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acetic

acetic

acetic Sentence Examples

  • It is soluble in water and possesses an odour resembling that of acetic acid.

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  • As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.

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  • 7-dihydroxyxanthone, known as euxanthone, is prepared by heating euxanthic acid with hydrochloric acid or by heating hydroquinone carboxylic acid with 3-resorcylic acid and acetic anhydride (S.

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  • 6-dihydroxyxanthone, isoeuxanthone, is formed when 0-resorcylic acid is heated with acetic anhydride.

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  • It may be prepared by the addition of potassium nitrite to an acetic acid solution of cobalt chloride.

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  • Duclaux found that acetic acid is formed in small quantities during fermentation; aldehyde has also been detected.

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  • They represent a large number of classes of substances of which the most important are: (1) Hydrocarbons, such as pinene in oil of turpentine, camphene in citronella oil, limonene in lemon and orange-peel oils, caryophyllene in clove oil and cumene in oil of thyme; (2) ketones, such as camphor from the camphor tree, and irone which occurs in orris root; (3) phenols, such as eugenol in clove oil, thymol in thyme oil, saffrol in sassafras oil, anethol in anise oil; (4) aldehydes, such as citral and citronellal, the most important constituents of lemon oil and lemon-grass oil, benzaldehyde in the oil of bitter almonds, cinnamic aldehyde in cassia oil, vanillin in gum benzoin and heliotropin in the spiraea oil, &c.; (5) alcohols and their esters, such as geraniol (rhodinol) in rose oil and geranium oil, linalool, occurring in bergamot and lavender oils, and as the acetic ester in rose oil, terpineol in cardamom oil, menthol in peppermint oil, eucalyptol in eucalyptus oil and borneol in rosemary oil and Borneo camphor; (6) acids and their anhydrides, such as cinnamic acid in Peru balsam and coumarin in woodruff; and (7) nitrogenous compounds, such as mustard oil, indol in jasmine oil and anthranilic methyl-ester in neroli and jasmine oils.

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  • It is insoluble in dilute acetic acid, but dissolves in mineral acids.

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  • He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.

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  • It is somewhat readily oxidized; nitric acid gives carbonic and oxalic acids, and chromic acid, carbonic and acetic acids.

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  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.

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  • Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.

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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.

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  • The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.

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  • In the presence of a dehydrating agent (such as acetic anhydride), it combines with aldehydes to form compounds of the type R CH: C(COOH) 2, or their decomposition products (formed by loss of C02) R CH: CH COOH.

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  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.

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  • The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 O, and its molecular formula is C2H402, or twiceTCH 2 O.

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  • Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.

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  • According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.

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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.

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  • Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.

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  • the existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.

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  • The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.

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  • CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.

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  • Chlorination in glacial acetic acid solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (2) and, at a later stage, heptachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (3).

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  • Two acids corresponding to the formula of Kekule and Claus are triphenyl acrylic acid, (C6H5)2C: C([[Cooh) C 6 H]],, and triphenyl acetic acid, (C,H,),C 000H.

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  • In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.

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  • By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.

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  • Hydroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refractions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde.

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  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .

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  • Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).

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  • Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.

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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.

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  • They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.

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  • Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.

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  • Glucoseoxime on warming with acetic anhydride is simultaneously acetylated and dehydrated, yielding an acetylated gluconitrile, which when warmed with ammoniacal silver nitrate loses hydrocyanic acid and is transformed into an acetyl pentose.

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  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.

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  • In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.

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  • The mean values of k for other common acids were - formic, 0.0000214; acetic, o 0000180; monochloracetic, 0.0.0155; dichloracetic, 0.051; trichloracetic, 1.21; propionic, 0.0000134.

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  • The two solutions, then, will so act on each other when mixed that they become isohydric. Let us suppose that we have one very active acid like hydrochloric, in which dissociation is nearly complete, another like acetic, in which it is very small.

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  • In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.

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  • Some acetic acid is formed, and this process will go on till the solutions of the two acids are isohydric: that is, till the dissociated hydrogen ions are in equilibrium with both.

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  • In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.

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  • It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.

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  • By dissolving red lead, Pb304, in glacial acetic acid and crystallizing the filtrate, colourless monoclinic prisms of lead tetracetate, Pb(C2H302)4, are obtained.

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  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.

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  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.

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  • These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.

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  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.

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  • It combines with ortho-diamines, in the presence of acetic acid, to form phenazines.

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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.

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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.

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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.

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  • The hydrazones are best prepared by mixing the aldehyde with phenylhydrazine in dilute acetic acid solution, in the absence of any free mineral acid.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.

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  • Scholtz (Ber., 1894, 2 7, p. 2 95 8) from piperonyl acrolein (the condensation product of piperonal and acetaldehyde) and acetic acid.

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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.

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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.

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  • Bladin HC -N (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 183) by the action of acetic)NH anhydride on dicyanophenylhydrazine (formed N: CH from cyanogen and phenylhydrazine), the resulting acetyl derivative losing water and yielding phenylmethylcyanotriazole, which, on hydrolysis, gives the free acid.

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  • This substance differs from the mucins by being precipitated by tannic acid but not by acetic acid, and being endowed with a higher proportion of sulphur.

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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.

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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.

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  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

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  • On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.

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  • A ketose may also be obtained by reducing the osazone with zinc and acetic to an osamine, which with nitrous acid gives the ketose: R R R C :N NHPh.

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  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.

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  • It is oxidized by nitric acid to d-saccharic and mucic acids; and acetic anhydride gives an octa-acetate.

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  • It also results on condensing acetylene, and on reducing phenylacetylene by zinc dust and acetic acid.

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  • Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.

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  • It dissolves in mineral acids, but is insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • - From neutral solutions of its salts zinc is precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen as sulphide, ZnS - a white precipitate, soluble, but by no means readily, in dilute mineral acids, but insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.

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  • Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone; the production of this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene.

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  • The aromatic amine resembling the aliphatic amines is benzylamine, C 6 H 5 �CH 2 �NH 2, which may be prepared by reducing benzonitrile in alcoholic solution by means of zinc and acetic acid (0.

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  • Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.

