How to use Abstract in a sentence
They had no abstract ideas; in their minds all was concrete, visible and tangible.
His abstract submission met the deadline.
Can I have an abstract of the article?
Do you have an abstract of a paper or presentation you would like to give?
Choose five abstract nouns relating to recent conversational themes.Advertisement
He presented abstract concepts with empirical data.
He was searching for an abstract expressionist painting by de Kooning.
Thus Descartes gave to modern geometry that abstract and general character in which consists its superiority to the geometry of the ancients.
It does not appear, however, that a regularly organized or numerous Orphic sect ever existed, nor that Orphism ever became popular; it was too abstract, too full of symbolism.
Abstract expressionism was a New York painting movement of the 1940's with its artistic roots based upon abstract art.Advertisement
He asked me how I had taught Helen adjectives and the names of abstract ideas like goodness and happiness.
The neuter term brahma is used in the Rigveda both in the abstract sense of "devotion, worship," and in the concrete sense of "devotional rite, prayer, hymn."
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.
The first, De Sancta Trinitate, is addressed to Symmachus (Domino Patri Symmacho), and the result of the short discussion, which is of an abstract nature, and deals partly with the ten categories, is that unity is predicated absolutely, or, in regard to the substance of the Deity, trinity is predicated relatively.
Demea, who is willing to give up his abstract proof, brings forward the ordinary theological topic, man's consciousness of his own imperfection, misery and dependent condition.Advertisement
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
They were willing enough to admit the abstract claims of the Empire; but in the world of feudalism there was a multitude of established customs and rights which rudely conflicted with these claims, and in action, remote and abstract considerations gave way before concrete and present realities.
But at length many of them became formal logicians, who held that logic is the investigation of formal thinking, or consistent conception, judgment and reasoning; that it shows how we infer formal truths of consistency without material truth of signifying things; that, as the science of the form or process, it must entirely abstract from the matter, or objects, of thought; and that it does not tell us how we infer from experience.
It is not God as abstract, infinite and eternal, as the far-away creator of the universe, or even as the ruler of the world, which Paul worships, but it is God revealed in Jesus Christ, the Father of Jesus Christ, the grace and mercy in Jesus Christ which deliver from evil.
We thus at last attain a definite conclusion with regard to forms, and it appears clear that in Bacon's belief the true function of science was the search for a few fundamental physical qualities, highly abstract and general, the combinations of which give rise to the simple natures and complex phenomena around us.Advertisement
Of speculative interest the ordinary Roman had as little as may be; for abstract discussion and controversy he cared nothing.
Chemistry is abstract; mineralogy is concrete.
They continued to look on the whole machinery of government, emperor and army, church and police, as their natural enemies, and remained completely under the bondage of the abstract theories of the Socialists, just as much as fifty years ago the German bourgeois were controlled by the Liberal theories.
For this reason the book is at once the most brilliant and the most difficult of Hegel's works - the most brilliant because it is to some degree an autobiography of Hegel's mind - not the abstract record of a logical evolution, but the real history of an intellectual growth; the most difficult because, instead of treating the rise of intelligence (from its first appearance in contrast with the real world to its final recognition of its presence in, and rule over, all things) as a purely subjective process, it exhibits this rise as wrought out in historical epochs, national characteristics, forms of culture and faith, and philosophical systems. The theme is identical with the introduction to the Encyklopddie; but it is treated in a very different style.
There were philosophic and philanthropic elements in his political faith which will always lead some to class him as a visionary and fanatic; but although he certainly indulged at times in dreams at which one may still smile, he was not, properly speaking, a visionary; nor can he with justice be stigmatized as a fanatic. He felt fervently, was not afraid to risk all on the conclusions to which his heart and his mind led him, declared himself with openness and energy; and he spoke and even wrote his conclusions, how ever bold or abstract, without troubling to detail his reasoning or clip his off-hand speculations.Advertisement
He was not concerned with speculative questions about God, nor with abstract theories of his relationship to the soul and to the world.
In this they differed from the Eleatics and the Pythagoreans who thought in the abstract, and explained knowledge and existence in metaphysical terminology.
The extent of the material thus introduced out of course may be seen from the following abstract.
For, just as the Roman Church as a whole preserves in the spiritual sphere the spirit and much of the organization of the Roman Empire, so the administration of the Curia carries on the tradition of Roman government, with its reverence for precedent and its practice of deciding questions, not on their supposed abstract merits, but in accordance with the rules of law as defined in the codes or by previous decisions.
If Coke's reports show completer mastery of technical details, greater knowledge of precedent, and more of the dogged grasp of the letter than do Bacon's legal writings, there can be no dispute that the latter exhibit an infinitely more comprehensive intelligence of the abstract principles of jurisprudence, with a richness and ethical fulness that more than compensate for their lack of dry legal detail.
The philosophies which are " redargued " are divided into three classes, the sophistical, of which the best example is Aristotle, who, according to Bacon, forces nature into his abstract schemata and thinks to explain by definitions; the empirical, which from few and limited experiments leaps at once to general conclusions; and the superstitious, which corrupts philosophy by the introduction of poetical and theological notions.
The research into abstract qualities, the fundamental problem of physics, comes near to the metaphysical study of forms, which indeed differs from the first only in being more general, and in having as its results a form strictly so called, i.e.
But its inquiries may be directed either towards concrete bodies or towards abstract qualities.
In contrast to More's Utopia, the work is cold and abstract, and lacking in practical detail.
A thing is no longer, as Plato once thought, hot or hard or bright by partaking in abstract heat or hardness or brightness, but by containing within its own substance the material of these qualities, conceived as air-currents in various degrees of tension.
The duty of the enqueteurs was to make an abstract of the written documents and report on them.
As the powers and duties of consuls vary with the particular commercial interests they have to protect, and the civilization of the state in whose territory they reside, instead of abstract definition, we summarize the provisions on this subject of the British Merchant Shipping Acts.
