Tartaric acid, which is sometimes present in large quantities as an adulterant in commercial citric acid, may be detected in the presence of the latter, by the production of a precipitate of acid potassium tartrate when potassium acetate is added to a cold solution.
Of acetate of lead in a little water, then 1 oz.
Phenyl acetate, C 6 H 5.
In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.
With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
If an aqueous solution of methyl acetate be allowed to stand, a slow decomposition goes on.
Let us allow dilute sodium acetate to react with dilute hydrochloric acid.
The ammonium salt is then converted into the lead salt by precipitation with lead acetate and the lead salt decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen.
By the action of the acetic acid and atmospheric oxygen, the lead is converted superficially into a basic acetate, which is at once decomposed by the carbon dioxide, with formation of white lead and acetic acid, which latter then acts de novo.
Ammonium sulphide blackens it, and it is soluble in solution of ammonium acetate, which distinguishes it from barium sulphate.
The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.
Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.
It is best to commence the electrolytic thickening in a silver acetate bath.
The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.
Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.
Dry distillation is extremely wasteful even when definite substances or mixtures, such as calcium acetate which yields acetone, are dealt with, valueless by-products being obtained and the condensate usually requiring much purification.
Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.
If a solution of potassium acetate be electrolysed the products are ethane, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; in a similar manner, normal potassium succinate gives ethylene, carbon dioxide, potash and hydrogen; these reactions may be represented: CH 3 ï¿½CO 2;K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 1K CH 2 CO 2 K' --> I + + I I -i iI + CH 3 ï¿½CO 21 K CH 3 CO 2 K' CH 2 ï¿½CO 2 iK CH 2 CO 2 K' By electrolysing a solution of potassium ethyl succinate, KO 2 Cï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, the KO 2 Cï¿½ groups are split off and the two residues ï¿½(CH 2) 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 combine to form the ester (CH2)4(C02C2H5)2.
In the same way, by electrolysing a mixture of a metallic salt and an ester, other nuclei may be condensed; thus potassium acetate and potassium ethyl succinate yield CH 3 * CH2 ï¿½ CH2 ï¿½ C02 C2H5.
Weith, Ber., 1880, 13, 1300); or in the form of its acetyl derivative by heating /3-naphthol with ammonium acetate to 270-280° C. It forms odourless, colourless plates which melt at 111-112° C. It gives no colour with ferric chloride.
The acetate and the citrate are valuable mild diuretics in Bright's disease and in feverish conditions, and by increasing the amount of urine diminish the pathological fluids in pleuritic effusion, ascites, &c. In tubal nephritis they aid the excretion of fatty casts.
It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.
In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.
It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
Ferrous and ferric acetates are used as mordants; normal lead acetate is known in commerce as sugar of lead; basic copper acetates are known as verdigris.
In the form of a chromate, it may be determined by precipitation, in acetic acid solution, with lead acetate; the lead chromate precipitate collected on a tared filter paper, well washed, dried at loo° C. and weighed; or the chromate may be reduced by means of sulphur dioxide to the condition of a chromic salt, the excess of sulphur dioxide expelled by boiling, and the estimation carried out as above.
Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.
On pouring a solution of chromous chloride into a saturated solution of sodium acetate, a red crystalline precipitate of chromous acetate is produced; this is much more permanent in air than the other chromous salts and consequently can be used for their preparation.
Cyanogen compounds of chromium, analogous to those of iron, have been prepared; thus potassium chromocyanide, K 4 Cr(CN) 6.2H 2 0, is formed from potassium cyanide and chromous acetate; on exposure to air it is converted into the chromicyanide, K 3 Cr(CN) 6, which can also be prepared by adding chromic acetate solution to boiling potassium cyanide solution.
Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.
Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.
Trans., 1861, p. 163); the first named decomposing aluminium acetate (from lead acetate and aluminium sulphate) with boiling water, the latter dialysing a solution of the basic chloride (obtained by dissolving the hydroxide in a solution of the normal chloride).
Acetyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CO CH 3, may be prepared by the action of aluminium chloride on acetyl chloride, or by condensing ethyl acetate with acetone in the presence of sodium (L.
Acetonyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO -CH a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C. Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59), CH3000H2C1+Na CH [[Coch3(Coor) ->Ch3co Ch2 Ch 000h,(Coor) -Ch3co]] CH2 CH2 000H3; or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L.
When heated with water it forms ethyl hydroxy-acetate; with alcohol it yields ethyl ethoxyacetate.
Phys., 1862 (3), 65, p. 385 et seq.) have shown in the case of the formation of ethyl acetate from ethyl alcohol and acetic acid, a point of equilibrium is reached, beyond which the reacting system cannot pass, unless the system be disturbed in some way by the removal of one of the products of the reaction.
Ethyl acetate (acetic ether), CH3.002C2H5, boils at 75° C. Isoamylisovalerate, C4H9 C02C5Hn, boils at 196° C. and has an odour of apples.
P. 721) obtained the values 9.113 from analyses of beryllium acetonyl-acetate and beryllium basic acetate.
A higher hydrated oxide, CeO 3 xH 2 O, is formed by the interaction of cerous sulphate with sodium acetate and hydrogen peroxide (Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Comptes rendus, 1885, loo, p. 605).
Of the acetate to i fl.
Besides the dryers already mentioned, lead acetate, manganese borate, manganese dioxide, zinc sulphate and other bodies are used.
Geuther, who showed that the chief product of the action of sodium on ethyl acetate was a sodium compound of composition C6H903Na, which on treatment with acids gave a colourless, somewhat oily liquid of composition C6H1003.
The substance is best prepared by drying ethyl acetate over calcium chloride and treating it with sodium wire, which is best introduced in one operation; the liquid boils and is then heated on a water bath for some hours, until the sodium all dissolves.
Wanklyn have shown that pure ethyl acetate free from alcohol will not react with sodium to produce aceto-acetic ester.
The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
The yellow precipitate obtained is washed with a solution of potassium acetate and finally with dilute alcohol.
Calcium citrate must be manufactured with care to avoid an excess of chalk or lime, which would precipitate constituents of the juice that cause the fermentation of the citrate and the production of calcium acetate and butyrate.
Lead dioxide, Pb0 2, also known as "puce oxide," occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite, and may be most conveniently prepared by heating mixed solutions of lead acetate and bleaching powder until the original precipitate blackens.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.