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  • Vinegar (or impure acetic acid), which is produced when wine is allowed to stand, was known to both the Greeks and Romans, who considered it to be typical of acid substances; this is philologically illustrated by the words OEbs, acidus, sour, and duos, acetus, vinegar.

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  • On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.

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  • Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid.

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  • It crystallizes in large plates, which melt at 98.5° C. and boil at 390° C. It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid.

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  • The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.

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  • It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.

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  • This is neutralized with lime and redistilled in order to remove the acetic acid.

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  • To obtain it perfectly pure the crude alcohol is combined with oxalic, benzoic or acetic acid, and the resulting ester separated, purified, and finally decomposed with potash.

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  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

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  • Sulphuric acid gives a white precipitate of calcium sulphate with strong solutions; ammonium oxalate gives calcium oxalate, practically insoluble in water and dilute acetic acid, but readily soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid.

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  • Krafft, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 3018): C16H33 CH2 CH2.0H->C161-133CH2 CH2.0 CO R-> C16H33CH: CH 2 -j-R COOH; from tertiary alcohols by the action of acetic anhydride in the presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid (L.

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  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at 8° C. It is readily soluble in benzene, glacial acetic acid, and in many hydrocarbons.

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  • soc. chim., 18 94 (3) 11, p. 1129) obtained anilino-derivatives of the paraquinones by the action of an aqueous solution of potassium chromate on an acetic acid solution of para-aminodimethylaniline and phenol: C 6 H 5 OH+H 2 N C 6 H 4 N (CH 3) 2 - *O:C 6 H 4 :N C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2; these compounds yield the quinone when heated with mineral acids.

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  • It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.

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  • In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.

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  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic acid.

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  • Potash fusion decomposes it into benzoic and acetic acids.

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  • ACETIC ACID (acidum aceticum), CH 3 �CO 2 H, one of the most important organic acids.

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  • In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.

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  • Acetic acid (in the form of vinegar) was known to the ancients, who obtained it by the oxidation of alcoholic liquors.

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  • Dumas converted acetic acid into trichloracetic acid, and in 1842 L.

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  • Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.

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  • Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.

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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

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  • It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.

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  • ==Pharmacology and Therapeutics== Glacial acetic acid is occasionally used as a caustic for corns.

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  • Acetic acid has no valuable properties for internal administration.

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  • Vinegar, however, which contains about 5% acetic acid, is frequently taken as a cure for obesity, but there is no warrant for this application.

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  • soc. chim., 18 95, (3) 1 3, p. 735); and from the syn-aldoximes by the action of acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride.

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  • Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.

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  • Normal chromates on the addition of silver nitrate give a red precipitate of silver chromate, easily soluble in ammonia, and with barium chloride a yellow precipitate of barium chromate, insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.

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  • It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.

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  • Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.

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  • It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.

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  • Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alcoholic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazine and an amine.

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  • The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.

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  • It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.

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  • Crotonic acid, so named from the fact that it was erroneously supposed to be a saponification product of croton oil, may be prepared by the oxidation of croton-aldehyde, CH3 CH:CH CHO, obtained by dehydrating aldol, or by treating acetylene successively with sulphuric acid and water; by boiling allyl cyanide with caustic potash; by the distillation of 0-oxybutyric acid; by heating paraldehyde with malonic acid and acetic acid to, oo C. (T.

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  • Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to a0-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Jacobsen has also obtained benzaldehyde by heating benzal chloride with glacial acetic acid: C 6 H 5 CHC1 2 +CH 3 000H =CH30001 +HC1+C6H5CHO.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

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  • Acetic Acid >>

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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

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  • Acid esters yield carbinols, many of which are unstable and readily pass over into unsaturated compounds, especially when warmed with acetic anhydride: R.

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  • By the alchemists the word was used principally to distinguish various highly volatile, mobile and inflammable liquids, such as the ethers, sulphuric ether and acetic ether having been known respectively as naphtha sulphurici and naphtha aceti.

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  • Equally good comparisons have been obtained for solutions in other solvents such as acetic acid 3.88, formic acid 2.84, benzene 5.30, and nitrobenzene 6.95.

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  • Its specific gravity is 96, a little less than that of water, and it dissolves freely in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic acid.

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  • With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.

    0
    0
  • Diethyl ketone, (C2H5)2 CO, is a pleasant-smelling liquid boiling at 102.7° C. With concentrated nitric acid it forms dinitroethane, and it is oxidized by chromic acid to acetic and propionic acids.

    0
    0
  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.

    0
    0
  • The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).

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    0
  • It is a product of the action of heat on many organic compounds, being formed when the vapours of ether, camphor, acetic acid, ethylene, acetylene, &c., are passed through a red-hot tube (M.

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    0
  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.

    0
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  • Bamberger (Ber., 18 94, 27, p. 9 1 4) obtained the diazoic acids, R NH NO 2, substances which he had previously prepared by similarly oxidizing the diazonium salts, by dehydrating the nitrates of primary amines with acetic anhydride, and by the action of nitric anhydride on the primary amines.

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  • Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.

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  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at about o° C. It is a powerful methylating agent, reacting with water to form methyl alcohol, and converting acetic acid into methylacetate, hydrochloric acid into methyl chloride, hydrocyanic acid into acetonitrile, and phenol into anisol, nitrogen being eliminated in each case.

    0
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  • Phys., 1862 (3), 65, p. 385 et seq.) have shown in the case of the formation of ethyl acetate from ethyl alcohol and acetic acid, a point of equilibrium is reached, beyond which the reacting system cannot pass, unless the system be disturbed in some way by the removal of one of the products of the reaction.

    0
    0
  • Ethyl acetate (acetic ether), CH3.002C2H5, boils at 75° C. Isoamylisovalerate, C4H9 C02C5Hn, boils at 196° C. and has an odour of apples.

    0
    0
  • Acetamidine, CH 3 C: (NH)�NH 2, is alkaline in reaction, and readily splits up into acetic acid and ammonia when warmed with acids.

    0
    0
  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.

    0
    0
  • Chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution oxidizes it to picene-quinone, picene-quinone carboxylic acid, and finally to phthalic acid.

    0
    0
  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.

    0
    0
  • Acetyl urea, NH 2 CO NH 000H 31 formed by the action of acetic anhydride on urea, crystallizes in needles which melt at 212° C. and, on heating, strongly decomposes into acetamide and cyanuric acid.