But the intenser religious life before which deism fell was also a revolt against the abstract and argumentative orthodoxy of the time.
Though so typically a scholar and abstract thinker on the one hand and on the other a mystic, Edwards is best known to the present generation as a preacher of hell fire.
But in the great Sala dell' Asse (or della Torre) abundant traces of Leonardo's own hand were found, in the shape of a decoration of intricate geometrical knot or plait work .combined with natural leafage; the abstract puzzle-pattern, of a kind in which Leonardo took peculiar pleasure, intermingling in cunning play and contrast with a pattern of living boughs and leaves exquisitely drawn in free and vital growth.
Although President Polk immediately urged the formation of a territorial government for Oregon, the bill introduced for this purpose was held up in the Senate on account of the opposition of Southern leaders, who were seeking to maintain the abstract principle that slavery could not be constitutionally prohibited in any territory of the United States, although they had no hope of Oregon ever becoming slave territory.
Jacobi, accepting the law of reason and consequent as the fundamental rule of demonstrative reasoning, and as the rule explicitly followed by Spinoza, points out that, if we proceed by applying this principle so as to recede from particular and qualified facts to the more general and abstract conditions, we land ourselves, not in the notion of an active, intelligent creator of the system of things, but in the notion of an all-comprehensive, indeterminate Nature, devoid of will or intelligence.
Arithmetic is usually divided into Abstract Arithmetic and Concrete Arithmetic, the former dealing with numbers and the latter with concrete objects.
The division into abstract and concrete, for instance, is logical, if the former is taken as relating to number and the latter to numerical quantity (§ I I).
Number is concrete or abstract according as it does or does not relate to particular objects.
The Abstract Framework's main point is about building consensus across the different spec bodies.
Abstract We derive a method for inverting emission-line profiles formed in supernova ejecta.
This intellectual, precisely messy work takes Abstract expressionism and beats it at its own game.
In other words, developing empirical generalizations informed by abstract theory.
It was evident that Prince Andrew was not interested in such abstract conversation.
In primitive religions inclusive of almost every serious offence even in fields now regarded as merely social or political, its scope is gradually lessened to a single part of one section of ecclesiastical criminology, following inversely the development of the idea of holiness from the concrete to the abstract, from fetishism to mysticism.
They express abstract ideas imperfectly.
It commemorates "the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta t'sin in the Middle Kingdom," and beneath an incised cross sets out in Chinese and Syriac an abstract of Christian doctrine and the course of a Syrian mission in China beginning with the favourable reception of Olopan, who came from Judaea in 636.
In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
Speculative or theoretic knowledge is divided into abstract and concrete.
Concrete science relates to objects or beings; abstract science to events.
Thus, physiology is an abstract science; but zoology is concrete.
It is the method and knowledge of the abstract sciences that the Positive Philosophy has to reorganize in a great whole.
He was too much under the sway of feeling and concrete imagination to be capable of great things in abstract thought.
Having condensed his doctrines in the Principe and the Discorsi, he applies their abstract principles to the example of the Florentine republic. But the History of Florence is not a mere political pamphlet.
In the archives of the French Marine in Paris there were 3300 complete logs with 830,000 entries and II, 000 abstract logs from men-of-war.
His Latin is correct, and, except for an excessive and peculiar use of abstract words, shows hardly anything that might not have been written in the Augustan age.
This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences.
It is this that gives the Aristotelian doctrine in its more abstract statements an air of uncertainty.
As little from the side of knowledge is it likely that any theory will find acceptance which reduces all thought to a process of analysis and the discovery of abstract identity.
Vitality can only be retained by close association with more abstract branches of mathematics.
The difficulties to which reference has been made in § i r are largely due to the abstract nature of the process involved in the second of the above steps.
During the prosecution Giolitti abused his position as premier to abstract documents bearing on the case.
This abstract of the history of Yemen from ancient sources can now be verified and supplemented from inscriptions.
The Tableau economique, though on account of its dryness and abstract form it met with little general favour, may be considered the principal manifesto of the school.
This, again, is a process of abstraction, the attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence.
The final step in the process is the conception of the Absolute, which is abstract in the most complete sense.
But the abstract doubt " whether after all things may not be quite other in themselves than that which by the laws of our thought they necessarily appear " is a scepticism which, though admittedly irrefutable, is as certainly groundless.
It has been well observed that his style is a medium between that of Perugino and that of Giovanni Bellini; he has somewhat more of spontaneous naturalism than the former, and of abstract dignity in feature and form than the latter.
What strikes us most in his book is his wide and keen observation of social facts, and his perpetual tendency to dwell on these and elicit their significance, instead of drawing conclusions from abstract principles by elaborate chains of reasoning.
In the difficulty between England and the United States over the Venezuelan boundary (Dec. 1895) Mexico expressed strong adherence to the Monroe doctrine in the abstract, and suggested that its maintenance should not be left wholly to the United States, but should be undertaken by all American Powers.
Nature must not be conceived as merely abstract limit to the infinite striving of spirit, as a mere series of necessary thoughts for mind.
Schelling had neither the strength of thinking nor 4-he acquired knowledge necessary to hold the balance between the abstract treatment of cosmological notions and the concrete researches of special science.
He early attained to the settled conviction that for the actual disposition of the solar system some abstract intelligible reason must exist, and this, after much meditation, he believed himself to have found in an imaginary relation between the "five regular solids" and the number and distances of the planets.
His idea of the universe was essentially Pythagorean and Platonic. He started with the conviction that the arrangement of its parts must correspond with certain abstract conceptions of the beautiful and harmonious.
From this rare personal reminiscence we see at a glance that the mind of Plato and the mind of Aristotle were son, different, that their philosophies must diverge'; the one towards the supernatural, the abstract, the discursive, and the other towards thenatural, the substantial, the scientific.
