlement; it is impossible to suppose that a citadel presenting such natural advantages was not occupied.
awakening dawn over the acropolis.
Another ritual, fascinating for the glimpse it affords of very old-world thought, is that of the Diipolia, the yearly sacrifice to Zeus Polieus on the Acropolis at Athens.6 In this an ox was slaughtered with ceremonies unique in Greece; the priest who slew him fled and remained in exile for a period, and the axe that was used was tried, condemned and flung into the sea; the hide of the slain ox was stuffed with hay, and this effigy of the ox was yoked to the plough and feigned to be alive.
The earliest Greek settlement in the neighbourhood was at Pithecusa (Ischia), but the colonists, being driven out of the island by the frequent earthquakes, settled on the mainland at Cumae, where they found a natural acropolis of great strategic value.
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Of all these temples the oldest is probably that of Heracles, while the best preserved are those of Hera and Concordia, which are very similar in dimensions; the latter, indeed, a Some writers place Kamikos, the city of the mythical Sican Kokalos, on the site of Acragas or its acropolis; but it appears to have lain to the north-west, possiblyat Caltabellotta,lom.
The Prytaneum, mentioned by Pausanias, and probably the original centre of the ancient city, was situated somewhere east of the northern cliff of the Acropolis.
15) in proximity to that building, as well as the temple of Dionysus Ev Aiµvats and other shrines, the temples of Zeus Olympius and of Ge and the Pythium, which he mentions as situated mainly to the south of the Acropolis.
14.1), who never deviates without reason from the topographical order of his narrative, mentions the Enneacrunus in the midst of his description of certain buildings which were undoubtedly in the region of the Agora, and unless he is guilty of an unaccountable digression the Enneacrunus which he saw must have lain west of the Acropolis.
The excavations revealed a main road of surprisingly narrow dimensions winding up from the Agora to the Acropolis.
We are principally concerned, however, with the results which add to our knowledge of the topography and architecture of the Acropolis.
The pathway between the citadel and the Areopagus was found to be so narrow that it is certain the Panathenaic procession cannot have taken this route to the Acropolis.
Farther east is an underground passage leading eastward to a cave supposed to be the sanctuary of Aglaurus where the ephebi took the oath; with this passage is connected a secret staircase leading up through a cleft in the rock to the precinct of the Errephori on the Acropolis.
Of the great monuments of this epoch few traces remain except on the Acropolis.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
The Dionysiac theatre, situated beneath the south side of the Acropolis, was partly hollowed out from its declivity.
A Doric colonnade with a double row of columns was found to have extended along the base of the Acropolis for a distance of 54 yds.; behind it in a chamber hewn in the rock is the sacred well mentioned by Pausanias.
Another choragic monument was that of Thrasyllus, which faced a cave in the Acropolis rock above the Dionysiac theatre.
A portion of another, that of Nicias, was used to make the late Roman gate of the Acropolis.
set up a number of bronze statues on the Acropolis; Eumenes II.
20), the remains of which stand by the Ilissus to the south-east of the Acropolis.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
The Agrippeum, a covered theatre, derived its name from Vipsanius Agrippa, whose statue was set up, about 27 B.C., beneath the north wing of the Acropolis propylaea, on the high rectangular base still remaining.
At the eastern end of the Acropolis a little circular temple of white marble with a peristyle of 9 Ionic columns was dedicated to Rome and Augustus; its foundations were discovered during the excavations of 1885-1888.
At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence, Athens was little more than a village of the Turkish type, the poorly built houses clustering on the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis.
The Odeum, built beneath the south-west slope of the Acropolis after A.D.
Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.
The Acciajuoli dynasty lasted till June 1458, when the Acropolis after a stubborn resistance was taken by the Turks under Omar, the general of the sultan Mahommed II., who had occupied the lower city in 1456.
In 1466 the Venetians succeeded in occupying the city, but failed to take the Acropolis.
Under Francesco Morosini the Venetians again attacked Athens in September 1687; a shot fired during the bombardment of the Acropolis caused a powder magazine in the Parthenon to explode, and the building was rent asunder.