    0
    0
  • When heated with water it is decomposed into carbon dioxide, ammonia, methylamine and acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • On solution in glacial acetic acid and addition of nitric acid, �nitroalizarin OH //CO /�H (alizarin orange) I I OH /CO I / IOH CO //OH Various industries are carried on in Leblanc alkali works, as follows: I.

    0
    0
  • The gallium salts are precipitated by alkaline carbonates and by barium carbonate, but not by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution.

    0
    0
  • With aniline and acetic acid it yields azobenzene.

    0
    0
  • Numerous methods have been devised for the separation of nickel and cobalt, the more important of which are: -the cobaltinitrite method by which the cobalt is precipitated in the presence of acetic acid by means of potassium nitrite (the alkaline earth metals must not be present); the cyanide method (J.

    0
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  • Knorre (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 169) separate the metals by adding nitros01 3-naphthol in the presence of 50% acetic acid, a precipitate of cobalti nitroso-13-naphthol, [C 10 H 6 0(NO)] 3 Co, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, being formed, whilst the corresponding nickel compound dissolves in hydrochloric acid.

    0
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  • Dessaignes, ibid., 1860, 115, p. 120; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with sodium amalgam; by heating bromacetic acid with silver to 130° C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with potassium persulphate (C. Moritz and R.

    0
    0
  • Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.

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  • vini in that the alcohol is transformed into acetic acid.

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  • KETENES, in chemistry, a group of organic compounds which may be considered as internal anhydrides of acetic acid and its substitution derivatives.

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  • 91, p. 1938) among the gaseous products formed when a platinum wire is electrically heated under the surface of acetic anhydride.

    0
    0
  • Boric acid (q.v.) being only a weak acid, its salts readily undergo hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution, and this property can be readily shown with a concentrated aqueous solution of borax, for by adding litmus and then just sufficient acetic acid to turn the litmus red, the addition of a large volume of water to the solution changes the colour back to blue again.

    0
    0
  • The fluorene is separated from this by placing it in a freezing mixture, and is then redistilled or crystallized from glacial acetic acid, or purified by means of its picrate.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.

    0
    0
  • It has long been known that the production of vinegar depends on the oxidization of the alcohol in wine or beer to acetic acid, the chemical process being probably carried out in two stages, viz.

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  • the oxidation of the alcohol leading to the formation of aldehyde and water, and the further oxidation of the aldehyde to acetic acid.

    0
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  • The process may even go farther, and the acetic acid be oxidized to CO 2 and 01{2; the art of the vinegar-maker is directed to preventing the accomplishment of the last stage.

    0
    0
  • The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.

    0
    0
  • with zinc chloride and glacial acetic acid at 145° C. it yields resacetophenone (HO) 2 C 6 H 3 Coch 3 (M.

    0
    0
  • In 1822 he showed that when a mass of platinum black, supplied with alcohol by a wick is enclosed in a jar to which the air has limited access, acetic acid and water are produced; this experiment formed the basis of the Schiitzenbach Quick Vinegar Process.

    0
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  • There are several volumetric methods for assaying lead ores, but the best known is that based on the precipitation of lead by ammonium molybdate in an acetic acid solution.

    0
    0
  • The lead sulphate, obtained as described above and dissolved in ammonium acetate, is acidulated with acetic acid diluted with hot water and heated to boiling-point.

    0
    0
  • Next 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid are added, the solution cooled, and 5 cc. of a solution of potassium iodide (300 grammes to the litre) and the standard solution of sodium thiosulphate run in from a burette until the brown colour has nearly disappeared.

    0
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  • A few drops of starch solution are then added, and when the blue colour has nearly vanished a drop or two of methyl orange makes the end reaction very sharp. The thiosulphate solution is standardized by dissolving o 3 to o 5 gramme of pure copper in 3 cc. of nitric acid, adding 50 cc. of water and 5 cc. of ammonia, and titrating as above after the addition of 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 5 cc. of the potassium iodide solution.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1895, 17, p. 187) manufactures it by passing the vapour of acetic acid through a rotating iron cylinder containing a mixture of pumice and precipitated barium carbonate, and kept at a temperature of from 500° C. to 600° C. The mixed vapours of acetone, acetic acid and water are then led through a condensing apparatus so that the acetic acid and water are first condensed, and then the acetone is condensed in a second vessel.

    0
    0
  • Reduction by sodium amalgam converts it into isopropyl alcohol; oxidation by chromic acid gives carbon dioxide and acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • (r) Argenti nitras (United States and British pharmacopoeia), lunar caustic, incompatible with alkalis, chlorides, acids, except nitric and acetic, potassium iodide and arsenical solutions.

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    0
  • 6, p. 329); and by heating piperidine in acetic acid solution with silver acetate (J.

    0
    0
  • The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.

    0
    0
  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes readily from benzene or acetic acid and explodes when subjected to shock or when heated.

    0
    0
  • By adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to a solution of the sulphate in acetic acid a compound known as herapathite, 4Qu 3H 2 SO 4.2HI Ie6H 2 O, is obtained, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in Iwo parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively.

    0
    0
  • (German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.

    0
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  • Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.

    0
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  • Vauquelin, maintained that Scheele's new acid was nothing but impure acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • It is difficult, however, to limit its action, and glacial acetic and nitric acids are preferable for this purpose.

    0
    0
  • 1.42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic acids.

    0
    0
  • The A l -' 4 acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating A 2.4 dihydrophthalic anhydride with acetic anhydride.

    0
    0
  • "The trans-modification of A3 5 acid is produced when phthalic acid is reduced by sodium amalgam in the presence of acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • When heated for some time with acetic anhydride it changes to the cis-form.

    0
    0
  • The relationships existing between the various hydrophthalic acids may be shown as follows: - Dihydro (Trans.) Acetic anhydride A 3.5 Dihydro (Cis.) A.

    0
    0
  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.

    0
    0
  • By the action of hydrobromic acid (in glacial acetic acid solution) and reduction of the resulting product it yields I.