Matter, as an abstract, unperceived substance or cause, is shown to be impossible, an unreal conception; true substance is affirmed to be conscious spirit, true causality the free activity of such a spirit, while physical substantiality and causality are held to be merely arbitrary, though constant, relations among phenomena connected subjectively by suggestion or association, objectively in the Universal Mind.
In the philosophies of Descartes and Locke a large share of attention had been directed to the idea of matter, which was held to be the abstract, unperceived background of real experience, and was supposed to give rise to our ideas of external things through its action on the sentient mind.
Before we deduce results from such abstract ideas as cause, substance, matter, we must ask what in reality do these mean - what is the actual content of consciousness which corresponds to these words?
According to him, we begin with an experience of ideas, in which object and idea are originally identical (V orstellungsobject); we divide this unitary experience into its subjective and objective factors; and especially in natural science we so far abstract the objects as to believe them at last to be independent things; but it is the office of psychology to warn us against this popular dualism, and to teach us that there is only a duality of psychical and physical, which are divisible, not separable, factors of one and the same content of our immediate experience; and experience is our whole knowledge.
He supposes first, that we falsely conclude from the sun being independent of each to being independent of all; secondly, that by " introjection " we falsely conclude that another's experience is in him and therefore one's own in oneself, while the sun remains outside; and thirdly, that by " reification " of abstractions, natural science having abstracted the object and psychology the subject, each falsely believes that its own abstract, the sun or the subject, is an independent thing.
Again, in being conscious of myself, I am not conscious of my mind in the abstract without my body.
The result of this confusion is that the moderns have no name at all for a distinct thing, and, being mere slaves of abstract terms, constantly speak of mere attributes, such as activity, life, will, actuality, unity of mental operations, as if they were distinct things.
Though, for simplicity and universality of thought, even in science, we must use the abstraction of attributes, and, by the necessity and weakness of language, must signify what are not substances by nouns substantive, we must guard against the over-abstraction of believing that a thing exists as we abstract it.
Aquinas thought that before the creation the one eternal essence of any kind was an abstract form, an idea in the intellect of God, like the form of a house in the mind of a builder, ante rem; that after the creation of any kind it is in re, as Aristotle supposed; and that, as we men think of it, it is post rem, as Aristotle also supposed.
In the first sense the word is used either in the abstract, for jurisprudence generally or for a state of things in which the laws of a country are duly observed ("law and order"), or in the concrete for some particular rule or body of rules.
About the middle of the 3rd century an abstract of the geographical portions of Pliny's work was produced by Solinus; and, early in the 4th, the medical passages were collected in the Medicina Plinii.
Great care was taken by the scribes in these renderings to mitigate the anthropomorphic expressions applied to God in the Scriptures, and by paraphrase, the use of abstract terms and indirect phraseology, to prevent such expressions from giving rise to erroneous views as to God's personal manifestation in the popular mind.
The lessons derived from the abstract principles enunciated by the physiologist, the chemist and the physicist require, however, to be modified to suit the special circumstances of plants under cultivation.
For example, an indeterminative vowel, a, e, i or u, may be prefixed to any root to form an abstract; thus, from me, " speak," we get e-me, " speech"; from ra, " to go," we get a-ra, " the act of going," &c. In connexion with the very complicated Sumerian verbal system 2 it will be sufficient to note here the practice of infixing the verbal object which is, of course, absolutely alien to Semitic. This phenomenon appears also in Basque and in many North American languages.
Hume naturally expected that the world would see as clearly as he did the connexion between the concrete problems agitating contemporary thought and the abstract principles on which their solution depended.
Without positively asserting much more than he can prove, he gives prominence to all the circumstances which support his case; he glides lightly over those which are unfavourable to it; his own witnesses are applauded and encouraged; the statements which seem to throw discredit on them are controverted; the contradictions into which they fall are explained away; a clear and connected abstract of their evidence is given.
Thus general or abstract ideas are merely copies of a particular impression conceived in a particular manner.
That the propositions are hypothetical in this fashion does not imply any distinction between the abstract truth of the ideal judgments and the im p erfect correspondence of concrete material with these abstract relations.
Neopythagoreanism was the first product of an age in which abstract philosophy had begun to pall.
The interests of Prussia, he urged, had been too often sacrificed to abstract ideas.
So logical and uncompromising a thinker as Godwin could not go far in the discussion of abstract questions without exciting the most lively opposition in matters of detailed opinion.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.
Since Mahomet's strength lay in his enthusiastic and fiery imagination rather than in the wealth of ideas and clearness of abstract thought on which exact reasoning depends, it follows that the older suras, in which the former qualities have free scope, must be more attractive to us than the later.
A fatwa is a decision according to Koran and Sunna, but without reasons, on an abstract case of law which is brought before the mufti by appeal from the cadi's judgment or by reference from the cadi himself.
In the "Adam and Eve" of the next year, we find Diirer treating the human form in an entirely opposite manner; constructing it, that is, on principles of abstract geometrical proportion.
They range from subjects of the homeliest and most mirthful realism to others serious and devout, and from literal or almost literal transcripts of natural form to the most whimsically abstract combinations of linear pattern and tendril .and flourish.
First appeared an abstract, the Regesta chronologico-diplomatica regum atque imperatorum Romanorum 911-1313 (Frankfort, 1831), which was followed by the Regesta chronologico-diplomatica Karolorum.
In the principate, patrician rank, a sort of abstract conception based upon the earlier state of affairs, was held to be a dignity suitable to be conferred on an individual holder of office.
Abstract argument has shown that change in the unity is impossible; yet the senses tell us that hot becomes cold, hard becomes soft, the living dies, and so on.
Here, as in contemporaneous criticisms of Kant's ethical writings, Hegel aims at correcting the abstract discussion of a topic by treating it in its systematic interconnexions.
In what we may call their psychological aspect these three stages are known as the abstract stage, or that of understanding (Verstand), the dialectical stage, or that of negative reason, and the speculative stage, or that of positive reason (Vernunft).
