Absorption sentence example

absorption
  • Mention may be made of the absorption spectrum of benzene.
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  • that hydriodic acid is formed from its elements with absorption of this amount of heat.
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  • indicates that if 28 grammes of nitrogen could be made to unite directly with 16 grammes of oxygen to form nitrous oxide, the union would cause the absorption of 18500 calories.
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  • Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
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  • The evaporation from this large basin exercises a certain influence on the climate of the surrounding country, while the absorption of heat for the thawing of the ice has a notable cooling effect in early summer.
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  • This coloring matter, as shown by its absorption spectrum, picks out of the ordinary beam of light a large proportion of its red and blue rays, together with some of the green and yellow.
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  • With the suppression and absorption of the independent principalities the problem was only half solved.
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  • Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.
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  • The absorption of these rays implies that the pigment absorbs radiant energy from the sun, and gives us some explanation of its power of constructing the carbohydrates which has been mentioned as the special work of the apparatus.
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  • There is no need for cuticularization here, as the external dangerous influences do not reach the interior, and the processes of absorption which Boussingault attributed to the external cuticularized cells can take place freely through the, delicate cell-walls of the interior, saturated as these are with water.
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  • There is set up at once a certain hydrostatic pressure, due to the turgidity which ensues upon such absorption, and the extensible cell wall stretches, at first in all directions.
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  • The later tendency was towards the absorption of smaller holdings into large estates.
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  • Against this power of absorption Bonaparte declaimed vehemently, asserting also that the proclamateurelecteur would be a mere cochon a l'engrais.
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  • The formation of the conducting tubes or secretory sacs which occur in all parts of the higher plants is due either to the elongation of single cells or to the fusion of cells together in rows by the absorption of the cell-walls separating them.
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  • The true Buddhist on the contrary looks forward with enthusiasm to this absorption into eternal bliss.
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  • The absorption of the French by Moscow, radiating starwise as it did, only reached the quarter where Pierre was staying by the evening of the second of September.
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  • It is marked by the constant and continuous absorption of a certain quantity of oxygen and bythe exhalation of a certain volume of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
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  • Up to very recently the original absorption and subsequent treatment of the carbon dioxide and the compounds of nitrogen has been called by the same term.
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  • Even in the higher flowering plants, in which the processes of the absorption of substances from the environment has been most fully studied, there is a stage in their life in which the nutritive processes approximate very closely to those of the group last mentioned.
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  • The absorption of the cell-walls takes place very early in the germina-, ting seedling.
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  • The rebellious elements allied themselves instinctively with the Poles, who thus found the absorption of the greater part of the lands of the Order an easy task.
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  • It is conspicuous by its absorption spectrum in many of the white stars.
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  • In a general way this greater complexity may be said to consist (I) in the restriction of regular absorption of water to those parts of the plant-body embedded in the soil, (2) in the evaporation of water from the parts exposed to the air (transpiration).
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  • Brahmanic pantheism and Buddhistic nihilism alike teach the unreality of the seeming world, and preach mystical absorption as the highest goal; in both, the sense of the worth of human personality is lost.
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  • This rapid absorption of the khanates brought Russia into close proximity to Afghanistan, and the reception of Kaufmann's emissaries by the Amir was a main cause of the British war with Afghanistan in 1878.
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  • Stomata are often absent, absorption and excretion of gases in solution being carried on through the epidermal layer.
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  • Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.
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  • The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.
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  • Other symptoms of undue absorption are vertigo, deafness, sounds in the ears, stupefaction, a subnormal temperature, nausea, vomiting and a weak pulse (Sir Thomas Fraser).
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  • They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
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  • Certain cells of the exterior are set apart for absorption of water from the soil, this being the source from which supplies are derived.
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  • For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.
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  • This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.
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  • There is some evidence that in this group the ectoderm of the oesophagus is chiefly concerned with digestion, whereas the endoderm of the intestine is limited to the absorption of the soluble products.
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  • All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
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  • This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
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  • This is the absorption of elaborated compounds from their environment, by whose decomposition the potential energy expended in their construction can be liberated.
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  • The planting of eucalyptus trees is out of favour at present, but it appears to have been successful in Portugal, not from any prophylactic virtues in the plant, but through the great absorption of moisture by its deep roots, which tends to dry the subsoil.
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  • The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.
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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
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  • Atwater, History of the Colony of New Haven to its Absorption into Connecticut (New Haven, 1881); H.
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  • The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
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  • Within the empire a very great diversity of nationalities is comprised, due to the amalgamation or absorption by the Slav race of a variety of Ural-Altaic stocks, of Turko-Tatars, Turko-Mongols and various Caucasian races.
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  • Smolensk and Chernigov were definitely incorporated in the tsardom of Muscovy, and great progress was made towards the absorption of Little Russia.
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  • Besides absorption, assimilation, conduction and protection there is another very important function for which provision has to be made in any plant-body of considerable size, especially when raised into the air, that of support.
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  • He realized that with the enclosure of the waste lands and the absorption of small into large ho] dings, the commonfield farmer must migrate to the town or become a hired labourer; but he also realized that to feed a rapidly growing industrial population, the land must be improved by draining, marling, manuring and the use of better implements, in short by the investment of the capital which the yeoman farmer, content to feed himself and his own family, did not possess.
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  • The Albigensian Crusades, however, belong to French history; and it can only be noted here that their ultimate result was the absorption of the fertile lands, and the extinction of the peculiar civilization, of southern France by the northern monarchy.
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  • They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.
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  • Investigations carried out by Blackman, and by Brown and Escombe, have shown clearly that the view put forward by Boussingault, that such absorption of gases takes place through the cuticular covering of the younger parts of the plant, is erroneous and can no longer be supported.