    0
    0
  • Sodium amalgam (hot) Sodium amalgam ± acetic acid Phthalic Acid Sodium amalgam (cold) Bo with Dihydro o Boil with water water 1'5 Dihydro Sodium amalgam Boil + NaOH Tetrahydro Dibromide -{- Reduce alcoholic potash D1HYDRO TEREPhthalic Acid Tropilene, C 7 H 10 0, is obtained in small quantities by the distillation of methyltropine methyl hydroxide, and by the hydrolysis of 13methyltropidine with dilute hydrochloric acid.

    0
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  • Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may be represented as follows: The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of pseudophenylacetamide, formed by condensing diazoacetic ester with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left in contact with strong ammonia for a long time.

    0
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  • It dissolves in acetic acid to form a red solution, is not decomposed by cold sulphuric acid, but with hydrochloric or nitric acid it yields barium and ferric salts, with evolution of chlorine or oxygen (Baschieri, Gazetta, 1906, 36, ii.

    0
    0
  • It is insoluble in dilute acetic acid, but dissolves in mineral acids.

    0
    0
  • It is a fuming liquid, which is soluble in benzene and in acetic acid; it dissolves in water to form a deep blue solution.

    0
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  • Many of his well-known researches were carried out in support of these views, one of the most important being that on the action of chlorine on acetic acid to form trichloracetic acid - a derivative of essentially the same character as the acetic acid itself.

    0
    0
  • Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.

    0
    0
  • The products of oxidation are not yet fully known; most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic and acetic acids, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in plates (from alcohol) melting at 70-71° C. and boiling at 2 54°C. It is oxidized by chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution to benzoic acid, dilute nitric acid and chromic acid mixture being without effect.

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  • - This includes sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, tartaric, citric, acetic and lactic acids, all of which owe their action to their acidity.

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  • Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.

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  • Gum arabic, when heated to 150° C. with two parts of acetic anhydride, swells up to a mass which, when washed with boiling water, and then with alcohol, gives a white amorphous insoluble powder called acetyl arabin C 6 H $ (C 2 H 3 O) 2 O 5.

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  • Raschig (Be y ., 1908, 4 1, p. 4 1 94) as a highly explosive colourless gas on acidifying a mixture of sodium azide and hypochlorite with acetic or boric acid.

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  • acetic anhydride, which was prepared in 1851.

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  • acetic acid in a fume cupboard.

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  • acetic acid vapor.

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  • acetic orcein, stages in mitosis can be observed.

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  • acetic acid solution.

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  • Thus, in 1850 he predicted the existence of acetic anhydride, which was prepared in 1851.

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    0
  • Activated Carbon Cloth is most commonly used in preventive conservation to retard the corrosion of metals by absorbing contaminants such as acetic acids.

    0
    0
  • In camphor factories, fumes of acetic acid can cause keratitis (Duke-Elder and McFaul 1972 ).

    0
    0
  • If the chromosomes of such cells are selectively stained with a dye such as acetic orcein, stages in mitosis can be observed.

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    0
  • It may be prepared in the amorphous form by heating cobalt with sulphur dioxide, in a sealed tube, at 200° C. In the hydrated condition it is formed by the action of alkaline sulphides on cobaltous salts, or by precipitating cobalt acetate with sulphuretted hydrogen (in the absence of free acetic acid).

    0
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  • It may be prepared by the addition of potassium nitrite to an acetic acid solution of cobalt chloride.

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    0
  • His investigations on vinegar-making revolutionized that industry, and he showed how, instead of waiting two or three months for the elaboration of the process, the vinegar could be made in eight or ten days by exposing the vats containing the mixture of wine and vinegar to a temperature of 20 to 25° C., and sowing with a small quantity of the acetic organism.

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  • To the study of the life-history of the butyric and acetic organisms we owe the terms "anaerobic" and "aerobic."

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  • The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.

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  • He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.

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  • Duclaux found that acetic acid is formed in small quantities during fermentation; aldehyde has also been detected.

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  • The production of acetic acid from alcohol has received much attention at the hands of investigators, and it has an important technical aspect in the manufacture of vinegar.

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  • It is somewhat readily oxidized; nitric acid gives carbonic and oxalic acids, and chromic acid, carbonic and acetic acids.

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  • As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.

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  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.

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  • Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.

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  • It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • The acid melts at 132° C., and at a higher temperature it rapidly decomposes into acetic acid and carbon dioxide.

    0
    0
  • In the presence of a dehydrating agent (such as acetic anhydride), it combines with aldehydes to form compounds of the type R CH: C(COOH) 2, or their decomposition products (formed by loss of C02) R CH: CH COOH.

    0
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  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.

    0
    0
  • Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body (see Acetic Acid).

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  • It is soluble in water and possesses an odour resembling that of acetic acid.

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    0
  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.

    0
    0
  • 7-dihydroxyxanthone, known as euxanthone, is prepared by heating euxanthic acid with hydrochloric acid or by heating hydroquinone carboxylic acid with 3-resorcylic acid and acetic anhydride (S.

    0
    0
  • 6-dihydroxyxanthone, isoeuxanthone, is formed when 0-resorcylic acid is heated with acetic anhydride.

    0
    0
  • In all cases it is usual to represent substances by formulae which to the best of our knowledge express their molecular composition in the state of gas, and not merely the relative number of atoms which they contain; thus, acetic acid consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of one atom of carbon, two of hydrogen, and one of oxygen, but its molecular weight corresponds to the formula C211402, which therefore is always employed to represent acetic acid.

    0
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  • The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 O, and its molecular formula is C2H402, or twiceTCH 2 O.

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    0
  • Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.

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  • According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.

    0
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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.

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  • Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.

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  • the existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.

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    0
  • The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.

    0
    0
  • CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.

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    0
  • Chlorination in glacial acetic acid solution yields pentachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (2) and, at a later stage, heptachlor-m-diketo-R-hexene (3).

    0
    0
  • Two acids corresponding to the formula of Kekule and Claus are triphenyl acrylic acid, (C6H5)2C: C([[Cooh) C 6 H]],, and triphenyl acetic acid, (C,H,),C 000H.

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    0
  • In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.

    0
    0
  • By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.

    0
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  • Hydroxylic oxygen is obtained by subtracting the molecular refractions of acetic acid and acetaldehyde.

    0
    0
  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .

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    0
  • Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).

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    0
  • Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.

    0
    0
  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.

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    0
  • They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.