In the realm of abstract thought these transitions take place lightly.
He lays special stress on the point that abstract ideas when held in their abstraction are almost interchangeable with their opposites - that extremes meet, and that in every true and concrete idea there is a coincidence of opposites.
Being - the abstract " is " - is nothing definite, and nothing at least is.
The terms treated under the first head, in addition to those already mentioned, are the abstract principles of quantity and number, and their application in measure to determine the limits of being.
But the relations of Philo- pure thought, losing their inwardness, appear as relations of of space and time; the abstract development of thought sophy nature.
The first treats of space, time, matter, movement; and in the solar system we have the representation of the idea in its general and abstract material form.
Telesio was the head of the great South Italian movement which protested against the accepted authority of abstract reason, and sowed the seeds from which sprang the scientific methods of Campanella and Bruno, of Bacon and Descartes, with their widely divergent results.
The following is an abstract of Gadow's very interesting account.
He displayed similar wisdom and liberality in political affairs by appointing a commission to prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial decrees, which should form the authoritative code for his Roman subjects.
Even Epicureanism, which might appear concrete, was by him rightly designated abstract.
His hatred of system, incapacity for abstract thinking, and intense personality rendered it impossible for him to do more than utter the disjointed, oracular, obscure dicta which gained for him among his friends the name of "Magus of the North."
Nor does the use of abstract ideas and terms make any difference.
The speculative sciences, indeed, are classified according to their relation to form, pure, abstract or concrete, i.e.
If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.
In the sphere of abstract form, mathematics, the like may be allowed, abstraction being treated as an elimination of matter from the cn voXov by one act.
Facts are opposed to abstract universals.
Any abstract and limited point of view carries necessarily to its contradictory.
In any piece of presumed knowledge its partial or abstract character involves the presence of loose edges which force the conviction of inadequacy and the development of contradictions.
This is a meaning or universal, which can have no detached or abstract self-subsistence.
Any scheme of abstract dynamics constructed in this way, provided it be self-consistent, is mathematically legitimate; but from the physical point of view we require that it should help us to picture the sequence of phenomena as they aCtually occur.
The complete determination of the result of a collision under given circumstances is not a matter of abstract dynamics alone, but requires some auxiliary assumption.
Brah- Coupled with this abstract conception are two other manism* doctrines, viz.
That this is the case at Chidambaram is known to every Hindu, for if he ever asks the priests to show him the God in the temple he is pointed to an empty space in the holy of holies, which has been termed the Akasa, or ether-linga."But, however congenial this refined symbolism may be to the worshipper of a speculative turn of mind, it is difficult to see how it could ever satisfy the religious wants of the common man little given to abstract conceptions of this kind.
Laynez at the council of Trent has given one signal instance of its working, but its operations were by no means confined to the abstract field of dogma.
At first sight this abstract question seemed endlessly remote from the practical policy of Escobar; really there is a close connexion between the two.
Since, however, we learn from Bmda that already in his time Cadmon had had many imitators, the abstract probability is rather unfavourable than otherwise to the assumption that a collection of poems contained in a late 10th century MS. contains any of his work.
His purpose was to defend what may be called a humanist position in moral philosophy; that is, to show that morality was not an affair of mysterious innate principles, or abstract relations, or supernatural sanctions, but depended on the familiar conditions of personal and social welfare.
Though in its abstract statement John Mill's doctrine may not differ very greatly from that of his predecessors, actually there is a vast change.
Philosophy is altogether practical; it is of little matter to the fortunes of humanity what abstract notions one may entertain concerning the nature and the principles of things.'
The first were the speculative or logical philosophers, who construe the universe ex analogia hominis, and not ex analogia mundi, who fashion nature according to preconceived ideas, and who employ in their investigations syllogism and abstract reasoning.
The principal objects of physics are concrete substances, or abstract though physical qualities.
And if it be larger and wider, we must observe whether, by indicating to us new particulars, it confirm that wideness and largeness as by a collateral security, that we may not either stick fast in things already known, or loosely grasp at shadows and abstract forms, not at things solid and realized in matter."
Verses 15-17 are the indirect abstract of the speech's argument, but in verses 18-21 the apostle, carried away by the thought and barrier of the moment as he dictates to his amanuensis, forgets the original situation.
He wrote a detailed narrative of his expedition, of which a full abstract was embodied by Arrian in his Indica - one of the most interesting geographical treatises of antiquity.
Cudworth and Clarke had tried to place ethics on a nobler footing, but their speculations were too abstract for Butler and not sufficiently "applicable to the several particular relations and circumstances1 of life."
It is said in the Mani Kambum to have fallen from heaven in a casket (Tibetan, samatog), and, like the last-mentioned work, is only known to us in meagre abstract.
But it suited also the practical bent of the Roman mind, with its comparative indifference to abstract speculation or purely scientific research.
His moral ideal is no abstract one, and the virtues he praises are those which in his view made up the truly Roman type of character.
Among his most remarkable works may be mentioned his ten memoirs on quantics, commenced in 1854 and completed in 1878; his creation of the theory of matrices; his researches on the theory of groups; his memoir on abstract geometry, a subject which he created; his introduction into geometry of the "absolute"; his researches on the higher singularities of curves and surfaces; the classification of cubic curves; additions to the theories of rational transformation and correspondence; the theory of the twenty-seven lines that lie on a cubic surface; the theory of elliptic functions; the attraction of ellipsoids; the British Association Reports, 1857 and 1862, on recent progress in general and special theoretical dynamics, and on the secular acceleration of the moon's mean motion.
She is not so much a woman as woman in the abstract; and perhaps on this very account the poems written for her by her lover have been taken to the heart by countless lovers who came after him.
It substituted the work of the genius for the miraculous intervention of Providence, but, apart from certain abstract formulae such as Truth and Right, knew nothing of why or how.