After capturing the Acropolis the Venetians employed material from its ancient edifices in repairing its walls.
In 1821 the Greek insurgents surprised the city, and in 1822 captured the Acropolis.
Athens again fell into the hands of the Turks in 1826, who bombarded and took the Acropolis in the following year; the Erechtheum suffered greatly, and the monument of Thrasyllus was destroyed.
The Turks remained in possession of the Acropolis till 1833, when Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly established kingdom of Greece; since that date the history of the city forms part of that of modern Greece.
Omont, Athenes au X VII I siecle (Paris, 1898, with plans and views of the town and acropolis and drawings of the sculptures of the Parthenon); J.
The history of excavations on the Acropolis is summarized in 1VI.
d'Ooge, Acropolis of Athens (1909); see also A.
side of the town may have belonged to the acropolis.
Among the objects of interest described by Pausanias as extant in Epidaurus are the image of Athena Cissaea in the Acropolis, the temple of Dionysus and Artemis, a shrine of Aphrodite, statues of Asclepius and his wife Epione, and a temple of Hera.
7.4),whose name was changed into Philadelphia by Ptolemy Philadelphus, a large and strong city with an acropolis, was situated on both sides of a branch of the Jabbok, bearing at the present day the name of Nahr 'Amman, the river of Ammon, whence the designation "city of waters" (2 Sam.
The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
The Athenian hero Erechtheus (Erichthonius), originally an earth-god, is her foster-son, with whom she was honoured in the Erechtheum on the Acropolis.
Athena also gave the Athenians the olive-tree, which was supposed to have sprung from the bare soil of the Acropolis, when smitten by her spear, close to the horse (or spring of water) produced by the trident of Poseidon, to which he appealed in support of his claim to the lordship of Athens.
(3) The Scirophoria, with a procession from the Acropolis to the village of Skiron, in the height of summer, the priests who were to entreat her to keep off the summer heat walking under the shade of parasols (aKipov) held over them; others, however, connect the name with crKipos (" gypsum"), perhaps used for smearing the image of the goddess.
Of his numerous statues of her, the three most celebrated were set up on the Acropolis.
The original settlement occupied the hill above it (143 ft.) and later became the acropolis.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
The acropolis of Geronthrae, a hero-shrine at Angelona in the south-eastern highlands, and the sanctuary of Ino-Pasiphae at Thalamae have also been investigated.
ERECHTHEUM, a temple (commonly called after Erechtheus, to whom a portion of it was dedicated) on the acropolis at Athens, unique in plan, and in its execution the most refined example of the Ionic order.
During the siege of the Acropolis in 1827, the roof of the north portico was thrown down and the building was otherwise much damaged.
Such embroideries are indicated by painting on the statues from the Acropolis and are often shown on vase paintings.
The statement of Herodotus is illustrated both by Attic vase-paintings and also by the series of archaic female statues from the Acropolis of Athens, which (with the exception of one clothed in the Doric irk-Nos) wear the Ionic chiton, together with an outer garment, sometimes laid over both shoulders like a cloak (Greek Art,, fig.
The island thus became the inner city, the stronghold of the ruler, so that, despite its low level, it is often spoken of as the "acropolis."
The island (Ortygia) had been provided with its own defences, converted, in fact, into a separate stronghold, with a fort to serve specially as a magazine of corn, and with a citadel or acropolis which stood apart and might be held as a last refuge.
It now bears the ruins of a mighty fortress, finer than that which defends the entrance to the acropolis of Selinus - the most imposing, indeed, that has come down to us from the Greek period - which there is no doubt is the work of Dionysius.
P. di Cesnola, Cyprus, 1878 passim) and to the British Museum (Excavations in Cyprus, 18 94 (1899) passim); but the city has vanished, except fragments of wall and of a great stone cistern on the acropolis.
The Siegestor (or gate of victory) is a modern imitation of the arch of Constantine at Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis.