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  • Acetophenoneoxime, C 6 H 5 C(:NOH) CH3, melts at 59° C. In glacial acetic acid solution, on the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid, it is converted into acetanilide.

    0
    0
  • Glucoseoxime on warming with acetic anhydride is simultaneously acetylated and dehydrated, yielding an acetylated gluconitrile, which when warmed with ammoniacal silver nitrate loses hydrocyanic acid and is transformed into an acetyl pentose.

    0
    0
  • Soc. Chem., 1882 [2], 37, P. 434; 38, p. 60) have also shown that the specific heat of the gas decreases with increase of temperature until it reaches a minimum at about 198-253° C. Cryoscopic determinations of the molecular weight of nitrogen peroxide dissolved in glacial acetic acid show that it corresponds to the molecular formula N204 at low temperatures (W.

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  • With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.

    0
    0
  • In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.

    0
    0
  • The mean values of k for other common acids were - formic, 0.0000214; acetic, o 0000180; monochloracetic, 0.0.0155; dichloracetic, 0.051; trichloracetic, 1.21; propionic, 0.0000134.

    0
    0
  • The two solutions, then, will so act on each other when mixed that they become isohydric. Let us suppose that we have one very active acid like hydrochloric, in which dissociation is nearly complete, another like acetic, in which it is very small.

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  • In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.

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  • Some acetic acid is formed, and this process will go on till the solutions of the two acids are isohydric: that is, till the dissociated hydrogen ions are in equilibrium with both.

    0
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  • In order that this should hold, we have seen that a considerable quantity of acetic acid must be present, so that a corresponding amount of the salt will be decomposed, the quantity being greater the less the acid is dissociated.

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  • It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.

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    0
  • By dissolving red lead, Pb304, in glacial acetic acid and crystallizing the filtrate, colourless monoclinic prisms of lead tetracetate, Pb(C2H302)4, are obtained.

    0
    0
  • Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.

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  • By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.

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  • These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.

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  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.

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  • It combines with ortho-diamines, in the presence of acetic acid, to form phenazines.

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  • Chem., 1892, 45, p. 604) observed acetic acid as a hydrolytic product.

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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.

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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.

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  • The usual test for solutions of aconitine consists in slight acidulation with acetic acid and addition of potassium permanganate, which causes the formation of a red crystalline precipitate.

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  • The hydrazones are best prepared by mixing the aldehyde with phenylhydrazine in dilute acetic acid solution, in the absence of any free mineral acid.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.

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  • Scholtz (Ber., 1894, 2 7, p. 2 95 8) from piperonyl acrolein (the condensation product of piperonal and acetaldehyde) and acetic acid.

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  • On oxidation with potassium permanganate it gives homovanillin, vanillin, &c.; with chromic acid in acetic acid solution it is converted into carbon dioxide and acetic acid, whilst nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid.

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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.

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  • Bladin HC -N (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 183) by the action of acetic)NH anhydride on dicyanophenylhydrazine (formed N: CH from cyanogen and phenylhydrazine), the resulting acetyl derivative losing water and yielding phenylmethylcyanotriazole, which, on hydrolysis, gives the free acid.

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  • The osotriazoles are obtained by heating the osazones of orthodiketones with mineral acids; by the action of acetic anhydride on the hydrazoximes of orthodiketones, or by condensing diazo-methane with cyanogen derivatives (A.

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  • This substance differs from the mucins by being precipitated by tannic acid but not by acetic acid, and being endowed with a higher proportion of sulphur.

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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.

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  • Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.

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  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

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  • On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.

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  • A ketose may also be obtained by reducing the osazone with zinc and acetic to an osamine, which with nitrous acid gives the ketose: R R R C :N NHPh.

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  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.

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  • It is oxidized by nitric acid to d-saccharic and mucic acids; and acetic anhydride gives an octa-acetate.

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  • It also results on condensing acetylene, and on reducing phenylacetylene by zinc dust and acetic acid.

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  • Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.

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  • It dissolves in mineral acids, but is insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • - From neutral solutions of its salts zinc is precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen as sulphide, ZnS - a white precipitate, soluble, but by no means readily, in dilute mineral acids, but insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.

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  • Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone; the production of this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene.

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  • The aromatic amine resembling the aliphatic amines is benzylamine, C 6 H 5 �CH 2 �NH 2, which may be prepared by reducing benzonitrile in alcoholic solution by means of zinc and acetic acid (0.

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  • Again, anode reactions, such as are observed in the electrolysis of the fatty acids, may be utilized, as, for example, when the radical CH3C02 - deposited at the anode in the electrolysis of acetic acid - is dissociated, two of the groups react to give one molecule of ethane, C 2 H 6, and two of carbon dioxide.

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  • Vinegar (or impure acetic acid), which is produced when wine is allowed to stand, was known to both the Greeks and Romans, who considered it to be typical of acid substances; this is philologically illustrated by the words OEbs, acidus, sour, and duos, acetus, vinegar.

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  • On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.

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  • Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid.

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  • It may also be prepared (in the form of its acetyl derivative) by heating a-naphthol with sodium acetate, ammonium chloride and acetic acid (A.

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  • It crystallizes in large plates, which melt at 98.5° C. and boil at 390° C. It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid.

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    0
  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid.

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  • The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.

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  • It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.

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  • This is neutralized with lime and redistilled in order to remove the acetic acid.

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  • To obtain it perfectly pure the crude alcohol is combined with oxalic, benzoic or acetic acid, and the resulting ester separated, purified, and finally decomposed with potash.

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    0
  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

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  • Sulphuric acid gives a white precipitate of calcium sulphate with strong solutions; ammonium oxalate gives calcium oxalate, practically insoluble in water and dilute acetic acid, but readily soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid.

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  • Krafft, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 3018): C16H33 CH2 CH2.0H->C161-133CH2 CH2.0 CO R-> C16H33CH: CH 2 -j-R COOH; from tertiary alcohols by the action of acetic anhydride in the presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid (L.

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    0
  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at 8° C. It is readily soluble in benzene, glacial acetic acid, and in many hydrocarbons.

