In the case of solid figures a more difficult geometrical abstraction is involved.
The abstraction keeps moving forward, and the technology races to keep up.
By this theory, Hume is freed from all the problems of abstraction and judgment.
This, again, is a process of abstraction, the attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence.
Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.
There is a permissible abstraction, and in general they practise this, and although they narrow its range unduly, it is legitimately to be applied to certain characters of thinking.
In the Odyssey, where they are represented as bringing round the seasons in regular order, they are an abstraction rather than a concrete personification.
Princess Mary roused him from his abstraction by drawing his attention to her nephew who had entered the room.
adherents of the Yoga philosophy and the system of ascetic practices enjoined by it with the view of mental abstraction and the supposed attainment of superhuman powers - practices which, when not merely pretended, but rigidly carried out, are only too apt to produce vacuity of mind and wild fits of frenzy.
Our mistake lies in abstraction of the one from the other, which, as always, ends in confusion of the one with the other.
He lays special stress on the point that abstract ideas when held in their abstraction are almost interchangeable with their opposites - that extremes meet, and that in every true and concrete idea there is a coincidence of opposites.
It is Wundt's own statement of his solution of the epistemological problem " that on the one hand the whole outer world exists for us only in our ideas, and that on the other hand a consciousness without objects of idea is an empty abstraction which possesses no actuality " (System, 212 -213).
It follows that for the prposes of such description as is possible some process of abstraction is inevitable if our statements are to be simple and definite.
The last supposed syllogism, namely, that having two affirmative premises and entailing an undistributed middle in the second figure, is accepted by Wundt under the title "Inference by Comparison" (Vergleichungsschluss), and is supposed by him to be useful for abstraction and subsidiary to induction, and by Bosanquet to be useful for analogy.
(2) The process of abstraction takes an important place both in psychological and metaphysical speculation.
The fundamental thought is with him the unsatisfactoriness of abstraction or one-sidedness.
The workings in Great Britain represent the annual abstraction of rather more than a mass of rock equal to a foot in thickness spread over a square mile.
The "psychologicm" thus introduced into logic amounts to a systematic protest against the notion of a dehumanized thought and the study of logic in abstraction from actual psychic process.
The critic from this side has little difficulty in showing that abstraction of the kind alleged still leave the residuum particular this redness, e.g.
Nicholas glanced at her and, wishing to appear not to notice her abstraction, made some remark to Mademoiselle Bourienne and then again looked at the princess.
They failed to realize that permissible abstraction from specific contents or methods of knowledge does not obliterate reference to matter or content.
Upon abstraction from all particular methods of thought these rules were to be discerned a priori or without dependence on experience by reflection solely upon the use of the understanding in general.
Their aperient action is dependent upon the minimum of irritation of the bowel, and is exercised by their abstraction from the blood of water, which passes into the bowel to act as a diluent of the salt.
Though, for simplicity and universality of thought, even in science, we must use the abstraction of attributes, and, by the necessity and weakness of language, must signify what are not substances by nouns substantive, we must guard against the over-abstraction of believing that a thing exists as we abstract it.
When we take into account relative matter, however, and traces of a conception of abstraction as admitting of degree, 6 the question is not free from difficulty.
By this way of abstraction they are made capable of representing more individuals than one."
Reason has three stages, in the highest of which the mind is able, by abstraction from earthly things, to rise to contemplatio or the vision of the divine.
Abstraction proves to be synthesis with compensatory universal marks in the place of the particular marks abstracted from.
They take thought and " the given " as self-contained units which, if not in fact separable, are at any rate susceptible of an abstraction the one from the other so decisive as to constitute an ideal separation.
Metaphosphoric acid, HP0 3, is a monobasic acid which may be regarded as derived from orthophosphoric acid by the abstraction of one molecule of water, thus H 3 PO 4 - H 2 O = HP0 3; its constitution is therefore (HO)P0 2.
In the Positive state, inherent volition or external volition and inherent force or abstraction personified have both disappeared from men's minds, and the explanation of a phenomenon means a reference of it, by way of succession or resemblance, to some other phenomenon, - means the establishment of a relation between the given fact and some more general fact.
In isolation from its object the will is as much an abstraction as though apart from the world of precepts, memories and associations which give it content and stability.
all units of thought) are (1) analysable only by abstraction, and (2) are compound of deduction and induction, i.e.
Abstraction differs from Analysis, inasmuch as its object is to select a particular quality for consideration in itself as it is found in all the objects to which it belongs, whereas analysis considers all the qualities which belong to a single object.