The palace of the sultans and the mosque of Ala ed-din Kaikobad formerly covered great part of the Acropolis hill in the northern part of the city.
The ground round it has been left rough like the space on the Acropolis at Athens identified as the ancient altar of Athena.
After a considerable interval, during which the island probably remained uninhabited, the Carthaginians took possession of it (no doubt owing to its importance as a station on the way to Sicily) probably about the beginning of the 7th century B.C., occupying as their acropolis the twin hill of San Marco and Sta Teresa, 1 m.
high, immediately west of the northern rim of the acropolis of Athens.
It possesses considerable natural strength, and consists of a small hill, the original acropolis, occupied byy the modern castle and the village surrounding it, and a larger one, now given over to cultivation, where the city stood.
They lie mainly on the ancient Acropolis, which has been shored up with huge walls to form a terrace raised on vaults and measuring about 110o ft.
The temple of Bacchus stood on a platform of its own formed by a southern projection of the Acropolis.
In the town, below the Acropolis, on the S.E.
The extant remains of the town of Mycenae are spread over the hill between the village of Charvati and the Acropolis.
The walls of the Acropolis are in of thin slabs of stone set up on end, with others laid across the top of them; at the part of this enclosure nearest to the Lion Gate is an entrance.
Outside the circle, especially to the south of it, numerous remains of houses of the Mycenaean age have been found, and others, terraced up at various levels, occupy almost the whole of the Acropolis.
It is generally supposed that these tombs, as well as those excavated in the rock, belong to a later date than the shaft-tombs on the Acropolis.
The flames of revolt now spread across the Isthmus of Corinth: early in April the Christians of Dervenokhoria rose, and the whole of Boeotia and Attica quickly followed suit; at the beginning of May the Mussulman inhabitants of Athens were blockaded in the Acropolis.
In the west Khurshid's lieutenant, Omar Vrioni (a Mussulman Greek of the race of the Palaeologi), had inflicted a series of defeats on the insurgents, recaptured Levadia, and on the 30th of June relieved the Acropolis; but the rout of the troops which Mahommed Pasha was bringing to his aid by the Greeks in the defile of Mount Oeta, and the news of the fall of Tripolitsa, forced him to retreat, and the campaign of 1821 ended with the retirement of the Turks into Thessaly.
Omar was held in check by the mud Expedi- ramparts of Missolonghi; but Dramali, after exacting Lion of fearful vengeance for the massacre of the Turkish Dramali, garrison of the Acropolis at Athens, crossed the 1822.
Demetrios Ypsilanti, however, with a few hundred men joined the Mainote Karayanni in the castle of Larissa, which crowns the acropolis of ancient Argos.
Early in 1825 the government was victorious; Kolokotrones was in prison; and Odysseus, the hero of so many exploits and so many crimes, who had ended by turning traitor and selling his services to the Turks, had been captured, imprisoned in the Acropolis, and finally assassinated by his former lieutenant Gouras (July 16, 1824).
The peasants of the open country welcomed the Turks as deliverers, and Reshid's conciliatory policy facilitated his march to Athens, which fell at the first assault on the 25th of August, siege being at once laid to the Acropolis, where Gouras and his troops had taken refuge.
A first attempt to relieve the Acropolis, with the assistance of some disciplined troops under the French Colonel Fabvier, was defeated at Chaidari by the Turks.
The garrison of the Acropolis was hard pressed, and the death of Gouras (October 13th) would have ended all, had not his heroic wife taken over the command and inspired the defenders with new courage.
Cochrane and Church at once concentrated their energies on the task of relieving the Acropolis.
Church held Munychia till the 27th, when he sent instructions for the garrison of the Acropolis to surrender.
Yet now and again he rises to the level of some heroic event, and parts of his chapter on the "Campaign of Hastings" and of his record of the wars of Syracuse and Athens, his reflections on the visit of Basil the Second to the church of the Virgin on the Acropolis, and some other passages in his books, are fine pieces of eloquent writing.
The former of these (2630 ft.) served as the acropolis, and was included within the same system of fortifications as the lower city.