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  • soc. chim., 18 94 (3) 11, p. 1129) obtained anilino-derivatives of the paraquinones by the action of an aqueous solution of potassium chromate on an acetic acid solution of para-aminodimethylaniline and phenol: C 6 H 5 OH+H 2 N C 6 H 4 N (CH 3) 2 - *O:C 6 H 4 :N C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2; these compounds yield the quinone when heated with mineral acids.

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  • It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.

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  • In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.

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  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic acid.

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  • Potash fusion decomposes it into benzoic and acetic acids.

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    0
  • Chem., 1889, 3, p. 11.) Iodine monochloride in glacial acetic acid solution was used by A.

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  • ACETIC ACID (acidum aceticum), CH 3 �CO 2 H, one of the most important organic acids.

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  • In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.

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  • Acetic acid (in the form of vinegar) was known to the ancients, who obtained it by the oxidation of alcoholic liquors.

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  • Dumas converted acetic acid into trichloracetic acid, and in 1842 L.

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  • Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.

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  • Kolbe; this taken in conjunction with Melsens's observation provided the first synthesis of acetic acid.

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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

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  • It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.

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  • ==Pharmacology and Therapeutics== Glacial acetic acid is occasionally used as a caustic for corns.

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  • Acetic acid has no valuable properties for internal administration.

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  • Vinegar, however, which contains about 5% acetic acid, is frequently taken as a cure for obesity, but there is no warrant for this application.

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  • soc. chim., 18 95, (3) 1 3, p. 735); and from the syn-aldoximes by the action of acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride.

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  • Chromium and its salts may be detected by the fact that they give a deep green bead when heated with borax, or that on fusion with sodium carbonate and nitre, a yellow mass of an alkaline chromate is obtained, which, on solution in water and acidification with acetic acid, gives a bright yellow precipitate on the addition of soluble lead salts.

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  • Normal chromates on the addition of silver nitrate give a red precipitate of silver chromate, easily soluble in ammonia, and with barium chloride a yellow precipitate of barium chromate, insoluble in acetic acid.

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  • In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.

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  • It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.

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  • Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.

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  • It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.

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  • Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alcoholic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazine and an amine.

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  • The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.

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  • It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.

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  • Crotonic acid, so named from the fact that it was erroneously supposed to be a saponification product of croton oil, may be prepared by the oxidation of croton-aldehyde, CH3 CH:CH CHO, obtained by dehydrating aldol, or by treating acetylene successively with sulphuric acid and water; by boiling allyl cyanide with caustic potash; by the distillation of 0-oxybutyric acid; by heating paraldehyde with malonic acid and acetic acid to, oo C. (T.

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  • CH2([[Coon)2+Ch3cho-->Ch3 Ch:C(000h)2->Ch3 Ch:Ch 000h]]; or by heating pyruvic acid with an excess of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate to 160-180° C. (B.

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  • Potash fusion converts it into acetic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids; chromic acid mixture to acetaldehyde and acetic acid, and potassium permanganate to a0-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Jacobsen has also obtained benzaldehyde by heating benzal chloride with glacial acetic acid: C 6 H 5 CHC1 2 +CH 3 000H =CH30001 +HC1+C6H5CHO.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

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  • Acetic Acid >>

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  • The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.

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  • Acid esters yield carbinols, many of which are unstable and readily pass over into unsaturated compounds, especially when warmed with acetic anhydride: R.

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  • By the alchemists the word was used principally to distinguish various highly volatile, mobile and inflammable liquids, such as the ethers, sulphuric ether and acetic ether having been known respectively as naphtha sulphurici and naphtha aceti.

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  • Equally good comparisons have been obtained for solutions in other solvents such as acetic acid 3.88, formic acid 2.84, benzene 5.30, and nitrobenzene 6.95.

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  • Its specific gravity is 96, a little less than that of water, and it dissolves freely in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic acid.

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  • With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.

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  • Diethyl ketone, (C2H5)2 CO, is a pleasant-smelling liquid boiling at 102.7° C. With concentrated nitric acid it forms dinitroethane, and it is oxidized by chromic acid to acetic and propionic acids.

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  • On heating with dilute sulphuric acid it yields acetone, but with the concentrated acid it gives mesitylene, Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetic acid and hydroxyisobutyric acid (A.

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  • Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.

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  • The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).

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  • Such are sugars (glucose, mannite, &c.), acids (acetic, citric and a whole series of lichen-acids), ethereal oils and resinous bodies, often combined with the intense colours of fungi and lichens, and a number of powerful alkaloid poisons, such as muscarin (Amanita), ergotin (Claviceps), &c.

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  • It is a product of the action of heat on many organic compounds, being formed when the vapours of ether, camphor, acetic acid, ethylene, acetylene, &c., are passed through a red-hot tube (M.

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  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.

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  • Bamberger (Ber., 18 94, 27, p. 9 1 4) obtained the diazoic acids, R NH NO 2, substances which he had previously prepared by similarly oxidizing the diazonium salts, by dehydrating the nitrates of primary amines with acetic anhydride, and by the action of nitric anhydride on the primary amines.

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  • Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.

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  • It may be condensed to a liquid, which boils at about o° C. It is a powerful methylating agent, reacting with water to form methyl alcohol, and converting acetic acid into methylacetate, hydrochloric acid into methyl chloride, hydrocyanic acid into acetonitrile, and phenol into anisol, nitrogen being eliminated in each case.

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  • Phys., 1862 (3), 65, p. 385 et seq.) have shown in the case of the formation of ethyl acetate from ethyl alcohol and acetic acid, a point of equilibrium is reached, beyond which the reacting system cannot pass, unless the system be disturbed in some way by the removal of one of the products of the reaction.

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  • Ethyl acetate (acetic ether), CH3.002C2H5, boils at 75° C. Isoamylisovalerate, C4H9 C02C5Hn, boils at 196° C. and has an odour of apples.

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  • Acetamidine, CH 3 C: (NH)�NH 2, is alkaline in reaction, and readily splits up into acetic acid and ammonia when warmed with acids.

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  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.

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  • It condenses with acetic anhydride to form a methyldiphenyl triazine, acetamide being also formed; with acetyl-acetone to form dimethylphenyl pyrimidine (A.

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  • Chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution oxidizes it to picene-quinone, picene-quinone carboxylic acid, and finally to phthalic acid.

