Medical vocabulary for ESL students should focus on teaching some of the basics. Medical vocabulary is a specialized field, and there are plenty of very complex medical terms that doctor’s use. In fact, entire dictionaries are devoted to the field of medical vocabulary and to understanding what the names of diseases, medicines and conditions mean. However, most of these complex medical words are not necessary when teaching medical vocabulary to ESL students. Instead, focus on fundamental medical concepts that a person new to America may need to know.