For an abstract thinker he was strangely in love with the concrete facts of life.
As a general argument his account of the determination of the will is defective, notably in his abstract conception of the will and in his inadequate, but suggestive, treatment of causation, in regard to which he anticipates in important respects the doctrine of Hume.
It will not be easy to infuse into so abstract and bloodless a term as "metaphysics" the fuller life (and especially the inclusion of ethical considerations) suggested by the more concrete term "philosophy."
The first statement may frequently turn out to have been merely provisionally or relatively true; it is then superseded by, or rather inevitably merges itself in, a less abstract account.
Historical Writings, including the Four Last Years; Abstract of English History; and Remarks on Burnet, ed.
One can see how a language not originally suited for abstract problems and theological dialectics was slowly but surely improved and made capable of expressing profound and subtle ideas.
One more collection, an abstract from the Greek Basilica, published by Donici (Jassy, 1814), must be mentioned, for through it the legal.
In later times, with the introduction of Greek gods into the Roman theological system, Consus, who had never been the object of special reverence, sank to the level of a secondary deity, whose character was rather abstract and intellectual.
The interest in abstract exposition of clearly formulated theological ideas is everywhere subordinate to the polemical purpose.
The pilgrimage was so intimately connected with the wellbeing of Mecca, and had already such a hold on the Arabs round about, that Mahomet could not afford to sacrifice it to an abstract purity of religion, and thus the old usages were transplanted into Islam in the double form of the omra or vow of pilgrimage to Mecca, which can be discharged at any time, and the hajj or pilgrimage at the great annual feast.
Of the special histories and descriptions of Mecca published by Wi stenfeld (Chroniken der Stadt Mekka, 3 vols., 1857-1859, with an abstract in German, 1861), the most valuable is that of Azragi.
The reason for this is that in most cases the decretals did not formulate any law, but were merely solutions of particular cases, given as models; to arrive at the abstract law it was necessary to examine the solution in each case with regard to the circumstances and thus formulate a rule; this was the work of the canonists.
The abstract law was to be found rather in the Summae of the canonists than in the decretals.
He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers, and sent it to the princess for her own private use; but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbe Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person.
Others are The Primitive Origination of Man (1677); Of the Nature of True Religion, &c. (1684); A Brief Abstract of the Christian Religion (1688).
On the whole, the grouping method refers mainly to concrete numbers and the counting method to abstract numbers.
If, however, we count these three as one, two, three, then the number of times we count is an abstract number.
Thus number in the abstract is the number of times that the act of counting is performed in any particular case.
If the term number is confined to number in the abstract, then number in the concrete may be described as numerical quantity.
If we retain the unit, the arithmetic is concrete; if we ignore it, the arithmetic is abstract.
Of these three classes, the first is the least abstract and the last the most abstract.
In the second place, this method fixes the attention at once on the larger, and therefore more important, parts of the quantities concerned, and thus prevents arithmetical processes from becoming too abstract in character.
On soil and agriculture, see Biennial Reports (Topeka, 1877 seq.) of the State Board of Agriculture; Experiment Station Bulletin of the Kansas Agricultural College (Manhattan); and statistics in the United States Statistical Abstract (annual, Washington), and Federal Census reports.
He held that questions of abstract right had no place in politics.
He knew well that the appeal to abstract reason and the hatred of aristocracy would spread over Europe like a flood, and, as -he was in the habit of considering whatever was most opposed to the object of his dislike to be wholly excellent, he called for a crusade of all established governments against the anarchical principles of dissolution which had broken loose in France.
But it was soon apparent that the House of Commons required a definite scheme, and that it would not seriously consider a set of abstract resolutions which committed no one to any distinct plan.
Such works were evidently a sign that his mind was turning away from abstract speculation to the great political and economic fields, and to the more visible conditions of social stability and the growth of nations.
Into abstract discussion he would not enter.
To discuss Burke's writings on the Revolution would be to write first a volume upon the abstract theory of society, and then a second volume on the history of France.
Of a third work, De differentiis et societatibus graeci latinique verbi, we only possess an abstract by a certain Johannes, identified with Johannes Scotus Erigena (9th century).
Their effort is to expound Christianity, not from the point of view of philosophy like the Hegelians, nor from that of an abstract conception of religion, tempered by regard for historical precedents, like Schleiermacher, but from its own, from the Christian point of view.
He is typically English in his reverence for facts, whether facts of sense or of living consciousness, in his aversion from abstract speculation and verbal reasoning, in his suspicion of mysticism, in his calm reasonableness, and in his ready submission to truth, even when truth was incapable of being fully reduced to system by man.
But it points to the constitution of civil society in the abstract rather than to the actual origin of government as a matter of fact and past history.
The other books, concerned chiefly with ideas and words, are more abstract, and may have opened gradually on his mind as he studied more closely the subject treated in the fourth book.
The hypothesis is, that all human ideas, even the most complex and abstract and sublime, ultimately depend upon " experience."
By the mid-nineteenth century a formalized ' abstract time ' had become intrinsic to most people's lives.
There is such a thing as homicidal mania, or love of butchery in the abstract.
The Secret Doctrine tells us something of the way in which abstract Spirit becomes manifest.
All the on-line manuals have vanished from the Abstract site and none of the old kit is mentioned at all!
I never became a modern mathematician, never learned any of the abstract stuff.
Humans invent abstract mathematics, basically making it up out of their imaginations, yet math magically turns out to describe the world.
However, I have decided that a unicursal maze is an abstract pattern made by a single line, or a few crossing lines.
Abstract Permanent 3D microstructures are created within a gel using holographic optical tweezers.
A brief abstract of Smith's methods and results appeared in the Proc. R oy.
Blossom earrings look like true blooms with their multicolored abstract design.
He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
This was a phenomenon quite new in the world, and due, in fact, to the abstract spirit of the Greeks.
It was an abstract of Christian doctrine in a vague and figurative way.
