He seems then or later to have acquired some tincture of learning.
Helen acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions.
It has not acquired one permanent wrinkle after all its ripples.
Would it be so terrible if she never acquired a fortune?
When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."
The superintendent of police, who had gone that morning by Count Rostopchin's orders to burn the barges and had in connection with that matter acquired a large sum of money which was at that moment in his pocket, on seeing a crowd bearing down upon him told his coachman to stop.
Here again, I am unable to state where she acquired these expressions.
Moreover, the waves, I suspect, do not so much construct as wear down a material which has already acquired consistency.
The island between the two arms acquired the name of Insula Sacra (still called Isola Sacra) by which Procopius mentions it.
But when the several nations of Europe had acquired distinct though rude written languages of their own, sufficient for the purposes of their rising literatures, then first learning revived, and scholars were enabled to discern from that remoteness the treasures of antiquity.
The land was acquired either by confiscation from disaffected states or in exchange for a lowering of tribute.
The only reservation which the most advanced Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church.
Cynthia expressed concern that Fred's newly acquired knowledge that the bone fragment was human might jeopardize his court-imposed decree.
The young girl wanted to know about Fred, Maria, and Mrs. Lincoln and even asked about SB, her newly acquired stuffed owl.
It was founded (perhaps on the site of an early Sicanian settlement) by colonists from Gela about 582 B.C., and, though the lastest city of importance founded by the Greeks in Sicily, soon acquired a position second to that of Syracuse alone, owing to its favourable situation for trade with Carthage and to the fertility of its territory.
The first Napier of Merchiston, "Alexander Napare," acquired the Merchiston estate before the year 1438, from James I.
While Cynthia might not have "come to terms" with her quickly acquired family, she was positively thrilled to announce the wedding to all who'd listen, skirting the impending birth like a ballet dancer, concentrating on lace and promises, even if the color was off-white.
In 1835, with the title of governor and captain general, he acquired dictatorial powers, and all public authority passed into his hands.
The off-the-shoulder style with its white lace made the most of her newly acquired tan, and the shiny black belt and full skirt made her waist look small.
She found a supply room and acquired several pairs of boots, fully knowing she'd come back with wet feet every time she left.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
He enjoyed exceptional privileges; his feeble health excused him from the morning duties, and thus early he acquired the habit of reflection in bed, which clung to him throughout life.
To the south of this village, on the Rhine, was the castle of Eicholzheim, which acquired some celebrity as the place of confinement assigned to Pope John XXIII.
In 1 3 42 it was purchased by the count of Wurttemberg, whose descendants afterwards acquired the title of duke.
About a century later the manor was acquired by the Basset family.
The Maclaurins acquired the district as early as the 9th century and occupied it for several hundred years until ousted by the Macgregors, a neighbouring clan, who had repeatedly raided their lands, and in 1558 slew the chief and many of his followers.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
After Oswio's victory over Penda in 654-655 he annexed the northern part of Mercia to his kingdom and acquired a supremacy over the rest of England similar to that held by his predecessors.
When the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles was acquired by the emperor Conrad II.
Later it acquired increased importance through its selection by de Lesseps as the site for the Atlantic entrance to his canal.
Siamese cats may have the tail either straight or kinked, but whether the latter feature belongs of right to the breed, or has been acquired by crossing with the ordinary black and tabby kink-tailed cats of the country, is not known.
I have certainly acquired a taste for war, and it is just as well for me; what I have seen during these last three months is incredible.
The auction continued in full swing, the outdoor area crowded with bargain seekers, their acquired spoils piled high about them.
Both these kings were slain by .Ceadwalla in the following year, but shortly afterwards the Welsh king was overthrown by Oswald, brother of Eanfrith, who reunited the whole of Northumbria under his sway and acquired a supremacy analogous to that previously held by Edwin.
"Well, Lelya?" he asked, turning instantly to his daughter and addressing her with the careless tone of habitual tenderness natural to parents who have petted their children from babyhood, but which Prince Vasili had only acquired by imitating other parents.
The treaty of Tubingen is the name given in German history to an arrangement made in 1514 between Duke Ulrich and his subjects, by which the latter acquired various rights and privileges on condition of relieving the former of his debts.
Braxfield, on the Clyde, gave the title of Lord Braxfield to Robert Macqueen (1722-1799), who was born in the mansion and acquired on the bench the character of the Scottish Jeffreys.
The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.
de Brazza's explorations, and acquired stations that he subsequently abandoned to the French government.
Land was probably acquired for a military post and store depot at Woolwich in 1667, in order to erect batteries against the invading Dutch fleet, although in 1664 mention is made of storehouses and sheds for repairing ship carriages.
Marsyas found it, and having acquired great skill in playing it, challenged Apollo to a contest with his lyre.
He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English.
The first known king of the former was Ida, who, according to tradition, acquired the throne in 547 and reigned twelve years.
While he was engaged upon some pieces for the convent of the Dominican friars, he made the acquaintance of Savonarola, who quickly acquired great influence over him, and Bartolommeo was so affected by his cruel death, that he soon after entered the convent, and for some years gave up his art.
There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and Istakhr acquired special importance as the centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy.
This attachment to the Sabbath, beautiful and touching so long as it was a spontaneous expression of continual devotion to Yahweh, acquired a less pleasing character when, after the exile, it came to be enforced by the civil arm (Neh.
This, however, does not necessarily imply that in its origin it was specifically Hebrew, but only that it had acquired distinguishing features of a marked kind.
The Béarnaise family named Besiade moved into the province of Orleanais in the 17th century, and there acquired the estate of Avaray.
But he also knew that Dron, who had acquired property and was hated by the commune, must be hesitating between the two camps: the masters' and the serfs'.
She never cried from pain or vexation, but always from sorrow or pity, and when she wept her radiant eyes acquired an irresistible charm.
In 1495 he produced an edition of the works of Averroes; with a commentary compatible with his acquired orthodoxy.
On this occasion Charles Emmanuel acquired Tortona and Novara.
The one species, from Western Australia, is the largest member of the family, being about the size of a rabbit, to which it bears sufficient superficial resemblance to have acquired the name of "native rabbit" from the colonists.
He wasn't involved in anything illegal and you have no reason to be concerned about spending any of the money he acquired.
In 879 East Francia acquired the whole; from 912 to 924 it formed part of West Francia.
On the death in 1430 of his cousin Philip, duke of Brabant, he took possession of Brabant and Limburg; the duchy of Luxemburg he acquired by purchase, 1 443.
In 1524 he became lord of Friesland by purchase, and in 1528 he acquired the temporalities of Utrecht.
They are skilful hunters, however, catch fish by in geniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on jungle-roots of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c. They they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern side of the peninsula.
It stands in a large park, the whole property being acquired by the corporation of Birmingham in 1864, when the mansion became a museum and art gallery.
In addition to the thegns there were others who were thegns on account of their birth, and thus thegnhood was partly inherited and partly acquired.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
Fokia has acquired local importance however as a port of call for coasting steamers, and it is used to some degree as a summer residence by Smyrniotes.