31-33), its chief temples and statues, its springs, its market-place and gymnasium, its place of sacrifice (lepoOuvcov), the tomb of the hero Aristomenes and the temple of Zeus Ithomatas on the summit of the acropolis with a statue by the famous Argive sculptor Ageladas, originally made for the Messenian helots who had settled at Naupactus at the close of the third Messenian War.
The walled city formed a sort of Acropolis, and it is difficult to say exactly how far the name of Nineveh should be extended.
The acropolis hill is now occupied by the ruins of Kalat el-Mudik.
At the foot of the Acropolis Hill, where the ground begins to rise, the theatre lies; and though the material of which this was built is rough, and only seven imperfect rows of seats remain, a good part of the scena and of the chambers behind it is preserved, and beneath these there runs a tunnel, which, together with other peculiar features, has raised interesting questions in connexion with the arrangement of the Greek theatre, the orchestra being at present on a level about 12 ft.
Both the northern and the southern side of the hill are flanked by walls, which seem to have reached the sea, where there was a mole and a harbour; and the wall of the acropolis itself remains in one part to the height of eight courses.
The polygonal walls of the acropolis may still be seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill standing about 500 ft.
Remains of Cyclopean and polygonal walls exist at Kaligoni (south of Amaxikhi), probably the site of the ancient acropolis of Neritus (or Nericus), and of the later and lower Corinthian settlement of Leucas.
The walls, both insular and continental, can be traced throughout their whole circuit; and in many places, especially round the acropolis, at the N.E.
side of the island, and has a finely placed acropolis on a precipitous hill, and a good natural harbour just N.
Recent excavations have discovered the early temple of Athena Lindia on the Acropolis, and splendid Propylaea and a staircase, resembling those at Athens.
On the Acropolis is a castle, built by the knights in the, 4th century, and many houses in the town show work of the same date.
The old town, or at any rate its acropolis, now occupied by the modern town, lay high (1350 ft.
The acropolis of the primitive city was probably on the highest point above the temple to the north.
A lofty isolated ridge formed its acropolis.
The remains of the acropolis fortifications are very interesting, including roads and ditches hewn in the rock; but beyond ruins of two churches and a fine tower built by Thoros I.
Tiryns was dug again by the German Institute (until 1914), Phylakopi in Melos (1912) and the Kamares Cave in Crete (1913) by the British School at Athens, who also began in 1920 a further excavation on the acropolis of Mycenae.
A search for the Odeion of Pericles on the south-east slope of the Acropolis was inconclusive.
The cemetery, extending from archaic Greek to Roman times, and the acropolis were explored.
The city lay between a mountain (its acropolis) and the river Pactolus, and its site was marked by two great Ionic columns standing deep in earth.
The excavators began by driving a level platform from the river bank towards the acropolis on the line of the two columns.
The temple, which (as inscriptions show) was dedicated to Artemis, had been half-buried by a landslip from the acropolis hill in the historic earthquake of 17 A.D.
A temple of Zeus was excavated on a terrace of the acropolis; the great temple of Apollo crowned the summit of the hill.
The acropolis was just below the villa: here remains of temples were found.
2 But he forgot his promise; and when Aegeus from the Acropolis at Athens descried the black sail out at sea, he flung himself from the rock and died.
Antiope fell fighting on the side of Theseus, and her tomb was pointed out on the south side of the acropolis.
With this agrees the legend of the contest between Athena and Poseidon for supremacy on the acropolis of Athens, for Theseus is intimately connected with Poseidon, the great Ionian god.
The well-preserved Doric temple to the north of the acropolis at Athens, commonly known as the Theseum, was long supposed to be the sanctuary in which the bones of Theseus reposed.
The Franciscan monastery (1130 ft.) occupies the site of the acropolis, once encircled by a triple wall, of which no traces are now visible.
He had the good fortune to discover the propylaea of the Acropolis, and his work, L'Acropole d'Athenes (2nd ed., 1863), was published by order of the minister of public instruction.