Its nitrile (prussic acid) has an acid character, a property not possessed by the nitriles of the other members of the series; and, by the abstraction of the elements of water from the acid,.
On this false abstraction Sigwart has made an excellent criticism in an appendix at the end of his Logic, where he remarks that we cannot isolate events from the substances of which they are attributes.
If knowledge is experience of ideas distinguished by inner will of apperception into subject and object in inseparable connexion, if the starting-point is ideas, if judgment is analysis of an aggregate idea, if inference is a mediate reference of the members of an aggregate of ideas to one another, then, as Wundt says, all we can know, and all reason can logically infer from such data, is in our ideas, and consciousness without an object of idea is an abstraction; so that reason, in transcending experience, can show the necessity of ideas and " ideals," but infer no corresponding reality beyond, whether in nature, or in Man, or in God.
When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.
Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.
Again, starting from 0, by the abstraction of heat we can remove all the liquid and travel along the curve OD of equilibrium between the two solids (salt and ice) and the vapour.
While Anu, with whom there was associated as a pale reflection a consort Antum, assigned to him under the influence of the widely prevalent view among the early Semites which conceived of gods always in pairs, remained more or less of an abstraction during the various periods of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and taking little part in the active cult of the temples, his unique position as the chief god of the highest heavens was always recognized in the theological system developed by the priests, which found an expression in making him the first figure of a triad, consisting of Anu, Bel and Ea, among whom the priests divided the three divisions of the universe, the heavens, the earth with the atmosphere above it, and the watery expanse respectively.
In the sphere of abstract form, mathematics, the like may be allowed, abstraction being treated as an elimination of matter from the cn voXov by one act.
It is, however, of the sorts constituted by the representation which his abstraction makes possible that definition is given, either by enumeration of the simple ideas combined in the significance of the sortal name, or " to save the labour of enumerating," and " for quickness and despatch sake," by giving the next wider general name and the proximate difference.
Even in his " logic " Kant speaks of abstraction from all particular objects of thought rather than of a resolution of concrete thinking into thought and its " other " as separable co-operating factors in a joint product.
To allow, however, that abstraction admits of degrees, and that it never obliterates all reference to that from which it is abstracted, is to take a step forward in the direction of the correlation of logical forms with the concrete processes of actual thinking.
A judgment is practical, and not to be divorced without improper abstraction from the purpose and will that informs it.
The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CHï¿½CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.
Deliverance from the pantheistic conception of the universe comes through the recognition of the central place occupied by thought and purpose in the actual world, and, as a consequence of this, of the illegitimacy of the abstraction whereby material energy is taken for the ultimate reality.
Finally, by abstraction from the individual things of sense, the mind is able to contemplate the universal apart from its accompaniments (animal sine homine, asino, et aliis speciebus); these subjective existences are the universalia post rem of the Nominalists and Conceptualists.
In the first place, Herbart is quite aware of the nature of abstraction.
Our unconditioned is either a pure abstraction, or else the impossible notion of a completed system of conditions.
Many of its most distinguished exponents are Flemings by birth, and their writings reflect the characteristic Flemish scenery; they have the sensuousness, the colour and the realism of Flemish art; and on the other hand the tendency to mysticism, to abstraction, is far removed from the lucidity and definiteness associated with French literature properly so-called.
He spoke throughout, however, as if form and content were mutually indifferent, so that the abstraction of form from content implied nothing of falsification or mutilation.
The reserve, therefore, that it was abstraction and not a decomposing that was in question remained to the admirers of his logic quite nugatory.
Of the formal-symbolic logic all that falls to be said here is, that from the point of view of logic as a whole, it is to be regarded as a legitimate praxis as long as it shows itself aware of the sense in which alone form is susceptible of abstraction, and is aware that in itself it offers no solution of the logical problem.
4, 22) an attribute (o - vy13E 1 377KOs) is said to be only by being the substance possessing it, and any separation of an attribute from a substance is held to be entirely a work of human abstraction (acPaip€ n).
So he explains " concepts or general notions " 1 by an abstraction which he represents as a sort of alt-relief operated by attention and fixed by naming, association with the name giving to a set of attributes a unity they otherwise lack.
These qualities are required all the more because, in order to make any further progress with such an inquiry as we have suggested, we have deliberately to make use of abstraction as an instrument of investigation.
His genius was one of generalization and abstraction; and the aspirations of the time towards unity and perfection received, by his serene labours, an embodiment denied to them in the troubled world of politics.