(The mechanical improvements by which horns and trumpets acquired a complete scale have revolutionized the nature of those instruments; and Wagner's orchestration, more than that of any other composer, has profited by this.
The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
The children were free, and at the slave's death the wife took her dowry and half what she and her husband had acquired in wedlock for self and children; the master taking the other half as his slave's heir.
Field acquired a concession which had been granted to F.
France and Great Britain jointly acquired the cables between Calais and Dover, Boulogne and Folkestone, Dieppe and Beachy Head, Havre and Beachy Head, Piron, near Coutances, and Vieux Châteaux (St Heliers, Jersey).
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
The parcels into which the Lombards had divided the peninsula remained thus virtually unaltered, except for the new authority acquired by the see of Rome.
Here in the year 1300 new factions, subdividing the old Guelphs and Ghibellines under the names of Neri and Bianchi, had acquired such force that Boniface VIII., a violently Guelph pope, called in Charles of Valois to pacify the republic and undertake the charge of Italian affairs.
The worc nepotism acquired new significance in the reigns of Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII.
Again obstruction precluded debate, and on the 22nd of July 1899 the decree automatically acquired force of law, pending the adoption of a bill of indemnity by the Chamber.
In June and July new motions were made in parliament for his removal; but notwithstanding his great unpopularity, on the retirement of Halifax in 1690 he again acquired the chief power in the state, which he retained till 1695 by bribery in parliament and by the support of the king and queen.
(2) Kant is often supposed to mean by a priori - see Hamilton's Reid, p. 762 - " innate " as opposed to " acquired from experience."
The theory that the medusa is simply an organ, which has become detached and has acquired a certain degree of independence, like the well-known instance of the hectocotyle of the cuttle-fish.
Brooks, on the other hand, as stated above, regards the medusa as the older type and looks upon both polyp and medusa, in the Hydromedusae, as derived from a free-swimming or floating actinula, the polyp being thus merely a fixed nutritive stage, possessing secondarily acquired powers of multiplication by budding.
in such forms as Velella, Porpita, &c., the ancestor was an eight-rayed medusa (Disconula) which acquired a pneumatophore as an ectodermal pit on the ex-umbrella, and in which the organs (manubrium, tentacles, &c.) became secondarily multiplied, just as they do in Gastroblasta as the result of incomplete fission.
Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance.
Hetti, who occupied the see from 814 to 847, is said to have been the first archbishop of Trier, and Radbod acquired the rights of the counts of Trier in 8 9 8, thus founding the temporal power of the see.
It required for its formation an amount of scientific knowledge which could only be very gradually acquired.
Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
The Origin of Species appeared in 1859; and thenceforward the doctrine of evolution assumed a position and acquired an importance which it never before possessed.
" Jurisdiction " is a word borrowed from the jurists which has acquired a wide extension in theology, wherein, for example, it is frequently used in contradistinction to " order," to express the right to administer sacraments as something superadded to the power to celebrate them.
As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.
The spiritual courts in the East have permanently acquired jurisdiction in the matrimonial causes of baptized persons; the Mahommedan governments allowing to Christians a personal law of their own.
The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
On the 18th of February 1843 a royal charter of incorporation was granted to the society, and a permanent status was thus acquired.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
The site of Shakespeare's house, New Place, bought by him in 1597, was acquired by public subscription, chiefly through the exertions of J.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
is a flat disk, circular or elliptical in outline, had in the ideas time of Homer acquired a special definiteness by the introduction of the idea of the ocean river bounding the whole, an application of imperfectly understood observations.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
Father Francisco Paez acquired great influence in Abyssinia, and explored its highlands from 1600 to 1622.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
In consequence numerous churches and convents were built, and the town acquired the title of "Little Rome."
This fact alone is sufficient proof that these conditions, or rather reductions, have been acquired independently of the various groups.
Prospering by the law, William Howard of Wiggenhall rose to knight's rank and acquired by purchase Grancourt's manor in East Winch, near Lynn, where he had his seat in a moated house whose ruins remain.
In the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, or regained, a large extent of territory.
In the Toth century IIushiel, one of four prisoners, perhaps from Babylonia, though that is doubtful, was ransomed and settled at Kairawan, where he acquired great reputation as a Talmudist.
Killian), who was returning from a pilgrimage to Rome, and here he remained until his death, having acquired a great reputation for miracles.
A renewal of prosperity began when it acquired a reputation as a watering-place.
There may or there may not be a power vested somewhere of conferring nobility; but it is essential to the true idea of nobility that, when once acquired, it shall go on for ever to all the descendants - or, more commonly, only to all the descendants in the male line - of the person first ennobled or first recorded as noble.
That coat-armour has been lavishly granted and often assumed without right, that the word "gentleman" has acquired various secondary senses, proves nothing; that is the natural result of a state of things in which the status of gentry carries with it no legal advantage, and yet is eagerly sought after on social grounds.
His knowledge of the higher mathematics was acquired by his own unaided efforts after he had left the college.
It follows, therefore, that they have been independently acquired in the course of the evolution of the Coleoptera.
It was probably in connexion with this market that the "kind gallows of Crieff" acquired their notoriety, for they were mostly used for the execution of Highland cattle-stealers.
(I) During his enforced absence from Athens he had evidently acquired a far more extended idea of the future of Athens than had hitherto dawned on the somewhat parochial minds of her leaders.
Finally, a great number of artels on the stock exchange, in the seaports, in the great cities, during the great fairs and on railways have grown up, and have acquired the confidence of tradespeople to such an extent that considerable sums of money and complicated banking operations are frequently handed over to an artelshik (member of an artel) without any receipt, his number or his name being accepted as sufficient guarantee.
By that treaty Peter acquired not only Ingria and Karelia, as originally contemplated, but also Livonia, Esthonia and part of Finland.
The only element of real strength that the statute acquired during the first twenty years of its history came from the Elkins Act of 1903, which stipulated that the published rate should be the legal rate, and declared any departure from the published rate to be a misdemeanour.
His life work began in 1880 when he acquired the Indian Spectator, which he edited for twenty years until it was merged in the Voice of India.
It was founded by Dr John Phillips (1719-1795), a graduate of Harvard College, who acquired considerable wealth as a merchant at Exeter and gave nearly all of it to the cause of education.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
In his episcopal capacity he attended several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings of the council of Trent; and the influence of his father, now chancellor, led to his being entrusted with many difficult and delicate pieces of public business, in the execution of which he developed a rare talent for diplomacy, and at the same time acquired an intimate acquaintance with most of the currents of European politics.
It was during this period that he read Homer and Longinus, having for the first time acquired some real mastery of Greek; and after the publication of the Essai, his mind was full of projects for a new literary effort.
Neither nature nor acquired habits qualified him to be an orator; his late entrance on public life, his natural timidity, his feeble voice, his limited command of idiomatic English, and even, as he candidly confesses, his literary fame, were all obstacles to success.
Owing to the noxious exhalations of the surrounding forests the town is so extremely unhealthy during the hot weather as to have acquired the title of the "Abode of the Plague."