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  • BENZYL ALCOHOL (PHENYL CARBINOL), C 6 H 5 CH 2 OH, occurs as a benzoic ester in Peru balsam, as cinnamic ester in Tolu balsam, as acetic ester in essential oil of jasmine, and also in storax.

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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and acetic acid, while alkaline potassium permanganate oxidizes it to carbon dioxide.

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  • Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.

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  • Acetyl urea, NH 2 CO NH 000H 31 formed by the action of acetic anhydride on urea, crystallizes in needles which melt at 212° C. and, on heating, strongly decomposes into acetamide and cyanuric acid.

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  • When heated with water it is decomposed into carbon dioxide, ammonia, methylamine and acetic acid.

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  • On solution in glacial acetic acid and addition of nitric acid, �nitroalizarin OH //CO /�H (alizarin orange) I I OH /CO I / IOH CO //OH Various industries are carried on in Leblanc alkali works, as follows: I.

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  • The gallium salts are precipitated by alkaline carbonates and by barium carbonate, but not by sulphuretted hydrogen unless in acetic acid solution.

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  • With aniline and acetic acid it yields azobenzene.

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  • Numerous methods have been devised for the separation of nickel and cobalt, the more important of which are: -the cobaltinitrite method by which the cobalt is precipitated in the presence of acetic acid by means of potassium nitrite (the alkaline earth metals must not be present); the cyanide method (J.

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  • Knorre (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 169) separate the metals by adding nitros01 3-naphthol in the presence of 50% acetic acid, a precipitate of cobalti nitroso-13-naphthol, [C 10 H 6 0(NO)] 3 Co, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, being formed, whilst the corresponding nickel compound dissolves in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Dessaignes, ibid., 1860, 115, p. 120; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with sodium amalgam; by heating bromacetic acid with silver to 130° C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with potassium persulphate (C. Moritz and R.

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  • Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.

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  • vini in that the alcohol is transformed into acetic acid.

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  • KETENES, in chemistry, a group of organic compounds which may be considered as internal anhydrides of acetic acid and its substitution derivatives.

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  • 91, p. 1938) among the gaseous products formed when a platinum wire is electrically heated under the surface of acetic anhydride.

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  • Boric acid (q.v.) being only a weak acid, its salts readily undergo hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution, and this property can be readily shown with a concentrated aqueous solution of borax, for by adding litmus and then just sufficient acetic acid to turn the litmus red, the addition of a large volume of water to the solution changes the colour back to blue again.

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  • The fluorene is separated from this by placing it in a freezing mixture, and is then redistilled or crystallized from glacial acetic acid, or purified by means of its picrate.

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  • It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.

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  • It has long been known that the production of vinegar depends on the oxidization of the alcohol in wine or beer to acetic acid, the chemical process being probably carried out in two stages, viz.

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  • the oxidation of the alcohol leading to the formation of aldehyde and water, and the further oxidation of the aldehyde to acetic acid.

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  • The process may even go farther, and the acetic acid be oxidized to CO 2 and 01{2; the art of the vinegar-maker is directed to preventing the accomplishment of the last stage.

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  • The idea that this film of bacteria oxidizes the alcohol beneath by merely condensing atmospheric oxygen in its interstices, after the manner of spongy platinum, has long been given up; but the explanation of the action as an incomplete combustion, depending on the peculiar respiration of these organisms - much as in the case of nitrifying and sulphur bacteria - is not clear, though the discovery that the acetic bacteria will not only oxidize alcohol to acetic acid, but further oxidize the latter to CO 2 and 01-1 2 supports the view that the alcohol is absorbed by the organism and employed as its respirable substance.

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  • with zinc chloride and glacial acetic acid at 145° C. it yields resacetophenone (HO) 2 C 6 H 3 Coch 3 (M.

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  • In 1822 he showed that when a mass of platinum black, supplied with alcohol by a wick is enclosed in a jar to which the air has limited access, acetic acid and water are produced; this experiment formed the basis of the Schiitzenbach Quick Vinegar Process.

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  • There are several volumetric methods for assaying lead ores, but the best known is that based on the precipitation of lead by ammonium molybdate in an acetic acid solution.

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  • The lead sulphate, obtained as described above and dissolved in ammonium acetate, is acidulated with acetic acid diluted with hot water and heated to boiling-point.

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  • Next 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid are added, the solution cooled, and 5 cc. of a solution of potassium iodide (300 grammes to the litre) and the standard solution of sodium thiosulphate run in from a burette until the brown colour has nearly disappeared.

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  • A few drops of starch solution are then added, and when the blue colour has nearly vanished a drop or two of methyl orange makes the end reaction very sharp. The thiosulphate solution is standardized by dissolving o 3 to o 5 gramme of pure copper in 3 cc. of nitric acid, adding 50 cc. of water and 5 cc. of ammonia, and titrating as above after the addition of 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 5 cc. of the potassium iodide solution.

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  • Soc., 1895, 17, p. 187) manufactures it by passing the vapour of acetic acid through a rotating iron cylinder containing a mixture of pumice and precipitated barium carbonate, and kept at a temperature of from 500° C. to 600° C. The mixed vapours of acetone, acetic acid and water are then led through a condensing apparatus so that the acetic acid and water are first condensed, and then the acetone is condensed in a second vessel.

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  • Reduction by sodium amalgam converts it into isopropyl alcohol; oxidation by chromic acid gives carbon dioxide and acetic acid.

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  • (r) Argenti nitras (United States and British pharmacopoeia), lunar caustic, incompatible with alkalis, chlorides, acids, except nitric and acetic, potassium iodide and arsenical solutions.

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  • 6, p. 329); and by heating piperidine in acetic acid solution with silver acetate (J.

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  • The orthoand parasemidines can be readily distinguished by their behaviour with different reagents; thus with nitrous acid the ortho-semidines give azimido compounds, whilst the para-semidines give complex diazo derivatives; with formic or acetic acids the ortho-semidines give anhydro compounds of a basic character, the para-semidines give acyl products possessing no basic character.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic acid, C $ H 17 CH: CH (CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, which is crystalline and melts at 51°.

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  • It crystallizes readily from benzene or acetic acid and explodes when subjected to shock or when heated.

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  • By adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to a solution of the sulphate in acetic acid a compound known as herapathite, 4Qu 3H 2 SO 4.2HI Ie6H 2 O, is obtained, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in Iwo parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively.