Poseidon was also the god of springs, which he produced by striking the rock with his trident, as he did on the acropolis of Athens when disputing with Athena for the sovereignty of Athens (Herodotus viii.
The actual site of the old city is marked by mounds and remains of walls, and on an isolated rock in the middle of the valley are considerable ruins of what appears to have been the acropolis, now known to the people as Ghulgulah.
Remains of the early city are still visible on the Larissa acropolis, which towers 900 ft.
A cave was consecrated to him on the north side of the Acropolis, where he was annually honoured with a sacrifice and a torchrace (Herodotus vi.
Among the ruins on the south bank stand the fragments of a temple called Kasr Fir`aun of late Roman date; just beyond this rises a rocky height which is usually regarded as the acropolis.
Huge walls were erected at the edges of the ancient terrace, the courts of the temple were filled with houses and streets, and the ziggurat itself was curiously built over in a cruciform shape, and converted into an acropolis for the fortress.
The king's palace, if we may judge from Tiryns and Mycenae, was usually in a strong situation on an " acropolis."
In the later times of democracy the acropolis was reserved for the temples of the principal gods.
After participating in the Lamian war and the campaigns of the Macedonian pretenders the city was captured (303) by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who transplanted all the inhabitants to the Acropolis and renamed the site Demetrias.
On the plateau parts of the ancient fortifications are still visible, including the wall between town and Acropolis near the southern apex.
The theatre, which was excavated by the American School of Archaeology in 1886-1887, 1891 and 1898, was built in the slope towards the Acropolis, probably in the first half of the 4th century, and measured 400 ft.
In 1879 the British government used the acropolis of Citium (Larnaca) to fill up the ancient harbour; and from the destruction a few Phoenician inscriptions and a proto-Ionic capital were saved.
The acropolis was at the eastern extremity of the site, where the two ravines converge; it is connected with the rest of the plateau by a narrow neck, and here a large number of ex-votos in terra-cotta, indicating the presence of a temple, and dating at earliest from the 3rd century B.C., have been found.
The modern town, at the western extremity, probably occupies the site of the acropolis.
26, § 6) mentions the golden lamp made by Callimachus which burned night and day in the sanctuary of Athena Polias on the Acropolis, and (vii.
At last Athena receives him on the acropolis, of Athens and arranges a formal trial of the case before twelve Attic judges.
Pergamum continued to rank for two centuries as the capital, and subsequently, with Ephesus and Smyrna, as one of the three great cities of the province; and the devotion of its former kings to the Roman cause was continued by its citizens, who erected on the Acropolis a magnificent temple to Augustus.
Excavation at the south end of the Acropolis led to the discovery of the Altar itself and the rest of its surviving reliefs, which, now restored and mounted in Berlin, form one of the glories of that city.
The summit of the Acropolis is crowded with public buildings, between the market place, which lies at the southern point, and the Royal Gardens on the north.
The residential part of the Greek, and practically all the Roman city lay below the Acropolis on ground now mostly occupied by modern Bergama; but west of the river Selinus, on rising ground facing the Acropolis, are to be seen notable remains of a Roman theatre, an amphitheatre and a circus.
The older temple is mentioned in some of the inventories as "the temple in which were the seven statues"; and close beside it was found a series of archaic draped female statues, which was the most important of its kind until the discovery of the finer and better preserved set from the Athenian Acropolis.
His epic poem entitled Vysehrad, which celebrates the ancient glory of the acropolis of Prague, has great value, and of his many novels Jan Maria Plojhar has had the greatest success.
Parthenope was situated where Naples now stands, upon the splendid natural acropolis formed by the hill of Pizzofalcone, and defended on the land side by a fosse which is now the Strada di Chiaja, and a massive wall, of which remains may still be traced at the back of the existing houses.
He expelled seven hundred families and transferred the government from the council to three hundred of the oligarchs, but being blockaded in the Acropolis he was forced to capitulate.
The earliest inhabited spot within the precincts of the present city was the hill named Vysehrad (higher castle, acropolis) on the right bank of the Vltava.