Within the seven years next following he failed twice as a storekeeper and once as a farmer; but in the meantime acquired a taste for reading, of history especially, and read and re-read the history of Greece and Rome, of England, and of her American colonies.
He rapidly acquired a considerable practice, his fee books shewing that for the first three years he charged fees in 1185 cases.
Of 24 protected persons, all escaped but four, and these had to be out at night or otherwise neglected precautions; of 38 unprotected persons, all contracted malaria except two, who had apparently acquired immunity.
Then a certain amount of immunity may be acquired by the systematic use of quinine.
Some persons are naturally absolutely immune (Celli), but this is rare; immunity is also sometimes acquired by infection, but as a rule persons once infected are more predisposed than others.
He made two unsuccessful ventures in journalism, and in 1857 went to Central America, where he acquired material for another series of lectures.
His monastery acquired great fame and became the wealthiest in middle Russia.
The soil is very fertile, and many of the inhabitants have acquired much wealth from the cultivation of rice.
Communal independence had probably been acquired as early as the end of the 10th century, but the first of the popes to reside in Orvieto and to recognize its communal administration was Hadrian IV.
Individual leaders in times of stress acquired a recognized supremacy, and, once a tribe outstripped the rest, the opportunities for continued advance gave further scope to their authority.
These troubles, we learn, had affected all Solomon's reign, and even Hiram appears to have acquired a portion of Galilee.
And the individuals, who acquired power or wisdom among those outside Palestine shed a reflected glory upon the nation and its Temple.
With a touch of vanity he expressed the fear lest "the coolness of fancy that attends advanced years should make me risk the reputation I had acquired."
She was the principal singer at his oratorio concerts, and acquired such a reputation as a vocalist that she was offered an engagement for the Birmingham festival, which, however, she declined.
At the same time he was reported to have been the first monarch who established a naval power, and acquired what was termed by the Greeks the Thalassocracy, or dominion of the sea.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
Under the revised code (1905) a wife may hold property which she had acquired before marriage free from any obligation of her husband, but in general she is not permitted to make contracts affecting either her personal or real estate without the written consent of her husband.
as have been adduced for this view are, however, based on the fallacy of reading into words (mitra, infula, &c.) used by early writers a special meaning which they only acquired later.
After the word Asia had acquired its larger sense, it was still specially used by the Greeks to designate the country around Ephesus.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
Another category of European possessions in Asia comprises those acquired towards the end of the 19th century, such as Indo-China (France), Burma and Wei-Hai-Wei (Britain), and Kiao-Chow (Germany).
There, too, he acquired that skill in music which led to his first introduction to Saul (I Sam.
David's sons were estranged from one another, and acquired all the vices of Oriental princes.
The property was acquired by Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor under Queen Elizabeth, after whom Hatton Garden is named; though the bishopric kept some hold upon it until the 18th century.
Both are used for worship by Roman Catholics, by whom the chapel was acquired in 1874 and opened five years later after careful restoration.
The Pisans soon acquired the sovereignty over the whole island with the exception of Arborea, which continued to be independent.
He soon acquired great influence among the peasants, and from the first took up an attitude of fearless opposition to King Ferdinand's policy.
BURNHAM BEECHES, a wooded tract of 375 acres in Buckinghamshire, England, acquired in 1879 by the Corporation of the city of London, and preserved for public use.
At the beginning of the quarrel of the North and the South over the organization of the territory acquired from Mexico, Calhoun contended that the Constitution of the United States extended over this territory and carried slavery with it, but Webster denied this on the ground that the territory was the property of, not part of, the United States, and Webster's view prevailed.
An intermediate step between Anu viewed as the local deity of Erech (or some other centre), Bel as the god of Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an organized pantheon.
The summingup of divine powers manifested in the universe in a threefold division represents an outcome of speculation in the schools attached to the temples of Babylonia, but the selection of Anu, Bel and Ea for the three representatives of the three spheres recognized, is due to the importance which, for one reason or the other, the centres in which Anu, Bel and Ea were worshipped had acquired in the popular mind.
Some remaining territories of small extent were acquired by the French after the revolution of 1789, including Miilhausen, which had been a republic allied to Switzerland.
Whether through jealous y of the ascendancy which Turgot had acquired over the king, or through the natural incompatibility of their characters, he was already inclined to take sides against Turgot, and the reconciliation between him and the queen, which took place about this time, meant that he was henceforth the tool of the Polignac clique and the Choiseul party.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
Much therefore of what he acquired was assimilated.
It was an inevitable result of such an education that Mill acquired many of his father's speculative opinions, and his father's way of defending them.
His last years were chiefly spent at the castle of Cardross on the Clyde, which he acquired in 1326, and the conduct of war, as well as the negotiations for peace, had been left to the young leaders, Moray and Sir James Douglas, whose training was one of Bruce's services to his country.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
The war thus acquired the name of Kartofelkrieg.
And the wings, though not always present, are highly characteristic of the Hexapoda, since no other group of the Arthropoda has acquired the power of flight.
These organs, thus acquired during the lifetime of the individual, must have been in some way acquired during the evolution of the class.
It is most unlikely that wings have been acquired independently by various orders of Hexapoda, and if we regard the Thysanura as the slightly modified representatives of a primitively wingless stock, we must postulate the acquisition of wings by some early offshoot of that stock, an offshoot whence the whole group of the Pterygota took its rise.
How wings were acquired by these primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for speculation.
In connexion with the question whether metamorphosis has been gradually acquired, we have to consider two aspects, viz.
It is now, in fact, generally admitted that metamorphosis has been acquired comparatively recently, and Scudder in his review of the earliest fossil insects states that " their metamorphoses were simple and incomplete, the young leaving the egg with the form of the parent, but without wings, the assumption of which required no quiescent stage before maturity."
But, though apparently without such a knowledge of the anatomy of birds as would enable him to apply it to the formation of that natural system which he was fully aware had yet to be sought, he seems to have been an excellent judge of the characters afforded by the bill and limbs, and the use he made of them, coupled with the extraordinary reputation he acquired on other grounds, procured for his system the adhesion for many years of the majority of ornithologists.'
In 1862 the slabs containing the remains were acquired by the British Museum, and towards the end of that year Sir R.
Adventitious value would therefore seem to have been acquired by the bones of the palate through the fact that so great a master of the art of exposition selected them as fitting examples upon which to exercise his skill.
Three of Pithou's brothers acquired distinction as jurists: Jean (1524-1602), author of Traite de police et du gouvernement des republiques, and, in collaboration with his twin brother Nicolas (1524-1598), of Institution du mariage chretien; and Franccois (1543-1621), author of Glossarium ad libros capitularium (1588), Traite de ?excommunication et de l'interdit, &c. (1587).
for the students of the adjoining Academy of Fine Arts, gradually acquired such importance that in 1882 the government divided it from the academy and rendered it autonomous.
A treaty between Charlemagne and Nicephorus (81o) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
The result of the first three Crusades was that Venice acquired trading rights, a Venetian quarter, church, market, bakery, &c., in many of the Levant cities, e.g.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
But when she touched the mainland she at once became possessed of a frontier which could be attacked, and found herself compelled either to expand in self-defence or to lose the territory she had acquired.
