Acetic-acid sentence example

acetic-acid
  • It may be prepared by the addition of potassium nitrite to an acetic acid solution of cobalt chloride.
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  • The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
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  • He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.
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  • Duclaux found that acetic acid is formed in small quantities during fermentation; aldehyde has also been detected.
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  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
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  • Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
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  • The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.
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  • It is soluble in water and possesses an odour resembling that of acetic acid.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.
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  • Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
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  • In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.
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  • By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
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  • Hydroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refractions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde.
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  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
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  • Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.
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  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
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  • Some acetic acid is formed, and this process will go on till the solutions of the two acids are isohydric: that is, till the dissociated hydrogen ions are in equilibrium with both.
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  • In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.
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  • It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.
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  • By dissolving red lead, Pb304, in glacial acetic acid and crystallizing the filtrate, colourless monoclinic prisms of lead tetracetate, Pb(C2H302)4, are obtained.
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  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.
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  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
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  • These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
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  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.
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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.
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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.
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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.
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  • The hydrazones are best prepared by mixing the aldehyde with phenylhydrazine in dilute acetic acid solution, in the absence of any free mineral acid.
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  • Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.
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  • Scholtz (Ber., 1894, 2 7, p. 2 95 8) from piperonyl acrolein (the condensation product of piperonal and acetaldehyde) and acetic acid.
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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.
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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.
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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.
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  • On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.
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  • It also results on condensing acetylene, and on reducing phenylacetylene by zinc dust and acetic acid.
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  • Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.
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  • It dissolves in mineral acids, but is insoluble in acetic acid.
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  • - From neutral solutions of its salts zinc is precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen as sulphide, ZnS - a white precipitate, soluble, but by no means readily, in dilute mineral acids, but insoluble in acetic acid.
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  • It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.
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  • Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone; the production of this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene.
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  • Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.
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  • Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid.
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  • It crystallizes in large plates, which melt at 98.5° C. and boil at 390° C. It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid.
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  • The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
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  • It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.
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  • This is neutralized with lime and redistilled in order to remove the acetic acid.
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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic acid.
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  • In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.
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  • Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.
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  • Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.
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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.
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  • ==Pharmacology and Therapeutics== Glacial acetic acid is occasionally used as a caustic for corns.
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  • Normal chromates on the addition of silver nitrate give a red precipitate of silver chromate, easily soluble in ammonia, and with barium chloride a yellow precipitate of barium chromate, insoluble in acetic acid.
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  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.
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  • It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.
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  • Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.
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  • It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
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  • It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.
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  • Equally good comparisons have been obtained for solutions in other solvents such as acetic acid 3.88, formic acid 2.84, benzene 5.30, and nitrobenzene 6.95.
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  • Its specific gravity is 96, a little less than that of water, and it dissolves freely in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic acid.
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  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.
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  • Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.
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  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at about o° C. It is a powerful methylating agent, reacting with water to form methyl alcohol, and converting acetic acid into methylacetate, hydrochloric acid into methyl chloride, hydrocyanic acid into acetonitrile, and phenol into anisol, nitrogen being eliminated in each case.
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  • Acetamidine, CH 3 C: (NH)�NH 2, is alkaline in reaction, and readily splits up into acetic acid and ammonia when warmed with acids.
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  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.
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  • Chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution oxidizes it to picene-quinone, picene-quinone carboxylic acid, and finally to phthalic acid.
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  • Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.
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  • When heated with water it is decomposed into carbon dioxide, ammonia, methylamine and acetic acid.
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  • On solution in glacial acetic acid and addition of nitric acid, �nitroalizarin OH //CO /�H (alizarin orange) I I OH /CO I / IOH CO //OH Various industries are carried on in Leblanc alkali works, as follows: I.
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  • The gallium salts are precipitated by alkaline carbonates and by barium carbonate, but not by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution.
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  • With aniline and acetic acid it yields azobenzene.
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  • Boric acid (q.v.) being only a weak acid, its salts readily undergo hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution, and this property can be readily shown with a concentrated aqueous solution of borax, for by adding litmus and then just sufficient acetic acid to turn the litmus red, the addition of a large volume of water to the solution changes the colour back to blue again.
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  • It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.
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  • In 1822 he showed that when a mass of platinum black, supplied with alcohol by a wick is enclosed in a jar to which the air has limited access, acetic acid and water are produced; this experiment formed the basis of the Schiitzenbach Quick Vinegar Process.
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  • There are several volumetric methods for assaying lead ores, but the best known is that based on the precipitation of lead by ammonium molybdate in an acetic acid solution.
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  • The lead sulphate, obtained as described above and dissolved in ammonium acetate, is acidulated with acetic acid diluted with hot water and heated to boiling-point.
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  • Next 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid are added, the solution cooled, and 5 cc. of a solution of potassium iodide (300 grammes to the litre) and the standard solution of sodium thiosulphate run in from a burette until the brown colour has nearly disappeared.