It stands on the site of the ancient Panticapaeum, and, like most towns built by the ancient Greek colonists in this part of the world, occupies a beautiful situation, clustering round the foot and climbing up the sides of the hill (called after Mithradates) on which stood the ancient citadel or acropolis.
A small Turkish village occupied the plain at the foot of the acropolis, and a little Greek monastery lay about a mile westward by the church of St Nicholas.
The western scarp of the acropolis has been sculptured into a number of sepulchres imitating wooden houses with pillared facades, some of which have pediment reliefs and inscriptions in Lycian.
The Acropolis, enclosing venerated temples, crowned the summit of the first hill, where the Seraglio stands.
Two theatres, on the eastern slope of the Acropolis, faced the bright waters of the Marmora, and a stadium was found on the level tract on the other side of the hill, close to the Golden Horn.
The air is so clear that one can see from the Acropolis the lines of white marble that streak the sides of Pentelicus.
So great was the esteem in which it was held, that in the early legend of the struggle between the gods of sea and land, Poseidon and Athena, for the patronage of the country, the sea-god is represented as having to retire vanquished before the giver of the olive; and at a later period the evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive tree in the Acropolis, together with three holes in the rock, said to have been made by the trident of Poseidon, and to be connected with a salt well hard by.
The situation of Athens relatively to the surrounding objects is singularly harmonious; for, while it forms a central point, so as to be the eye of the plain, and while the altar-rock of the Acropolis and the hills by which it is surrounded are conspicuous from every point of view, there is no such exactness in its position as to give formality, since it is nearer to the sea than to Parnes, and nearer to Hymettus than to Aegaleos.
On the seacoast to the south-west of Athens rises the hill of Munychia, a mass of rocky ground, forming the acropolis of the town of Peiraeus.
A stone figure of a bear found on the Acropolis seems to point to the worship of Artemis Brauronia.
While Tsountas, for the Greek Archaeological Society, picked up his work at Mycenae in 1886, and gradually cleared the Acropolis, with notable results, Schliemann tried for traces of the Caesareum at Alexandria, of the Palace of Minos at Knossos, in Crete, and of the Aphrodite temple at Cythera (1888); but he was not successful, meeting in the two former enterprises with a local opposition which his wealth was unable to bear down.
With regard to Greece proper, in the third tomb on the acropolis of Mycenae were found six small golden sphinxes; they are beardless, but the sex is doubtful.
The two most interesting buildings are the castle, a medieval structure on the site of the ancient acropolis, and the cathedral of St Andrew, which is highly popular as the reputed burial-place of the saint.
In 1907 the sanctuary of Athena "of the Brazen House" (X aX KlocKos) was located on the Acropolis immediately above the theatre, and though the actual temple is almost completely destroyed, fragments of the capitals show that it was Doric in style, and the site has produced the longest extant archaic inscription of Laconia, numerous bronze nails and plates and a considerable number of votive offerings, some of them of great interest.
The late Roman wall enclosing the Acropolis, part of which probably dates from the years following the Gothic raid of A.D.
The word Acropolis, though Greek in origin and associated primarily with Greek towns (Athens, Argos, Thebes, Corinth), may be applied generically to all such citadels (Rome, Jerusalem, many in Asia Minor, or even Castle Hill at Edinburgh).
The most famous is that of Athens, which, by reason of its historical associations and the famous buildings erected upon it, is generally known without qualification as the Acropolis (see
He reigned alone only fifteen years, Cyrus the Persian, after an indecisive battle on the Halys, marching upon Sardis, and capturing both acropolis and monarch (546 B.C.).
The place where the acropolis was entered was believed to have been overlooked by the mythical Meles when he carried the lion round his fortress to make it invulnerable; it was really a path opened by one of the landslips, which have reduced the sandstone cliff of the acropolis to a mere shell, and threaten to carry it altogether into the plain below.
Its acropolis long held out against Alexander in 333 and surrendered to him at last by arrangement.
West of the acropolis were the palace of Xerxes and the Agora, in or near which is the cavern whence the Marsyas, one of the sources of the Maeander, issues.