From these sources the abstract at foot of page has been derived.
The ethical end is taken to be the idea of humanity, not in the abstract as formulated by Kant, but in the context of the state and of history.
Here he analyses " abstract ideas," and instructively illustrates the confusion apt to be produced in them by the inevitable imperfection of words.
He unfolds the relations between verbal signs and the several sorts of ideas; words being the means for enabling us to treat ideas as typical, abstract and general.
Turning from abstract mathematical and moral relations to concrete relations of coexistence and succession among phenomena - the third sort of knowable relation - Locke finds the light of pure reason disappear; although these relations form " the greatest and most important part of what we desire to know."
But inasmuch as the agreement between the acts of Leibnitz's monads is due to a divine pre-established harmony, and the theoretical contingency which in the abstract, i.e.
A regulative principle which may possess great value when applied and confined to the comparatively abstract material of the mathematical and quasimathematical sciences is highly dangerous if extended to the investigation of living bodies.
He could give no satisfactory account of Good in the abstract, and evaded all questions on this point by saying that he knew " no good that was not good for something in particular," but that good is consistent with itself.
We saw that Socrates, while not claiming to have found the abstract theory of good or wise conduct, practically understood by it the faithful performance of customary duties, maintaining always that his own happiness was therewith bound up. The Cynics more boldly discarded both pleasure and mere custom as alike irrational; but in so doing they left the freed reason with no definite aim but its own freedom.
But if the objects of abstract thought constitute the real world, of which this world of individual things is but a shadow, it is plain that the highest, most real life must lie in the former region and not in the latter.
It is in contemplating the abstract reality which concrete things obscurely exhibit, the type or ideal which they imperfectly imitate, that the true life of the mind in man must consist; and as man is most truly man in proportion as he is mind, the desire of one's own good, which Plato, following Socrates, held to be permanent and essential in every living thing, becomes in its highest form the philosophic yearning for knowledge.
This yearning, he held, springs - like more sensual impulses - from a sense of want of something formerly possessed, of which there remains a latent memory in the soul, strong in proportion to its philosophic capacity; hence it is that in learning any abstract truth by scientific demonstration we merely make explicit what we already implicitly know; we bring into clear consciousness hidden memories of a state in which the soul looked upon Reality and Good face to face, before the lapse that imprisoned her in an alien body and mingled her true nature with fleshly feelings and impulses.
Only he who apprehends good in the abstract can imitate it in such transient and imperfect good as may be realized in human life, and it is impossible that, having this knowledge, he should not act on it, whether in private or public affairs.
The substantial good of the universe, in Aristotle's view, is the pure activity of universal abstract thought, at once subject and object, which, itself changeless and eternal, is the final cause and first source of the whole process of change in the concrete world.
Pleasure, in Aristotle's view, is not the primary constituent of well-being, but rather an inseparable accident of it; human well-being is essentially well-doing, excellent activity of some kind, whether its aim and end be abstract truth or noble conduct; knowledge and virtue are objects of rational choice apart from the pleasure attending them; still all activities are attended and in a manner perfected by pleasure, which is better and more desirable in proportion to the excellence of the activity.
It belongs to this view to regard the imperfection of things as devoid of real being, and so incapable of being definitely thought or known; accordingly, we find that Plato has no technical term for that in the concrete sensible world which hinders it from perfectly expressing the abstract ideal world, and which in Aristotle's system is distinguished as absolutely formless matter (An).
Love of God in the former holds the same absolute and unique position as the sole element of moral worth in human action, which, as we have seen, was occupied by knowledge of Good in the latter; and we may carry the parallel further by observing that in neither case is this severity in the abstract estimate of goodness necessarily connected with extreme rigidity in practical precepts.
This side of Thomas's system is specially important, since it is just this blending of theological conceptions with the abstract theory of the later Roman law that gave the starting-point for independent ethical thought in the modern world.
It is therefore as unalterable, even by God himself, as the truths of mathematics, although its effect may be overruled in any particular case by an express command of God; hence it is cognizable a priori, from the abstract consideration of human nature, though its existence may be known a posteriori also from its universal acceptance in human societies.
Such are the evangelical principle of " doing as you would be done by the principle of justice, or " giving every man his own, and letting him enjoy it without interference "; and especially what More states as the abstract formula of benevolence, that " if it be good that one man should be supplied with the means of living well and happily, it is mathematically certain that it is doubly good that two should be so supplied, and so on."
It is to be observed that though More lays down the abstract principle of regarding one's neighbour's good as much as one's own with the full breadth with which Christianity inculcates it, yet when he afterwards comes to classify virtues he is too much under the influence of Platonic-Aristotelian thought to give a distinct place to benevolence, except under the old form of liberality.
Until this is done, the utmost demonstration of the abstract reasonableness of social duty only leaves us with an irreconcilable antagonism between the view of abstract reason and the self-love which is allowed to be the root of man's appetitive nature.
It remains to try another psychological basis for ethical construction; instead of presenting the principle of social duty as abstract reason, liable to conflict to any extent naturalness of man's social affections, and demonstrate a normal harmony between these and his self-regarding impulses.
This theory had already been advanced by Cumberland and others, but Shaftesbury was the first to make it the cardinal point in his system; no one had yet definitely transferred the centre of ethical interest from the Reason, conceived as apprehending either abstract moral distinctions or laws of divine legislation, for the emotional impulses that prompt to social duty; no one had undertaken to distinguish clearly, by analysis of experience, the disinterested and self-regarding elements of our appetitive nature, or to prove inductively their perfect harmony.
With the generation of moralists that followed, the consideration of abstract rational principles falls into the background, and its place is taken by introspective study of the human mind, observation of the actual play of its various impulses and sentiments.
Thus present man is a being that can only be understood through a knowledge of his past history; and any effort to construct for him a moral and political ideal, by a purely abstract and unhistorical method, must necessarily be futile; whatever modifications may at any time be desirable in positive law and morality can only be determined by the aid of " social dynamics."
