As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.
It is soluble in water and possesses an odour resembling that of acetic acid.
7-dihydroxyxanthone, known as euxanthone, is prepared by heating euxanthic acid with hydrochloric acid or by heating hydroquinone carboxylic acid with 3-resorcylic acid and acetic anhydride (S.
6-dihydroxyxanthone, isoeuxanthone, is formed when 0-resorcylic acid is heated with acetic anhydride.
It may be prepared by the addition of potassium nitrite to an acetic acid solution of cobalt chloride.
Duclaux found that acetic acid is formed in small quantities during fermentation; aldehyde has also been detected.
Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.
Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.
Lactic acid and alanine were shown to be oxyand amino-propionic acids respectively; glycollic acid and glycocoll, oxyand amino-acetic acids; salicylic and benzamic acids, oxyand amino-benzoic acids.
The existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.
The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.
CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.
Chlorination in glacial acetic acid solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (2) and, at a later stage, heptachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (3).
Two acids corresponding to the formula of Kekule and Claus are triphenyl acrylic acid, (C6H5)2C: C([[Cooh) C 6 H]],, and triphenyl acetic acid, (C,H,),C 000H.
In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
Hydroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refractions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde.
Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).
Knorr, by the action of ammonia on aceto-acetic ester, obtained (3-imidobutyric ester, which with nitrous acid yields a-isonitroso-(3-imidobutyric ester, CH 3 C(:NH) C(:N OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5.
Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.
On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.
Glucoseoxime on warming with acetic anhydride is simultaneously acetylated and dehydrated, yielding an acetylated gluconitrile, which when warmed with ammoniacal silver nitrate loses hydrocyanic acid and is transformed into an acetyl pentose.
With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.
In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.
The mean values of k for other common acids were - formic, 0.0000214; acetic, o 0000180; monochloracetic, 0.0.0155; dichloracetic, 0.051; trichloracetic, 1.21; propionic, 0.0000134.
The two solutions, then, will so act on each other when mixed that they become isohydric. Let us suppose that we have one very active acid like hydrochloric, in which dissociation is nearly complete, another like acetic, in which it is very small.
In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.
Some acetic acid is formed, and this process will go on till the solutions of the two acids are isohydric: that is, till the dissociated hydrogen ions are in equilibrium with both.
In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.
It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.
By dissolving red lead, Pb304, in glacial acetic acid and crystallizing the filtrate, colourless monoclinic prisms of lead tetracetate, Pb(C2H302)4, are obtained.
Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.
By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.
It combines with ortho-diamines, in the presence of acetic acid, to form phenazines.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.
Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.
Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.
The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.
The hydrazones are best prepared by mixing the aldehyde with phenylhydrazine in dilute acetic acid solution, in the absence of any free mineral acid.
The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.