The amphitheatre occupies a natural depression in the rock just below the acropolis, and open towards the sea with a fine view.
It is probable that the acropolis of Carales was occupied even in prehistoric times; but more abundant traces of prehistoric settlements (pottery and fragments of obsidian, also kitchen middens, containing bones of animals and shells of molluscs used for human food) have been found on the Capo S.
The acropolis of the ancient city had been on a steep peak about 1250 ft.
The "crown of Smyrna" seems to have been an epithet applied to the acropolis with its circle of buildings.
The walls of Lysimachus crossed the summit of this hill, and the acropolis occupied the top of Pagus.
Closer to the acropolis the outline of the stadium is still visible, and the theatre was situated on the N.
Aglauros and Heise disobeyed the injufiction, an&when they saw the child (which had the form of a snake, or round which a snake was coiled) they went mad with fright, and threw themselves from the rock of the Acropolis (or ere killed by the snake).
He decided in favour of the goddess, who planted the first olive tree, which he adjudged to be more useful than the horse (or water) which Poseidon caused to spring forth from the Acropolis rock with a blow of his trident (Herodotus viii.
The extensive ruins all lie in the plain south of the Acropolis.
There was an acropolis on each side of the valley, which lies between precipitous hills with flat tops, over which buildings had extended.
MNESICLES, the architect of the great Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis, set up by Pericles about 437 B.C.
The walls had three gates and in the center of the city was a fortified acropolis with a single gate.
However, the Romans did, but they did not have a steep-sided rocky acropolis like Athens.
Calton Hill One of Edinburgh's many hills, it is unmistakable with its Athenian style acropolis poking above the skyline.
Byzantine walls at Sparta, as elsewhere, fortify only ancient acropolis not civic center; place of refuge at time of attack.
The central acropolis is approximately 900 feet above sea level.
Linger to see the moonlight scattered through the temple ruins, or rise early for the gently awakening dawn over the acropolis.
But whichever of these two summits was the acropolis proper,' it is certain that both were included in the circuit of the city walls.
Close to the Acropolis on the west is the lower rocky eminence of the Areopagus, "Apaos 7ra.
Farther west of the Acropolis are three elevations; to the north-west the so-called " Hill of the Nymphs " (34 1 ft.), on which the modern Observatory stands; to the west the Pnyx, the meeting-place of the Athenian democracy (351 ft.), and to the south-west the loftier Museum Hill (482 ft.), still crowned with the remains of the monument of Philopappus.
Thus sepulchral inscriptions have been found on the Acropolis, though no burials took place there in ancient times.
The greater monuments of the classical epoch on the Acropolis are described in separate articles (see Parthenon, Erechtheum, narrow, crooked streets remained; the influence of Themistocles who aimed at transferring the capital to the Peiraeus, was probably directed against any costly scheme of restoration, except on the Acropolis.
The story of the voluntary sacrifice of the Attic maiden Aglauros on behalf of her country in time of war (commemorated by the ephebi taking the oath of loyalty to their country in her temple), and of the leap of the three sisters over the Acropolis rock (see Erechtheus), probably points to an old human sacrifice.
One of these rites originally consisted in carrying a new peplus (the state robe of Athena) through the streets to the Acropolis to clothe the ancient carved image of the goddess, a ceremonial known in other cities and represented by the writer of the Iliad (vi.
Wachsmuth ingeniously supposes that the latter festival commemorated the local union in a single city of the separate settlements on the Acropolis and its immediate neighbourhood, while the Panathenaea commemorated the political union of the whole of Attica (C. Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum, 18 74, p. 453 sq.).
Many authorities hold that the original Prytaneum of the Cecropian city must have been on the Acropolis.
There was a tradition in antiquity that the city of Tantalus had been swallowed up in a lake on the mountain; but the legend may, as Ramsay thinks, have been suggested by the vast ravine which yawns beneath the acropolis.
The dwellings do not correspond in size or details with the undoubtedly prehistoric abodes on the Acropolis.
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