According to Hegel, the essence of the universe is a process of thought from the abstract to the concrete; and a right understanding of this process gives the key for interpreting the evolution in time of European philosophy.
He assumes throughout that the pleasant is the opposite of what is painful, and seems unaware of the difficulty of determining by means of terms so highly abstract the specific character of moral action.
The claims of self-culture and of social service may when considered in the abstract or in some hypothetical case appear antagonistic and irreconcilable.
Nor were these abstract investigations unaccompanied by concrete results.
This school flourished at a time when medieval thought was directed to the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, and had perversely come to regard Aristotle as merely the founder of abstract logic and formal intellectualism, as opposed to Plato whose doctrine of Ideas seemed to tend in a naturalistic direction.
Thus the term "man" is concrete, while "manhood" and "humanity" are abstract, the names of the qualities implied.
Confusions between abstract and concrete terms are frequent; thus the word "relation," which is strictly an abstract term implying connexion between two things or persons, is often used instead of the correct term "relative" for people related to one another.
Mill, has been disputed on the ground that adjectives are applied both to concrete and to abstract terms. Hence some logicians make a separate class for adjectives, as being the names neither of things nor of qualities, and describe them as Attributive terms.
God is not to be conceived as mere abstract Being (substantia), but as everlasting process, activity (actus).
Odin would thus (if we admit the etymology) be the swift goer, the " ganger," and it seems superfluous to make him (with Grimm) " the all-powerful, all-permeating being," a very abstract and scarcely an early conception.
In the South Sea Islands, generally, the fable of the union and separation of Heaven and Earth is current; other forms will be found in Gill's Myths and Songs from the South Pacific. The cosmogonic myths of the Aryans of India are peculiarly interesting, as we find in the Vedas and Brahmanas and Puranas almost every fiction familiar to savages side by side with the most abstract metaphysical speculations.
A knowledge of being and existences (concrete, not abstract) and their mutual relations, is necessary as the beginning of philosophy.
Feudalism had gained ground in the 8th century; feudalism it was which had raised the first Carohingian to the throne as being the richest and most powerful person in Austrasia; and Charlemagne with all his power had been as utterly unable as the Merovingians to revive the idea of an abstract and impersonal state.
The reformers shook off the yoke of systems in order boldly to renovate both knowledge and faith; and, instead of resting on the abstract a priori principles within which man and nature had been imprisoned, they returned to the ancient methods of observation and analysis.
Thus regular obedience to an abstract principle was under Mazarin as incomprehensible to the idle and selfish nobility as it had been under Richelicu.
But the chief interest for the history of logic belongs to his doctrine in so far as it bears upon the nature and function of abstract ideas.
He had distinguished the universal essence in its abstract nature, from the universal considered in relation to a number of singulars.
It is intellect which first makes the abstract idea a true universal.
The form animal, e.g., is an abstract intelligible or metaphysical idea.
Thus Avicenna, like his predecessors, tried to harmonize the abstract forms of philosphy with the religious faith of his nation.
It is a mere abstract or statement of the Peripatetic systems, and was made preliminary to that Destruction of which we have already spoken.
This transcendent or abstract being is that which the world of nature is always seeking.
A special application of this relation between the prior perfect, and the imperfect, which it influences, is found in the doctrine of the connexion of the abstract (transcendent) intellect with man.
And, therefore, finding on reflection any particular concrete factor contingent, we abstract the position from that which occupies it, and so reach the speculative notion of the pure Ego.
The extraordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz.
But the method which was peculiarly his, and which still forms the open road to discoveries in natural science, consisted in the combination of experiment with calculation - in the transformation of the concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous comparison of results.
Arnauld retorted that the church might be infallible in abstract questions of theology; but as to what was passing through an author's mind it knew no more than any one else.
Mill's principle, though sound in the abstract, has, except in a few cases, little practical value in determining the admissibility of hypotheses, and in practice any rule which tends to discourage hypothesis is in general undesirable.
It will be observed that, in the Leibnitzian as in the empirical individualism, the fundamental notion is still that of the abstract separation of the thinking subject from the materials of conscious experience.
The consequences of the abstract separation which Kant so draws between the ego and the world of experience are apparent throughout his whole system.
At the foundation of the judgments which express the types of synthetic combination, through which knowledge is possible, lie the pure general notions, the abstract aspect of the conditions under which objects are cognizable in experience.
Categories were in themselves abstract and valueless, serviceable only when restricted to possible objects of experience.
Productive imagination is thus the concrete element'of knowledge, and its general modes are the abstract expression of the a priori laws of all possible experience.
The mathematical principles are the abstract expression of the necessary mode in which data of sense are determined by the category in the form of intuitions or representations of objects; the dynamical are the abstract expression of the modes in which the existence of objects of intuition is determined.
The first has been translated into English, and an abstract of the third has been published.
Rhys Davids, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892, contains an abstract of the Katha Vatthu; "On the Abhidhamma books of the Sarvastivadins," by Prof. Takakusu, in Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1905.
For, though the quarrel with popular anthropomorphism was patched up, and the gods of the Pantheon were described by Stoics and Epicureans as manlike in form, philosophy nevertheless tended to highly abstract conceptions of supreme, or real, deity.
It may well be that the whole abstract edifice of modern mathematics is built on these biologically innate foundations.
It was the personification of an abstract idea.
As Lionel Robbins shows, all the major classical economists were quite vehement in their denunciation of laissez faire as an abstract standard.
Verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning and abstract reasoning are timed tests, each lasting 20 minutes.
A pathname, whether abstract or in string form, may be either absolute or relative.
Setch is one of a generation of leading British artists whose work was fundamentally affected by American abstract expressionism in the late 1950s.
One area contributing to this theme is to examine how designers abstract the worksystem and how they represent this abstraction in their designs.