But it is not till we come to the opening of the next century that Venice definitely acquired land possessions and found herself committed to all the difficulties and intricacies of Italian mainland politics.
She established her hold permanently on Verona and Vicenza, and acquired besides both Brescia and Bergamo; and later she occupied Crema.
This anonymous writer,' he says, acquired his learning by teaching others, and adopted a dogmatic tone, which has caused him to be received at Paris with applause as the equal of Aristotle, Avicenna, or Averroes.
Bacon, during his stay in Paris, acquired considerable renown.
He had already acquired a considerable reputation in physiological research.
The Arabian tribes began to take possession of the partly cultivated lands east of Canaan, became masters of the Eastern trade, gradually acquired settled habits, and learned to speak and write in Aramaic, the language which was most widely current throughout the region west of the Euphrates in the time of the Persian Empire (6th-4th century B.C.).
Dalwigk was one of Prussia's enemies, and during the war of 1866 the grand-duke fought on the Austrian side, the result being that he was compelled to pay a heavy indemnity and to cede certain districts, including Hesse-Homburg, which he had only just acquired, to Prussia.
In 1835 Margate was still a liberty of Dover and no right of citizenship could be acquired.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
Financial assistance and assurances as to sales and prices have been given liberally by the association where they are needed; ginning and buying centres have been established; experts have been engaged to distribute seed and afford instruction; and some land has been acquired for working under the direct management of the association.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
The connexion lasted during the 9th century; kings like Alfred of England and Louis of Germany sent contributions to Jerusalem, while the Church of Jerusalem acquired estates in the West.
In this way he acquired a certain ascendancy over the Latin kings: Baldwin III.
Damascus he acquired as early as 1174; but Raymund supported the heir of Nureddin in his capital at Aleppo, and it was not until 1183 that Saladin entered the city, and finally brought Egypt and northern Syria under a single rule.
In 1489 it was acquired by Venice, which claimed the island on the death of the last king, having adopted his widow (a Venetian lady named Catarina Cornaro) as a daughter of the republic. On the history of Cyprus, see Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History, 156-208.
The kingdom of Jerusalem, as we have seen, had profited by the alliance of Damascus as early as 1130, when the fear of the atabegs of Mosul had first drawn the two together; and when Damascus had been acquired by the rule of Mosul, the hostility between the house of Nureddin in Damascus and Saladin in Egypt had still for a time preserved the kingdom (from 1171 onwards).
The plan of an international fleet to coerce the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers, who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of the coast of the Levant.
The Basuto acquired an unenviable notoriety as a race of bold cattle lifters and raiders, and the emigrant Boers found them extremely troublesome neighbours.
When the first Europeans visited the Malay Archipelago the Malays had already acquired the art of manufacturing gunpowder and forging canon.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
In this he was successful at the same council which witnessed his third victory over Berengar (1059), and he thus acquired a lasting claim on William's gratitude.
The equalization of classes was already far advanced when towards the end of the century a nobleman of the Alcmaeonid family, named Cleisthenes, who had taken the chief part in the final expulsion of the tyrants, acquired ascendancy as leader of the commons.
The ascendancy acquired in these years eventually raised Athens to the rank of an imperial state.
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
In return for help against King Perseus she acquired some new possessions, notably the great mart of Delos, which became an Athenian cleruchy (166).
In 1864 the mines were acquired by an English company, but abandoned in 1867.
Two years later the mines passed into the hands of a Swedish company, and the railway was acquired by the Swedish Government.
Theobalds Park was built in the 18th century, but the original mansion was acquired by William Cecil, Lord Burghley, in 1561; being taken in 1607 by James I.
He rapidly acquired the favour of the elector Frederick Augustus, surnamed the Strong, who had been elected to the throne of Poland in 1697.
In the second place it was necessary to form a territorial government for the remainder of the territory acquired from Mexico, including that now occupied by Nevada and Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.
It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and characters of individual substances have been studied, and we therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular elements and compounds for more information on this subject.
The only illogical point in his system is that the beauty of his dreamlike chords depends not only on his artful choice of a timbre that minimizes their harshness, but also on the fact that they enter the ear with the meaning they have acquired through centuries of harmonic evolution on classical lines.
His first spiritual instructor was Sayyid Burhan-uddin Husaini of Tirmidh, one of his father's disciples, and, later on, the wandering Stiff Shams-uddin of Tabriz, who soon acquired a most powerful influence over Jalal-uddin.
The spa, a mile to the north of the town, was acquired by the burgh commissioners in 1898, and there are also spas at Hartfell (32 m.
Formerly, when floods resulted from this obstruction, the townsfolk of Helston acquired the right of clearing a passage through it by presenting leathern purses containing three halfpence to the lord of the manor.
Giessen, part of Schmalkalden, Ziegenhain, Nidda and, after a long struggle, Katzenelnbogen were acquired, while in 1432 the abbey of Hersfeld placed itself under the protection of Hesse.
He served in the Curia under five popes and acquired much administrative experience, influence and wealth, although no great power; he was economical in his habits; on occasion he displayed great splendour and lived in a fine palace.
Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante).
Having started as a tanner and merchant at Havre, he acquired considerable wealth, was elected to the National Assembly on the 21st of August 1881, and took his seat as a member of the Left, interesting himself chiefly in matters concerning economics, railways and the navy.
Among his contemporaries Chastellain acquired a great reputation by his poems and occasional pieces now little considered.
The map, apparently of the 3rd century, was copied by a monk at Colmar, in 1265, who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and having been acquired by the learned Conrad Peutinger of FIG.
Bourguignon d'Anville, able to utilize in the compilation of their maps the information they acquired.
Reymann's well-known Specialkarte von Mittel Europa (: 200,000), acquired by the Prussian government in 1874 (it will ultimately consist of 796 sheets), a government and Liebenow's map of central Europe (1:300,000) and C. Vogel's beautiful map of Germany (1: 500,000).
Valuable materials have likewise been acquired by several river surveys including those of the Amazonas by Azevedo and Pinto (1862-1864) and W.
The only land available for the purposes of the bill was the Ager Campanus and the Ager Stellatis, where 5000 citizens were to be settled at once, but as these were utterly insufficient, other lands were to be acquired by purchase.
This ancient civilization is supposed to have been swept away by Mahommedan conquerors; before that event the people, in the opinion of several travellers, professed a degraded form of Christianity, which they had acquired from their Abyssinian neighbours.
In 1899 troubles arose between the administration and a mullah of the Habr Suleiman Ogaden tribe, who had acquired great influence in the Dolbahanta country and had married into the Dolbahanta Ali Gheri.
He may be reckoned the most illustrious pope since Benedict XIV., and under him the papacy acquired a prestige unknown since the middle ages.
The slave could not possess property of any kind; Laws whatever he acquired was legally his master's.
By the peace of Ghent, December 1814, the United States and England mutually bound themselves to do all in their power to extinguish the traffic. It was at once prohibited in several of the South American states when they acquired independence, as in La Plata, Venezuela and Chile.
Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, so now it acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.