From one abstraction they are led to another, to solve the difficulties which are created by the realization of the first.
As has been said, a large proportion of water enters into the composition of all living matter; a certain amount of drying arrests vital activity, and the complete abstraction The properties of living matter are intimately related to temperature.
Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.
Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.
Its unit, the logical concept, is a manipulated product and the process of manipulation may be called abstraction.
It is true matter can never be completely resolved into motion, but the irreducible remainder may be treated like the 7rpc.)T fl van of Aristotle as an abstraction which we asymptotically approach but never reach.
Again the pure being of Hegel is a mere abstraction, - a hypothesis illegitimately assumed, which he has nowhere sought to vindicate.
The intellectual intuition of Schelling, as above consciousness, the pure being of Hegel, as an empty abstraction, unvindicated, illegitimately assumed, and arbitrarily developed, are equally useless as bases of metaphysics.
This is necessarily the case, especially in the application to history of all formulas supposed to be derived either from an analysis of consciousness, or from an abstraction called pure thought.
We fail when we try either positively to phenomenalize substance or to dispense with the superphenomenal abstraction.
The cardinal assumption of Plato's metaphysic is, that the real is definitely thinkable and knowable in proportion as it is real; so that the further the mind advances in abstraction from sensible particulars and apprehension of real being, the more definite and clear its thought becomes.
He urges that the notion of " good 1 on the whole " is one which only a reasoning being can form, involving as it does abstraction from the objects of all particular desires, and comparison of past and future with present feelings; and maintains that it is a contradiction to suppose a rational being to have the notion of its Good on the Whole without a desire for it, and that such a desire must naturally regulate all particular appetites and passions.
That is to say, making abstraction of the pitching, the ship is slowly rising and falling in a total period of nearly twelve hours, while superimposed upon this slow motion is a more rapid motion due to the waves.
The so-called natural as distinguished from positive religion, or the religion of reason, is a mere abstraction.
The abstraction of heat does not then take place at constant temperature.
The unity and identity of the ego, so regarded, are taken in abstraction, i.e.
Kant, indeed, was mainly influenced by his strong opposition to the Leibnitzian rationalism, and therefore assigns the categories to understanding, the logical faculty, without consideration of the question, - which might have been suggested by the previous statements of the Dissertation, - what relation these categories held to the empirical notions formed by comparison, abstraction and generalization when directed upon representations of objects.
Their abstraction creates a hiatus in space-time and a sense of unboundedness.
One area contributing to this theme is to examine how designers abstract the worksystem and how they represent this abstraction in their designs.
Style in Makonde art varies from the detailed naturalistic to geometric abstraction.
This high-level abstraction is implemented with the help of the stack.
Or is the ' moment ' a purely mathematical abstraction, that is, a zero of time?
Do not imagine attention to be a mere abstraction.
The flourishing discipline of artificial life is based on the most remarkably pure abstraction imaginable.
abstraction licensing projects for a number of large multinational clients.
abstraction license on 19 October.
abstraction layer around them at all.
abstraction licenses are subject to periodic review and may be varied or revoked at any time to improve the supply to problem areas.
abstraction mechanism allows us to define type systems that generalize those of the lambda cube.
It is not known how much of an effect groundwater abstraction has on biodiversity.
A lambda abstraction denotes a function, to apply a lambda abstraction to an argument we use what is called beta-reduction.
Surface water abstraction currently accounts for up to 50% of the water put into supply.
A significant fraction of the oxy radical also reacts via hydrogen atom abstraction from the added reagent.
Each Subtle Collection class offers a unique data structure abstraction.
He remembers the days when assembly language was new, and considered a high level programming abstraction.
abstraction for spray irrigation during periods of water shortage.
Working on a higher abstraction level makes the process more agile at the same time.
Much of this work is based on the notion of a C* algebras, a natural abstraction of algebras of matrices.
There are also examples of styles that fall in between the two, where Chinese brushwork meets an almost western abstraction.
cad in archeology permits an abstraction to be viewed graphically.
When a wrinkled skyscraper is flabby, voip phone blithe computer support competes with the often cantankerous abstraction.
His work, although of modern simplicity and abstraction, embodies an enduring classicism of spirit.
In the world of our chosen abstraction - that of sequential execution of a method - it looks like our thread has hung.
Calder, M. and Miller, A. (2004) An automatic abstraction technique for verifying featured, parameterised systems.