Abstract ideas are difficult to convey on television, or at least to an audience accustomed to fast-paced action.
Abstract ABSTRACT What should be the role of AI in computer supported vocabulary acquisition?
We could, therefore, abstract the variable from the feature in the adverb phrase rather than the adverb phrase rather than the adverb.
Papert sincerely wants to escape the one-sidedness of an overly analytical, abstract approach to learning.
Abstract Jones matrices describe the polarization, or spin angular momentum, of a light beam as it passes through an optical system.
Abstract We used clomiphene and dexamethasone in 40 infertile women to treat chronic anovulation resistant to the use of clomiphene alone.
Slowly, the old land-owning aristocracy was beginning to lose ground to the abstract forces of money.
Abstract Fossil evidence of terrestrial vascular plant life and terrestrial arthropods exists from the Silurian.
Abstract We address the issue of modeling a simple timeout in timed automata.
These serenely abstract images form a counterpoint to the haunting final photographs made at his father's bedside.
By contrast, the Abstract of the paper, much more widely read - seems seriously bland.
Abstract Hazard assessment and risk mitigation at restless calderas is only possible with adequate geophysical monitoring.
Abstract There has been growing interest in the mechanisms underlying the oscillatory properties of the mammalian cerebral cortex.
Abstract Peptostreptococcus anaerobius is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus anaerobius is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus that is widely distributed in the normal human flora.
The law takes no cognizance of carelessness in the abstract.
Sophie Taeuber's increasingly abstract collages lead off rooms showing Zurich developments.
They invite colleagues interested in presenting a paper to the panel to submit a 3-400 word abstract by 5th May.
Abstract We show how abstract requirements of garbage collection can be captured using temporal logic.
To date this has been an abstract concept that explains why dependent failures are likely to occur.
On the one hand the equivariant Tamagawa number conjecture gives an abstract and still largely conjectural approach which applies in very general situations.
Abstract I propose a counterexample to naturalistic representational theories of phenomenal character.
However, to illustrate to prospective customers our capabilities in this area, our work can be described in abstract.
Or I may have an irresistible (and fairly abstract) preoccupation with something very deep-rooted.
The claim to universality and the isolated abstract individual presupposed by such economics constitutes a denial of interdependence and impermanence.
Abstract The quantum noise of the light field is a fundamental noise source in interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.
Abstract Whether pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion is controversial.
While these may seem abstract possibilities the existence of a false consensus or a false dissensus could seriously affect the functioning of an organization.
The large works in pen and ink imitate the small marks of the tiny sketches, be they figurative images or abstract doodles.
Abstract Objective To clarify the role played by endothelial cell production of fibrinolytic factors in normal pregnancy and pre- eclampsia.
It's the symbolic representation of a myth, a graphic depiction of something utterly abstract yet elemental.
In the third series the compositions range from purely epigraphic, to abstract ornamental inscriptions, to the total filling of the central area.
Their denotational semantics are fully abstract with respect to contextual equivalence.
The work of Colleen or Cecile Schott bristles with the mystery and magic of the most abstract of scratchy old film noir incidental soundtracks.
Abstract. cDNAs specific to vegetal poles of Xenopus gastrula embryos were used as a probe to screen a gastrula embryos were used as a probe to screen a gastrula vegetal pole cDNA library.
It is a means of using geometric devises to gain an insight into abstract views of cosmology, mental and emotional disciplines.
My work is extremely colorful and yet often ghostly and quite abstract.
Abstract In 1977, Appel and Haken proved that every planar graph is four vertex colourable.
Abstract This paper describes a graph visualization method that attempts to aid the understanding of graph visualization method that attempts to aid the understanding of graphs by adding continuous local movement to graph diagrams.
The models in the KADS model document are primarily descriptive, providing high-level, abstract models using an informal representation.
About the Artist Original artwork produced by Canadian artist, primarily abstract impressionism.
Abstract The field of biologically inspired computing has generated many novel, interesting and useful computational systems.
Abstract Using cognitive architectures to analyze the usability of human-computer interfaces is an extensively investigated strategy.
W. F. Scott Abstract kappa, and more generally weighted kappa, is a measure of the level of agreement between two raters.
Abstract The nuclear lamina is a filamentous structure composed of lamins that supports the inner nuclear membrane.
Abstract A new method was developed in this study for testing excised sheep mandibles as a cantilever.
Abstract LISA will be the first space-borne gravitational wave observatory.
Abstract In a survey in 1989 Spector observed that 70% of women who had had bilateral oophorectomy had never received hormone replacement therapy.
According to McKechnie (1977 ), the typology of environmental simulations includes perceptual (experiential, concrete) and conceptual (abstract ).
He creates a fascinating dialog between his raw, colorful, textured abstract paintings and his elegant black-and-white female nude photographs.
Abstract When weaned early, piglets commonly take some time to accept solid food, resulting in a growth check and reduced welfare.
Expressions in Wood I specialize in hand carving bowls, platters, dishes and abstract sculptures mostly from native grown hardwoods.
Abstract We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance.
On a syntactical approach for defining weakest preconditions (extended abstract ).
Abstract The extraction of geometric primitives from images is a fundamental task in computer vision.
Abstract School choice has become an increasingly prominent strategy for urban school districts seeking to enhance academic achievement.
Such demonstrative pronouns tend to refer to a statement or abstract idea rather than to a specific noun.
Abstract Fourier decomposition is a well-established technique used in the study of stellar pulsation.
Abstract We demonstrate the viability of improved staggered light quarks in studies of heavy-light systems.
Enterprise goals or Service Level Agreements can be considered as high-level abstract policies which must be progressively refined into implementable policies.
The mental algorithm bears only a highly abstract relation to the actual figure.
Paintings that follow a distinctive path by building bridges between the abstract and the figurative, between public statement and private reverie.
Moreover, the abstract expression of rejected pluralism was a widespread revulsion from the very concept of a private sector.