Being the starting-point of the "overland route" to India, and the residence of the chief foreign consuls, it quickly acquired a European character and attracted not only Frank residents, but great numbers of Greeks, Jews and Syrians.
The Joachimite ideas were equally persistent among the Spirituals, and acquired new strength with the publication of the commentary on the Apocalypse.
In the east of Iran the novel creed first acquired a solid footing, and subsequently reacted with success upon the West.
From the survivors: of a vessel of the Spanish Armada that went ashore in 1588 the natives are said to have acquired the art of knitting the coloured hosiery for which they are noted.
When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."
Such modification is said to be individually acquired.
Instinctive behaviour thus depends solely on how the nervous system has been built through heredity; while intelligent behaviour depends also on those characters of the nervous system which have been acquired under the modifying influence of individual relation to the environment.
It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.
What in popular usage are spoken of as the instincts of animals, for example, the hunting of prey by foxes and wolves, or the procedure of ants in their nests, are generally joint products of hereditary and acquired factors.
Do they originate through the natural selection of those variations which are the more adaptive; or do they originate through the inheritance of those acquired modifications which are impressed on the nervous system in the course of individual and intelligent use ?
Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.
In Louisiana alone (as the state is known to-day), out of all the territory acquired from France as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was the civil law so established under French and Spanish rule that it persisted under American dominion.
In 1861 he published a great work in two volumes, System der erworbenen Rechte (System of Acquired Rights).
Meanwhile the name of El Dorado came to be used metaphorically of any place where wealth could be rapidly acquired.
They in their turn distributed the lands so acquired among their sons and principal emirs on strictly feudal principles, the feudatory lands being styled ziamet and timar, a system long continued by their successors in regard to the territories which they conquered.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
The sultan also acquired from him the sacred banner and other relics of the founder of Islam, which have since been preserved in the Seraglio at Constantinople.
This continued until the new sultan had acquired age and experience; but, nine years after his accession, he successfully crushed the military rebels, and thereafter ruled with a severity amounting to bloodthirsty cruelty.
The dispute, at first of little importance, developed in seriousness during the next year or two, owing to the avowed intention of Russia, which by conquest or treaties with independent chiefs had acquired all the high land between the Caspian and the Black Sea, to take possession of the low lands along the coast, between Anapa and Poti, of which the sultan claimed the sovereignty.
By his action during Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion, and later when the British fleet after leaving Constantinople in 1807 proceeded to Egypt, he had to some extent acquired the goodwill of the Turkish government.
The regimental officers had all acquired their rank before the enemy and knew how to manage their men, and of the men themselves nearly two-thirds had seen active service.
The strength of the army lay in its infantry, for both cavalry and artillery were short of horses, and the latter had not yet acquired mobility and skill in manoeuvring.
Much had been done to create an efficient staff, but though the idea of the army corps command was now no new thing, the senior generals entrusted with these commands were far from having acquired the independence and initiative of their French opponents.
In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832, from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as contributory boroughs returning one member.
The city owned in 1905 about 290 acres of parks and "open spaces," the chief being Roath Park of Too acres (including a botanical garden of 15 acres), Llandaff fields of 70 acres, and Cathays Park of 60 acres, which was acquired in 1900 mainly with the view of placing in it the chief public buildings of the town.
The Bute trustees in 1885 acquired the Glamorgan canal and its dock, and in the following year obtained an act for vesting their various docks and the canal in a company now known as the Cardiff Railway Company.
In 1888 the Dowlais Iron Company (now Messrs Guest, Keen & Nettlefold, Ltd.) acquired here some ninety acres on which were built four blast furnaces and six Siemens' smelting furnaces.
Its most important early charter was that granted in 1340 by Hugh le Despenser, whereby the burgesses acquired the right to nominate persons from whom the constable of the castle should select a bailiff and other officers, two ancient fairs, held on the 29th of June and, 9th of September, were confirmed, and extensive trading privileges were granted, including the right to form a merchant gild.
It stood on a small rocky peninsula with a natural harbour on the northern side and an open but serviceable bay on the southern; and from this position acquired the epithet of SLoroµos, or the two-mouthed.
It seems likely that the coelomic pore-canals were originally excretory organs, but in the existing Enteropneusta the pore-canals (especially the collar canals) have, as we have seen, acquired new functions or become vestigial, and the function of excretion is now mainly accomplished by a structure peculiar to the Enteropneusta called the glomerulus, a vascular complex placed on either side of the anterior portion of the stomochord, projecting into the proboscis-coelom.
Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language into the church as its official language.
The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.
When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale.
This result revolted public opinion; the bishops acquired the habit (rendered easier by the personal expense involved in setting the law in motion) of vetoing, under the power given to them in the act, all prosecutions; and the act became a dead letter.
Sigismund, king of the Romans, had, by the death of his brother Wenceslaus without issue, acquired a claim on the Bohemian crown; though it was then, and remained till much later, doubtful whether Bohemia was an hereditary or an elective monarchy.
They acquired great wealth and influence, and in 1623 Maffeo Barberini was raised to the papal throne as Urban VIII.
in 1676, and again acquired by Sweden in 1678.
Port Arthur having in the spring of that year been acquired by the Russian government under a lease from China, a similar lease was granted of Wei-hai-wei to the British government,.
These soon acquired extensive political and financial powers, which continued in operation till 1789.
" His knowledge, acquired both from books and by the ear, was immense, and he took every opportunity of increasing it.
Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.
The control of the harbour, piers, pleasure grounds, &c., was acquired from the lord of the manor by the local board in 1886.
Since these combinations have often been as illogical as facile, "eclecticism" has generally acquired a somewhat contemptuous significance.
After this operation had been repeated a few times the iron was found to have acquired a stable condition, and the curves corresponding to the two temperatures became perfectly definite.
The principle of Weber's theory, with the modification necessitated by lately acquired knowledge, is the basis of the best modern explanation of diamagnetic phenomena.
Such were various procuratorships; 'the prefectures of the corn supply, of the fleet, of the watch, of the praetorian guards; the governorships of recently acquired provinces (Egypt, Noricum), the others being reserved for senators.
With the State fund are incorporated all large estates, small farms not yet purchased by the occupants and lands acquired by colonization companies, foreign banks and similar bodies.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
2 From the fundamental principle of virtual velocities, which thus acquired a new significance, Lagrange deduced, with the aid of the calculus of variations, the whole system of mechanical truths, by processes so elegant, lucid and harmonious as to constitute, in Sir William Hamilton's words, "a kind of scientific poem."
425 is legendary), and acquired a European reputation as a school of jurisprudence under Pepo, the first known teacher at Bologna of Roman law (about 1076), and his successor Irnerius and their followers the glossators.
It was sacked by the Hungarians in 902, but otherwise its history is little known, and it is uncertain when it acquired its freedom and its motto Libertas.
Pythagoras established himself here between 540 and 530 B.C. and formed a society of 300 disciples (among whom was Milo), who acquired considerable influence with the supreme council of l000 by which the city was ruled.
Under the provisions of the Anglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong forms the frontier between the British Shan States on the west and the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893.