This layer of abstraction allowed the user interface front-end to be conveniently separated from any audio device specifics.
generalization of the concept of abstraction in that a module is permitted to contain a collection of definitions.
high-level abstraction is implemented with the help of the stack.
hoplite warfare is in some sense an abstraction.
It cannot be identified with a pebble, whatever its degree of abstraction, and can never be grasped by a disembodied intellect.
The chief consequence of relying on an abstraction is political quietism.
reifyitalist consumption reifies not only the structures of the economic base but also the constructs of abstraction.
sneer at the man who prefers the labors of mental abstraction.
They also include a significant reduction in abstraction licenses to protect the environment which the Company does not believe have yet been properly substantiated.
Empty space, as distinguished from material extension, is a fictitious abstraction.
To abstraction and ignorance everything is possible."
The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CHÃ¯¿½CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.
Occam, on the other hand, maintains in the spirit of Hobbes that the act of abstraction does not presuppose any activity of the understanding or will, but is a spontaneous secondary process by which the first act (perception) or the state it leaves behind (habitus derelictus ex primo actu = Hobbes's " decaying sense ") is naturally followed, as soon as two or more similar representations are present.
Interiors were then divided into smaller rooms by means of sliding doors covered with thin rice-paper, which permitted the passage of light while obstructing vision; the hanging lattices were replaced by wooden doors which could be slid along a groove so as to be removable in the daytime, and an alcove was added in the principal chamber for a sacred picture or Buddhist image to serve as an object of contemplation for a devotee while practising the rite of abstraction.
He begins with psychical elements, sensations and feelings, but he asserts that these always exist in a psychical compound, from which they can be discovered only by analysis and abstraction; and his paradox that a pure sensation is an abstraction is repeated by W.
It expressly refers itself to the maxim of Protagoras that "man is the measure of all things," and is best conceived as a protest against the assumption that logic can treat thought in abstraction from its psychological context and the personality of the knower, i.e.
He examined and analysed the fact of human knowledge, and obtained the following results: (r) that the notion or idea of being or existence in general enters into, and is presupposed by, all our acquired cognitions, so that, without it, they would be impossible; (2) that this idea is essentially objective, inasmuch as what is seen in it is as distinct from and opposed to the mind that sees it as the light is from the eye that looks at it; (3) that it is essentially true, because "being" and "truth" are convertible terms, and because in the vision of it the mind cannot err, since error could only be committed by a judgment, and here there is no judgment, but a pure intuition affirming nothing and denying nothing; (4) that by the application of this essentially objective and true idea the human being intellectually perceives, first, the animal body individually conjoined with him, and then, on occasion of the sensations produced in him not by himself, the causes of those sensations, that is, from the action felt he perceives and affirms an agent, a being, and therefore a true thing, that acts on him, and he thus gets at the external world, - these are the true primitive judgments, containing (a) the subsistence of the particular being (subject), and (b) its essence or species as determined by the quality of the action felt from it (predicate); (5) that reflection, by separating the essence or species from the subsistence, obtains the full specific idea (universalization), and then from this, by leaving aside some of its elements, the abstract specific idea (abstraction); (6) that the mind, having reached this stage of development, can proceed to further and further abstracts, including the first principles of reasoning, the principles of the several sciences, complex ideas, groups of ideas, and so on without end; (7) finally, that the same most universal idea of being, this generator and formal element of all acquired cognitions, cannot itself be acquired, but must be innate in us, implanted by God in our nature.
In some cases of induction concerned with objects capable of abstraction and simplification, we have a power of identification, by which, not a priori but in the act of inducing a conclusion, we apprehend that the things signified ..SisP.
The generalization of a class is not, as the conceptual logic assumes, the abstraction of a general idea, but an inference from the analogy of a whole individual thing, e.g.
Of these "the positive alone is real, the negative is only an abstraction of the other, and in the highest generality even an abstraction of thought itself."
Capitalist consumption reifies not only the structures of the economic base but also the constructs of abstraction.
The specialized research worker is always ready to sneer at the man who prefers the labors of mental abstraction.
Death became an abstraction, something children only read about or experienced in a movie or television.
Amongst other variations, many hardcore or metal bands have combined post-rock style abstraction into their music, spawning what is commonly known as post-hardcore or post-core.
The mental process by which this idea is obtained is called abstraction.
The intellectual influence of Greece, manifested in Alexandrian philosophy, tended to remove God still further from the human world of phenomena into that of an inaccessible transcendental abstraction.