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  • A few drops of starch solution are then added, and when the blue colour has nearly vanished a drop or two of methyl orange makes the end reaction very sharp. The thiosulphate solution is standardized by dissolving o 3 to o 5 gramme of pure copper in 3 cc. of nitric acid, adding 50 cc. of water and 5 cc. of ammonia, and titrating as above after the addition of 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 5 cc. of the potassium iodide solution.
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  • Reduction by sodium amalgam converts it into isopropyl alcohol; oxidation by chromic acid gives carbon dioxide and acetic acid.
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  • 6, p. 329); and by heating piperidine in acetic acid solution with silver acetate (J.
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  • It crystallizes readily from benzene or acetic acid and explodes when subjected to shock or when heated.
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  • By adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to a solution of the sulphate in acetic acid a compound known as herapathite, 4Qu 3H 2 SO 4.2HI Ie6H 2 O, is obtained, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in Iwo parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively.
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  • Vauquelin, maintained that Scheele's new acid was nothing but impure acetic acid.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.
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  • "The trans-modification of A3 5 acid is produced when phthalic acid is reduced by sodium amalgam in the presence of acetic acid.
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  • By the action of hydrobromic acid (in glacial acetic acid solution) and reduction of the resulting product it yields I.
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  • Many of his well-known researches were carried out in support of these views, one of the most important being that on the action of chlorine on acetic acid to form trichloracetic acid - a derivative of essentially the same character as the acetic acid itself.
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  • Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.
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  • It crystallizes in plates (from alcohol) melting at 70-71° C. and boiling at 2 54°C. It is oxidized by chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution to benzoic acid, dilute nitric acid and chromic acid mixture being without effect.
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  • In camphor factories, fumes of acetic acid can cause keratitis (Duke-Elder and McFaul 1972 ).
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  • The production of acetic acid from alcohol has received much attention at the hands of investigators, and it has an important technical aspect in the manufacture of vinegar.
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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
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  • The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.
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  • In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae which to the best of our knowledge express their molecular composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative number of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic acid consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular weight corresponds to the formula C211402, which therefore is always employed to represent acetic acid.
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  • Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.
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  • Soc. Chem., 1882 [2], 37, P. 434; 38, p. 60) have also shown that the specific heat of the gas decreases with increase of temperature until it reaches a minimum at about 198-253° C. Cryoscopic determinations of the molecular weight of nitrogen peroxide dissolved in glacial acetic acid show that it corresponds to the molecular formula N204 at low temperatures (W.
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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.
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  • It crystallizes in large plates, which melt at 98.5° C. and boil at 390° C. It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid.
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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.
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  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.
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  • It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.
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  • It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
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  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.
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  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at about o° C. It is a powerful methylating agent, reacting with water to form methyl alcohol, and converting acetic acid into methylacetate, hydrochloric acid into methyl chloride, hydrocyanic acid into acetonitrile, and phenol into anisol, nitrogen being eliminated in each case.
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  • Acetamidine, CH 3 C: (NH)�NH 2, is alkaline in reaction, and readily splits up into acetic acid and ammonia when warmed with acids.
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  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.
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  • On solution in glacial acetic acid and addition of nitric acid, �nitroalizarin OH //CO /�H (alizarin orange) I I OH /CO I / IOH CO //OH Various industries are carried on in Leblanc alkali works, as follows: I.
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  • It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.
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  • It crystallizes in plates (from alcohol) melting at 70-71° C. and boiling at 2 54°C. It is oxidized by chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution to benzoic acid, dilute nitric acid and chromic acid mixture being without effect.
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  • Vinegar in fact contains acetic acid and this reacts with the calcium carbonate making up the shell of the egg.
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  • The acetic acid found in vinegar is enough to kill off the plant.
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  • Choose a product that has a high acetic acid level, not necessarily the type you would use in cooking.
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  • The acetic acid in vinegar effectively disinfects, deodorizes, and cuts grease on many different types of surfaces, without needing the complex and potentially toxic and harmful chemicals that are found in many commercial cleaning products.
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  • Furthermore, acetic acid also inhibits the growth of mold and bacteria, helping keep surfaces cleaner longer.
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  • Spray a homemade vinegar solution onto the glass in a small area and let it rest for several seconds to give the acetic acid the chance to work its magic.
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  • Patio: A moderate vinegar solution is an effective concrete cleaner for a patio, driveway, or sidewalk, and the acetic acid will help inhibit weed growth.
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  • The acetic acid in ACV may damage tooth enamel, parts of the digestive tract, and the esophagus.
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  • It is made up of a type of cellulose and acetic acid bacteria.
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  • The Mother changes the alcohol into acetic acid and develops delicate enzymes and complex proteins which play an instrumental role in the health benefits of apple cider vinegar that you're looking for.
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  • Other sources of calories include organic acids (such as acetic acid and lactic acid) and polyols (sugar alcohols such as Mannitol, Xylitol and Glycerol).
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  • None of the mice lost weight, but the mice receiving the acetic acid gained less than the control group.
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  • It's not clear why or how it worked, but scientists theorize that the acetic acid turns on genes that produce enzymes used by the body to break down fats.
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