The first explorers of Brazil reported a numerous Indian population, but, as the sea-coast afforded a larger and more easily acquired food supply than did the interior, the Indian population was probably numerous only in a comparatively small part of this immense territory, along the sea-coast.
had been acquired at a cost of £14,605,000 in bonds, the interest on which is £584,200 a year against an aggregate of £831,750 in interest guarantees which the government had been paying.
It was founded by Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, who having acquired a large fortune in India, sank it in this scheme of colonization.
As the king could not abandon Portugal to itself he determined at first to send the prince thither as regent, but Dom Pedro had acquired such popularity by his conduct in the revolution, and had exhibited such a thirst for glory, that the king feared to trust his adventurous spirit in Europe, and decided to go himself.
The corporation has acquired the gas-works, the cable tramways (leased to a company), the electric lighting of the streets, and the water-supply from the Pentlands (reinforced by additional sources in the Moorfoot Hills and Talla Water).
Meanwhile the popular party acquired increasing power in the state.
The archbishopric dates from the close of the 2nd century, and the archbishops gradually acquired considerable temporal power.
For the next few months he travelled to regain his health; and in the spring of 1836 returned to his cotton plantation, where for several years he devoted his time largely to reading political philosophy, political economy, public law and the English classics, and by careful management of his estate he acquired considerable wealth.
On the 27th of the same month Farewell hoisted the Union Jack at the port and declared the territory he had acquired a British possession.
The newly acquired territory was named Alfred county in memory of a visit paid to Natal by Prince Alfred (afterwards duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha).
This produced irritation and resentment in Paris, and but for the influence which Cobden had acquired, and the perfect trust reposed in his sincerity, the negotiations would probably have been altogether wrecked.
equal terms with their imperial rivals for the possession of Dalmatia, Rascia (the original home of the Servians, situated between Bosnia, Dalmatia and Albania) and Rama or northern Bosnia (acquired by Hungary in 1135); but on the accession of Manuel Comnenus in 1143 the struggle became acute.
By the Golden Bull the palatine acquired something of the quality of a responsible minister, as " intermediary between the crown and people, guardian of the nation's rights, and keeper of the king's conscience " (Knatchbull-Hugessen, i.
Hungary, therefore, for almost the first time in her history, was free to choose a foreign policy of her own, and had she been guided by a patriot, she might now have easily regained Dalmatia, and acquired besides a considerable sea-board.
Broadly speaking, there have been in Hungary since 1867 two parties: those who accept the compromise with Austria, and affirm that under it Hungary, so far from having surrendered any of her rights, has acquired an influence which she previously did not actually possess, and secondly, those who see in the compromise an abandonment of the essentials of independence and aim at the restoration of the conditions established in 1848.
The title of count he had acquired on the creation of the empire.
Italy has acquired almost all the Slovene and Croft districts of Gorizia and Istria.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
12 1920) Italy acquired a frontier considerably farther east than the Wilson Line, and including the quicksilver mines of Istria, the watershed of the Julian Alps as far as Snjeznik (Monte Nevoso), almost all Istria with Abbazia and Volosca, and a narrow strip of shore connecting it with Fiume.
By others the word " fluctuation " is apparently applied only to those small " acquired " variations due to the direct action of changes in food, moisture and other features of the environment.
The former are " innate " variations, the latter are " superimposed " variations (so-called " acquired variations ").
Lamarck had put forward the hypothesis that structural alterations acquired by (that is to say, superimposed upon) a parent in the course of its life are transmitted to the offspring, and that, as these structural alterations are acquired by an animal or plant in consequence of the direct action of the environment, the offspring inheriting them would as a consequence not unfrequently start with a greater fitness for those conditions than its parents started with.
In the course of several generations, Lamarck argued, a structural alteration amounting to such difference as we call " specific " might be thus acquired.
This process is known as " direct adaptation "; and there is no doubt that such structural adaptations are acquired by an animal in the course of its life, though such changes are strictly limited in degree and rare rather than frequent and obvious.
Whether such acquired characters can be transmitted to the next generation is a separate question.
Nevertheless it has been assumed, and also indirectly argued, that such acquired characters must be transmitted.
Darwin's great merit was that he excluded from his theory of development any necessary assumption of the transmission of acquired characters.
Darwin himself, influenced by the consideration of certain classes of facts which seem to favour the Iamarckian hypothesis, was of the opinion that acquired characters are in some cases transmitted.
The new attitude which has been taken since Darwin's writings on this question is to ask for evidence of the asserted transmission of acquired characters.
It is held 1 that the Darwinian doctrine of selection of fortuitous congenital variations is sufficient to account for all cases, that the Lamarckian hypothesis of transmission cf acquired characters is not supported by experimental evidence, and that the latter should therefore be dismissed.
Whilst simple evidence of the fact of the transmission of an acquired character is wanting, the a priori arguments in its favour break down one after another when discussed.
Though an acquired or " superimposed " character is not transmitted to offspring as the consequence of the action of the external agencies which determine the " acquirement," yet the tendency to react to such agencies possessed by the parent is transmitted and may be increased and largely developed by survival, if the character developed by the reaction is valuable.
It has been argued that the elaborate structural adaptations of the nervous system which are the corporeal correlatives of Theory complicated instincts must have been slowly built up by the transmission to offspring of acquired ex perience, that is to say, of acquired brain structure.
At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.
It is, however, to be noted, in the first place, that the imitation of the parent by the young possibly accounts for some part of these complicated actions, and, secondly, that there are cases in which curiously elaborate actions are performed by animals as a characteristic of the species, and as subserving the general advantage of the race or species, which, nevertheless, can not be explained as resulting from the transmission of acquired experience, and must be supposed to be due to the natural selection of a fortuitously developed habit which, like fortuitous.
Now it is clear that preceding generations of caterpillars cannot have acquired this habit of posturing by experience.
Every higher vertebrate animal possesses the power of forming for itself a series of cerebral mechanisms or reasoned conclusions based on its individual experience, in proportion as it has a large cerebrum and has got rid of or has acquired the power of controlling its inherited instincts.
But with the development of the power of inter-communication by the use of language, the Record rapidly acquired an increased development, which was enormously extended by the continuous growth in mankind of the faculty of memory.
To the mere tradition preserved by memory and handed on by speech was then added the written record and its later multiplication by the mechanical arts of printing, by which it acquired permanence and universal distribution.
It is among them so important whilst the Record in all its details is so far beyond the receptive capacity of the brain, that selection and guidance are employed by the elders in order to enable the younger generation to benefit to the utmost by the absorption (so to speak) in the limited span of a lifetime of the most valuable influences to be acquired from this prodigious envelope of Recorded Experience.
The educated man who has acquired new experiences, new knowledge, can place these on the great Record for the benefit of future generations of men, but he cannot bodily transmit his acquirements to his offspring.
Licensed to preach in 1791, he was engaged for several years as an itinerant Presbyterian preacher in his native state, and acquired during this period the facility in extemporaneous speaking for which he was remarkable.
When at last he was forced to flee from Constantinople, the bridge-keeper's son owned 320 houses in the city, and he had also acquired interests in banks and mines.