He opposed woman suffrage on the ground that the majority of women did not want it and never would, and declared that until woman should "emancipate herself from the thraldom to etiquette," he "could not see how the ` woman's rights theory ' is ever to be anything more than a logically defensible abstraction."
But though the notion of luck plays an important part in early thought, it seems improbable that the primitive Greeks would have personified a mere abstraction.
classification) is one of abstraction.
" He thinks that repetitions of similar conjunctions occur in Nature, the connexion of cause and effect only in abstraction.
The Aufklarung, with its rational theology, was to him the type of abstraction.
The extreme formalist is guilty of a fallacy of composition in regard to abstraction.
Schleiermacher's conception of dialectic is to the effect that it is concerned with the principles of the art of philosophizing, as these are susceptible of a relatively independent treatment by a permissible abstraction.
His religion is, however, anything but an abstraction to the savage, and stands rather for the whole of his concrete life so far as it is penetrated by a spirit of earnest endeavour.
It is not, however, a mere abstraction, being filled with clouds and darkness; from it proceed Erebus and Nyx (Night), whose children are Aether (upper air) and Hemera (Day).
In the middle of the century two men sought to incorporate in their philosophy the physical basis which Hegel had ignored in his spiritism - recognizing that life is conditioned by an environment and not an abstraction for metaphysics.
Yet his conception of this faculty as functioning only in and through motive and character, inclination and desire, certainly carries us a long way beyond the abstraction in which his opponents stuck, that of a bare faculty without any assignable content.
Now, though a pure specialist may be an abstraction of the mind, the tendency of specialists in any department naturally is to lose sight of the whole in attention to the particular categories or modes of nature's working which happen to be exemplified, and fruitfully applied, in their own sphere of investigation; and in proportion as this is the case it becomes necessary for their theories to be co-ordinated with the results of other inquirers, and set, as it were, in the light of the whole.
The last abstraction which it becomes the duty of philosophy to remove is the abstraction from the knowing subject which is made by all the sciences, including, as we shall see, the science of psychology.
But the adaptation of the idea to John's account of a historical person involved at least three profound modifications: - (1) the Logos, instead of the abstraction or semi-personification of Philo, becomes fully personified.
Athanasius has no terms for the definition of the Persons in the one " Divine " (ro OEiov), which are in their substance one; and yet he is certain that this "Divine" is not a mere abstraction, but something truly personal: " They are One," so he wrote later in his Discourses against the Arians, " not as though the unity were torn into two parts, which outside the unity would be nothing, nor as though the unity bore two, names, so that one and the same is at one time Father and then his own Son, as the heretic Sabellius imagined.
It seems probab,e that she was originally an abstraction, subsequently persorified, rather than an independent divinity of very ancient date.
Successive abstraction of raindrops as the rain-clouds pass over ridge after ridge causes a gradually diminishing precipitation, but this is generally insufficient to reverse the local conditions, which tend to the contrary effect in individual ranges.
Under modern legislation no such abstraction of water is usually allowed, even if limited to times of flood, except on condition of an augmentation of the natural dry-weather flow, and this condition at once involves the construction of a reservoir.
The font was viewed as the womb of the virgin mother church, who was in some congregations, for example, in the early churches of Gaul, no abstraction, but a divine aeon watching over and sympathizing with the children of her womb, the recipient even of hymns of praise and humble supplications.
From the basis of immediate experience or perception thought proceeds by comparison and abstraction, establishing connexions among facts, but remaining in its nature mediate and finite.
In the narrow sense "oxidation" may be regarded as the combination of a substance with oxygen, and conversely, "reduction" as the abstraction of oxygen; in the wider sense oxidation includes not merely the addition of oxygen, but also of other electro-negative elements or groups, or the removal of hydrogen or an electro-positive element or group. In inorganic chemistry oxidation is associated in many cases with an increase in the active valency.
For, if the action of the human will is to be made intelligible to understanding, it must be thought as a conditioned phenomenon, having its sufficient ground in preceding circumstances, and, in ultimate abstraction, as the outflow from nature which is the sum of conditions.
By his method of observation and induction as thus explained, his philosophy will be found to be marked off very clearly, on the one hand from the deductive construction of notions of an absolute system, as represented either by Schelling or Hegel, which Cousin regards as based simply on hypothesis and abstraction, illegitimately obtained; and on the other, from that of Kant, and in a sense, of Sir W.
The God I plead for is neither the deity of Pantheism, nor the absolute unity of the Eleatics, a being divorced from all possibility of creation or plurality, a mere metaphysical abstraction.
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