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  • dissolved in them was published in 1878; and continued investigation and experiment with various solvents, such as benzene and acetic acid, in addition to water, led him to believe in a simple relation between the molecular weights of the substances and the freezing-point of the solvent, which he expressed as the "loi generale de la congelation," that if one molecule of a substance be dissolved in loo molecules of any given solvent, the temperature of solidification of the latter will be lowered by 0.63° C. (See, however, the article Solution.) Another relation at which he worked was that the diminution in the vapour-pressure of a solvent, caused by dissolving a substance in it, is proportional to the molecular weight of the substance dissolved - at least ' when the solution is dilute.

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  • (German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.

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  • Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.

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  • Vauquelin, maintained that Scheele's new acid was nothing but impure acetic acid.

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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and carbon dioxide; potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyruvic acid; nitric acid to oxalic acid, and a mixture of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide.

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  • It is difficult, however, to limit its action, and glacial acetic and nitric acids are preferable for this purpose.

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  • Alcohols are obtained from the corresponding halogen compounds by the action of moist silver oxide, or by warming them with silver acetate and acetic acid; by the reduction of ketones with metallic sodium; by passing the vapours of monohydric phenols and hydrogen over finely divided nickel (P. Sabatier and J.

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  • 1.42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic acids.

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  • The A l -' 4 acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating A 2.4 dihydrophthalic anhydride with acetic anhydride.

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  • "The trans-modification of A3 5 acid is produced when phthalic acid is reduced by sodium amalgam in the presence of acetic acid.

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  • When heated for some time with acetic anhydride it changes to the cis-form.

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  • The relationships existing between the various hydrophthalic acids may be shown as follows: - Dihydro (Trans.) Acetic anhydride A 3.5 Dihydro (Cis.) A.

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  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.

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  • By the action of hydrobromic acid (in glacial acetic acid solution) and reduction of the resulting product it yields I.

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  • Sodium amalgam (hot) Sodium amalgam ± acetic acid Phthalic Acid Sodium amalgam (cold) Bo with Dihydro o Boil with water water 1'5 Dihydro Sodium amalgam Boil + NaOH Tetrahydro Dibromide -{- Reduce alcoholic potash D1HYDRO TEREPhthalic Acid Tropilene, C 7 H 10 0, is obtained in small quantities by the distillation of methyltropine methyl hydroxide, and by the hydrolysis of 13methyltropidine with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may be represented as follows: The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of pseudophenylacetamide, formed by condensing diazoacetic ester with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left in contact with strong ammonia for a long time.

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  • It dissolves in acetic acid to form a red solution, is not decomposed by cold sulphuric acid, but with hydrochloric or nitric acid it yields barium and ferric salts, with evolution of chlorine or oxygen (Baschieri, Gazetta, 1906, 36, ii.

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  • It is a fuming liquid, which is soluble in benzene and in acetic acid; it dissolves in water to form a deep blue solution.

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  • Many of his well-known researches were carried out in support of these views, one of the most important being that on the action of chlorine on acetic acid to form trichloracetic acid - a derivative of essentially the same character as the acetic acid itself.

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  • Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.

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  • The products of oxidation are not yet fully known; most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic and acetic acids, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones.

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  • It crystallizes in plates (from alcohol) melting at 70-71° C. and boiling at 2 54°C. It is oxidized by chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution to benzoic acid, dilute nitric acid and chromic acid mixture being without effect.

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  • - This includes sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, tartaric, citric, acetic and lactic acids, all of which owe their action to their acidity.

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  • Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.

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  • Gum arabic, when heated to 150° C. with two parts of acetic anhydride, swells up to a mass which, when washed with boiling water, and then with alcohol, gives a white amorphous insoluble powder called acetyl arabin C 6 H $ (C 2 H 3 O) 2 O 5.

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  • Raschig (Be y ., 1908, 4 1, p. 4 1 94) as a highly explosive colourless gas on acidifying a mixture of sodium azide and hypochlorite with acetic or boric acid.

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  • Vinegar in fact contains acetic acid and this reacts with the calcium carbonate making up the shell of the egg.

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  • Apple cider vinegar is a product of crushed apples, which contains acetic acid, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and salts.

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  • The acetic acid found in vinegar is enough to kill off the plant.

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  • Choose a product that has a high acetic acid level, not necessarily the type you would use in cooking.

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  • The acetic acid in vinegar effectively disinfects, deodorizes, and cuts grease on many different types of surfaces, without needing the complex and potentially toxic and harmful chemicals that are found in many commercial cleaning products.

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  • Furthermore, acetic acid also inhibits the growth of mold and bacteria, helping keep surfaces cleaner longer.

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  • Spray a homemade vinegar solution onto the glass in a small area and let it rest for several seconds to give the acetic acid the chance to work its magic.

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  • Patio: A moderate vinegar solution is an effective concrete cleaner for a patio, driveway, or sidewalk, and the acetic acid will help inhibit weed growth.

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  • Mother of vinegar is rich in acetic acid, which is one of the main active ingredients in apple cider vinegar.

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  • Acetic acid present in ACV is believed to slow the digestion of starch.

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  • The acetic acid in ACV may damage tooth enamel, parts of the digestive tract, and the esophagus.

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  • It is made up of a type of cellulose and acetic acid bacteria.

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  • The Mother changes the alcohol into acetic acid and develops delicate enzymes and complex proteins which play an instrumental role in the health benefits of apple cider vinegar that you're looking for.

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  • Other sources of calories include organic acids (such as acetic acid and lactic acid) and polyols (sugar alcohols such as Mannitol, Xylitol and Glycerol).

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  • Skip desserts, which are heavy in the stomach and may ferment when eaten with other foods, causing bacterium to alter them to alcohols, vinegars and acetic acids.

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  • A group of laboratory mice on a high-fat diet were also fed acetic acid, one of the components of vinegar, and compared to a group of mice on the same diet that received only water.

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  • None of the mice lost weight, but the mice receiving the acetic acid gained less than the control group.

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  • It's not clear why or how it worked, but scientists theorize that the acetic acid turns on genes that produce enzymes used by the body to break down fats.

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  • The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.

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