Her husband, having then acquired a fixed domicile in Lisbon, settled down to advocacy with success, and he was able to send Antonio to the university of Coimbra, where he matriculated in the faculty of law.
Gradually growing more or less ruinous it was acquired by government in 1855, repaired, strengthened and converted into a Tay defence, mounting several heavy guns.
The family was one of those which had been introduced into France by Catherine de' Medici, but it acquired great estates in Brittany and became connected with the noblest houses of the kingdom.
In 1867 they were given over to the Boer government by the Swazis, who had acquired them from their captors.
The threat of the growing power in the Aegean of Venice, which had acquired Cyprus in 1489, at last roused him to a more serious effort; and in 1499 the war broke out with the republic, which ended in 1502 by the annexation to Turkey of Lepanto and Modon, Coron and Navarino in the Morea.
His education, begun under a private tutor, was continued (1712) at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; here he remained little more than a year and seems to have read hard, and to have acquired a considerable knowledge of ancient and modern languages.
Naturally, as the temperature became lower, a new function was gradually acquired by his clothing, that of protecting the body of the wearer.
Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyen, but one of its members, Gia-long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of Annam, Tongking and Cochin-China.
In 1190 tenants of Wisbech Barton acquired an exemption from tolls throughout England, confirmed by John, Henry IV.
The town is governed by a municipality, which since 1903 has acquired control of the sanitary service, water supply, electric lighting and tramways.
But when the word is used without any other qualification, it indicates the Temesvar banat, which strangely acquired this title after the peace of Passarowitz (1718), though it was never governed by a ban.
Disease as an entity - as something to which all living matter is subject - is what the pathologist has to recognize and to investigate, and the practical application of the knowledge thus acquired follows as a natural consequence.
From these experiments it is shown that cells taken from these growths and introduced into animals of the same species give rise to a cancerous growth, whose cells have acquired unlimited powers of proliferation.
Oertel finds an explanation of this want of complete celldifferentiation, loss of function, and acquired vegetative activity in the non-homogeneous character of the nuclear chromatin elements of the cell, and maintains that the different properties of the cell are carried and handed down by the different orders of chromatin loops.
Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).
A very remarkable instance of an acquired means of protecting a wound against parasitical invasion is to be found in granulations.
It probably acquired municipal rights in 90 B.C., but Augustus, owing to the fact that it did not support him, assigned a part of its territory to his veterans in 41 B.C., and henceforth it is once more called colonia.
Since Bel signifies the "lord" or "master" par excellence, it is, therefore, a title rather than a genuine name, and must have been given to a deity who had acquired a position at the head of a pantheon.
His chief temple at Nippur was known as E-Kur, signifying "mountain house," and such was the sanctity acquired by this edifice that Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, down to the latest days, vied with one another in embellishing and restoring Bel's seat of worship, and the name itself became the designation of a temple in general.
It is extremely probable that Acrae was not founded until after two obvious outposts had already been occupied - a post guarding the road to Acrae itself, and including the sacred enclosure of Apollo, which later, when it became a quarter of the city, acquired the name Temenites; and another post on the road to the north, in the upper part of the region known as Achradina.
Thereafter he spoke constantly, and acquired considerable reputation as an orator, - bringing out, moreover, many books in prose and verse.
He wrote on philosophy also, and in both subjects acquired the highest reputation through the whole of eastern Islam.
The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.
Mead was the pupil of the equally popular and successful John Radcliffe (1650-1714), who had acquired from Sydenham a contempt for book-learning, and belonged to no school in medicine but the school of common sense.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
St James's Palace, at the north side of St James's Park, was acquired and rebuilt by Henry VIII., having been formerly a hospital founded in the 12th century for leprous maidens.
In Kensington (q.v.), on the west side of Kensington Gardens, is the palace acquired by William III.
In Piccadilly Clarendon House, erected in 1664 by Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, became Albemarle House when acquired by the duke of Albemarle in 1675.
Northumberland House, from which is named Northumberland Avenue, opening upon Trafalgar Square, was built c. 1605 by Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, and was acquired by marriage by Algernon Percy, earl of Northumberland, in 1642.
The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.
Powers under the Tramways Act of 1870 were given to the council, enabling it to acquire possession of these undertakings, and within the county of London they have been for the most part so acquired, and are worked by the council.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
A rearrangement of the attacking forces was carried otit during the following night, and the attempt to gain the highest ground was resumed at dawn on the 8th from the positions that had been acquired 24 hours earlier.
Amalfi is first mentioned in the 6th century,and soon acquired importance as a naval power; in the 9th century it shared with Venice and Gaeta the Italian trade with the East, and in 848 its fleet went to the assistance of Pope Leo IV.
BURMA, a province of British India, including the former kingdom of independent Burma, as well as British Burma, acquired by the British Indian government in the two wars of 1826 and 1852.
When the glass has acquired this degree of consistency it is supposed that no fresh movements can occur within its mass, so that if homogeneity has been attained the glass will preserve it permanently.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano continued to make mirrors.
France assimilated the craft of glass-making, and her craftsmen acquired a wide reputation.
Mansel, vice-admiral and treasurer of the navy, acquired the sole rights of making glass in England.
As the Salians, however, were the victorious race, the law acquired an authority in excess of the other barbarian laws, and in the additions made to the Ripuarian, Lombard, and other allied laws, the Carolingians endeavoured to bring these laws into harmony with the Salic Law.
The arch-chaplain not only received jurisdiction within the royal household, but represented the authority of the monarch in religious matters, and also acquired more general powers.
The original Studio Fiorentino was founded in the 14th century, and acquired considerable fame as a centre of learning under the Medici, enhanced by the presence in Florence of many learned Greeks who had fled from Constantinople after its capture by the Turks (1453).
of Anjou descended into Italy as champion of the papacy, and Manfred was defeated and killed (1266), the popolo, who had acquired wealth in trade and industry, was ready to rise.
The Florentines now turned their eyes towards Lucca; they might have acquired the city immediately after Castruccio's death for 80,000 florins, but failed to do so owing to differences of opinion in the signory; Martino della Scala, lord of Verona, promised it to them in 1335, but Lucca broke his word, and although their finances were not then very flourishing they allied themselves with Venice to make war on him.
In 1362 we find Florence at war with Pisa on account of commercial differences, and because the former had acquired the lordship of Volterra.
In 1397-1398 Florence had two more wars with Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who, aspiring to the conquest of Tuscany, acquired the lordship of Pisa, Siena and Perugia.
Florence now acquired a great seaport and was at last able to develop a direct maritime trade.
The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come down to our time, chiefly from the 14th century, show how speedily and widely it acquired popularity.
It no doubt acquired Roman citizenship in 49 B.C., and became a municipium; and is mentioned two years later apropos of a dispute between the citizens and their slaves.
During the tsar's first foreign tour, Menshikov worked by his side in the dockyards of Amsterdam, and acquired a thorough knowledge of colloquial Dutch and German.
He soon acquired the reputation of being a good preacher and faithful pastor.
His father, a drysalter and dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry.
Much of his boyhood was spent in Italy, where he received part of his schooling, and acquired a taste for the fine arts and a love of travel; but he was at school also in England, France and Switzerland.
Its history has some special features, showing as it does the process of peaceful colonization, for the island, acquired without conquest, has never been out of the possession of the British.
Stendal was founded in 11, 51 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter.
A second, a male, supposed to be rather older, was acquired in March 1896, having been brought to Liverpool from the French Congo.
Visiting Tema, where among other ancient remains he discovered the famous inscribed stone, afterwards acquired by Huber for the aouvre.
The amir was away from his capital settling the affairs of his newly acquired territory; Nolde therefore, after a short halt at Hail, journeyed on to Ibn Rashid's camp somewhere in the neighbourhood of Shakra.
They acquired property and rank in the new lands.
After the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni the city fell into insignificance till the reign of Akbar; and thenceforward its history merges in that of the Jats of Bharatpur, until it again acquired separate individuality under Suraj Mal in the middle of the 18th century.
The Viennese school of painting is of modern origin; but some of its members, for instance, Hans Makart (1840-1884), have acquired a European reputation.
The bishop soon acquired great temporal powers, especially after his dominions were made, in 831, dependent on the Empire alone, of which he became a prince in 1170.
In 1837 he visited the United States, and acquired there the materials for papers on the thermal springs and the geology of North America, read in 1838 before the Ashmolean Society and the British Association.
The dispute with Brazil relates to the territory acquired by that republic from Bolivia in 1867 and 1903, and was to be settled, according to an agreement A so 4 16 5 Reference to Departments & Provinces 1.
The polytechnic institute (Technische Hochschule) in 1899 acquired the privilege of conferring the degree of doctor of technical science.
The Turks first acquired possession of it in 1484.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
The Prospect was acquired and laid out by Kyrle, who also planted the fine elm avenues near the church; his house stands opposite the market house, where he disbursed his charities; he erected the church spire, and is buried in the chancel, where his grave remained without a monument until Pope called attention to the omission.
Others again consider that the whole cycle is a metamorphosis which, beginning in the Heterocotylea as a direct development, has become complicated in the Holostomidae by a larval history, and finally in the Malacocotylea has acquired additional complexity by the intercalation of two larval forms, and is thus spread over several generations.
Grant possessed or acquired both to such a degree that he proved fully equal to the emergency.
It had come to fill only part of its ancient circuit, but of recent years it has revived considerably, and, since the railway reached it, has acquired a semi-European quarter, with a German hotel, cafes and Greek shops, &c.
Coimbatore district was acquired by the British in 1799 at the close of the war which ended with the death of Tippoo.
After he had acquired what he considered to be a sufficient stock of material, and this happened before he had completed the Positive Philosophy, he abstained from reading newspapers, reviews, scientific transactions and everything else, except two or three poets (notably Dante) and the Imitatio Christi.
From this vague, incoherent, yet gifted writer our author acquired some of his strong feeling for the naive.
It acquired wide authority, and was one of the sources of the Code of Joseph Caro.
Patavium acquired Roman citizenship with the rest of Gallia Transpadana in 49 B.C. Under Augustus, Strabo tells us, Patavium surpassed all the cities of the north in wealth, and in the number of Roman knights among its citizens in the census of Augustus was only equalled by Gades, which had also Soo.
In 1863 the house was acquired by the Freies deutsche Hochstift and was opened to the public. It has been restored, from Goethe's account of it in Dichtung and Wahrheit, as nearly as possible to its condition in the poet's day, and is now connected with a Goethemuseum (1897), with archives and a library of 25,000 volumes representative of the Goethe period of German literature.
It gradually acquired various privileges, and by the close of the 14th century the only mark of dependence was the payment of a yearly tax.
On leaving he was apprenticed to a civil engineer at Derby, where he acquired " a store of exclusively scientific conceptions," 1 but also experienced the hunger of mind which forced him to look to religion for satisfaction.
There are three languages to be acquired:
Kawashima of KiOto has acquired high reputation for work of this kind.
Owing to the use of paper among the threads of the embroidery and sizing in the preparation of the stuff forming the ground, every operation of folding used to cause perceptible injury to a piece, so that after a few years it acquired a crumpled and dingy appearance.
In 1520 a potter named Gorodayu Goshonzui (known to posterity as Shonzui) made his way to Fuchow and thence to King-te-chen, where, after five years study, he acquired the art of manufacturing porcelain, as distinguished from pottery, together with the art of applying decoration in blue under the glaze.
Seto, in fact, acquired such a widespread reputation for its ceramic productions that the term seto-mono (Seto article) came to be used generally for all pottery and porcelain, just as China is in the West.
But from the beginning of that year, a period of extreme commercial and financial depression set in, and the treasury had to postpone all recourse to loans for whatever purpose, so that railway progress was completely checked in the field alike of the original and the acquired state lines.
from Kingussie, is the house of Belleville (previously known as Raitts) which he acquired from Mackintosh of Borlum and where he died in 1796.
The mineral springs of Baden are very numerous and have acquired great celebrity, those of Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Antogast, Griesbach, Freiersbach and Petersthal being the most frequented.
Since then it has from time to time acquired additional territory, so that its area now amounts to 5823 sq.
To the theory of knowledge Spencer contributes a "transfigured realism," to mediate between realism and idealism, and the doctrine that "necessary truths," acquired in experience and congenitally transmitted, are a priori to the individual, though a posteriori to the race, to mediate between empiricism and apriorism.
A specimen from Chittagong acquired in 1872 by the Zoological Society of London was named R.
Wylde conjectures that it had become unsuitable for a royal seat by having acquired the status of a sacred city, and thus affording sanctuary to criminals and political offenders within the chief church and a considerable area round it, where there are various houses in which such persons can be lodged and entertained.
During the middle ages the fortunes of Dijon followed those of Burgundy, the dukes of which acquired it early in the 11 th century.
Everett became the editor; his brother Alexander acquired the property in 1829.
From 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then acquired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and placed under the direction of a commission of learned men.
The Nuova antologia (1866) soon acquired a well-deserved reputation as a high-class review and magazine; its rival, the Rivista europea, being the special organ of the Florentine men of letters.
I have still as much vanity as ever, which is a happier passion by far, because great reputation I think I may acquire and keep, great situation I never can acquire, nor if acquired keep, without making sacrifices that I never will make."
Fox acquired the conviction that, if the House was to be made an efficient instrument for restraining the interference of the king and for securing good government, it must cease to be filled to a very large extent by the nominees of boroughmongers and the treasury.
Greek and Italian were his first favourites, but he was well read in English literature and in French, and acquired some knowledge of Spanish.
At the headquarters of his order, in Fremona, he soon acquired the two chief dialects of the country, translated a catechism, and set about the education of some Abyssinian children.
25) says of Alcibiades that his grandfather was a Eupatrid and his grandmother an Alcmaeonid, which suggests that in the 5th century the Eupatrids were a single clan, like the Alcmaeonids, and that the name had acquired a new signification.
Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the expense of both Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the borders of Lithuania to the shores of the Black Sea.