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  • They are not, however, to be used in the disinfection of instruments, nor where any large abraded surface would favour absorption.
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  • It is found that atmospheric absorption is generally greater in summer than in winter, a difference of 20% being found between March and August; morning hours show a rapid and often irregular increase of transparency, culminating shortly after noon, after which the diminution is slow and comparatively regular.
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  • If all the light is absorbed, then percent transmittance is zero, and absorption is infinite.
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  • It was almost inevitable in the transition from feudalism to democracy that this intermediate ground should be traversed; and the peculiar Italian phrases, primo popolo, secondo popolo, terzo pa polo, and so forth, indicate successive changes, whereby the oligarchy passed from one stage to another in its progress toward absorption in democracy or tyranny.
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  • Care must always be taken to avoid absorption (see Carbolic Acid).
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  • In accordance with the general principle already indicated, it is only where absorption is localized (i.e.
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  • This in several cases runs vertically downwards for some distance in the outer cortex, and ends blindlythe lower end or the whole of the trace being band-shaped or star-shaped so as to present a large surface for the absorption of water from the adjacent cortical cells.
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  • The fact of such absorption does not render these substances food; they are taken in not as food, but as raw materials to be subjected to the action of this constructive mechanism, and by it to be converted into substances that can nourish protoplasm, both vegetable and animal.
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  • In its medicinal use glycerin is an excellent solvent for such substances as iodine, alkaloids, alkalis, &c., and is therefore used for applying them to diseased surfaces, especially as it aids in their absorption.
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  • The other end is connected with the absorption vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and a set of bulbs (f) containing potash solution.
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  • When there is no more absorption in the potash bulbs, the oxygen supply is cut off and air passed through.
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  • Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down to the temperature of the room.
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  • Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry.
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  • Examination of the absorption spectra of coloured compounds shows that certain groupings displace the absorption bands in one direction, and other groupings in the other.
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  • He has also shown that the nitrophenols yield, in addition to the colourless true nitrophenol ethers, an isomeric series of coloured unstable quinonoid aci-ethers, which have practically the same colour and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic salts.
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  • When the salt is taken by the mouth, absorption is extremely rapid, the salt being present in the peripheral blood within ten minutes.
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  • He also engaged in work on magnetism, the polarization of light, phosphorescence and the absorption of light in crystals.
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  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.
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  • After the subjugation of the Yemen, the absorption of the holy places was also attempted, and in Suleiman's reign judges were appointed thither from Constantinople.
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  • It was not long before Russia showed that it was not the independence but the absorption of the Crimea which she desired.
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  • The salts show a characteristic absorption spectrum.
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  • A series of equivalent solutions all containing the same coloured ion have absorption spectra which, when photographed, show identical absorption bands of equal intensity.
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  • Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.
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  • When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.
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  • Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
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  • Among other subjects at which he subsequently worked were the absorption of gases in blood (1837-1845), the expansion of gases by heat (1841-1844), the vapour pressures of water and various solutions (1844-1854), thermo-electricity (1851), electrolysis (1856), induction of currents (1858-1861), conduction of heat in gases (1860), and polarization of heat (1866-1868).
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  • It forms colourless transparent crystals, soluble in one and a half parts of cold water and in eight parts of alcohol, which on exposure to ordinary air become opaque through absorption of carbonic acid, which forms a crust of basic carbonate.
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  • This should be painted on the affected part with a camel's hair brush dipped in chloroform, which facilitates the absorption of the alkaloid.
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  • Finally, there is a law of absorption expressed by a+ab = a.
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  • It is among them so important whilst the Record in all its details is so far beyond the receptive capacity of the brain, that selection and guidance are employed by the elders in order to enable the younger generation to benefit to the utmost by the absorption (so to speak) in the limited span of a lifetime of the most valuable influences to be acquired from this prodigious envelope of Recorded Experience.
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  • It aids the absorption of fats and may be used with cod liver oil when the latter is administered by the skin.
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  • Taken internally, ether acts in many respects similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked, being exerted both reflexly from the stomach and directly after its rapid absorption.
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  • Absorption of this infarcted zone is carried on by means of leucocytes and other phagocytic cells, and by new blood-vessels.
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  • If absorption be not complete the mass undergoes caseation and becomes surrounded by a capsule of fibrous tissue - being sharply cut off from the healthy tissue.
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  • The gland then slowly shrinks and undergoes absorption.
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  • Where the material is too large to be taken up by an individual cell, the dissolution is brought about by the cells surrounding the material, to which they closely apply themselves, and by the secreting of the ferment, a gradual process of erosion is brought about with ultimate absorption.
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  • It is believed also that they secrete bactericidal substances and ferments which bring about the liquefaction of the fibrin and the damaged tissues - histolysis - and thus assist the process of absorption.
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  • Their function being at an end they give way to these cells which carry on the process of absorption.
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  • Numerous fibroblasts, together with polyblasts, are visible in the fibrin mass, and the vessels at the periphery of the damaged zone are now seen to be sending out offshoots which assist in the process of absorption.
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  • These crystals are extremely resistant to absorption, are found in old blood clots, and have been known to persist in old cerebral haemorrhages after many years.
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  • The grave palsies in such diseases as influenza, diphtheria, beriberi, or ensuing on the absorption of lead, are in the main not central, but due to a symmetrical peripheral neuritis.
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  • The folly of absorption in the amassing and enjoyment of wealth is also shown (xii.
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  • (All from Pintner.) the worm and to resist the peristaltic action of the intestine in which it lives, and are not connected directly with the absorption of food.
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  • When the pore-space of the soil is filled with water it becomes water-logged and few plants can effect absorption by their roots under such conditions.
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  • When hydraulic pressure to the amount of 2000 to 3000 lb per square inch is applied, the saving is unquestioned, since less time is required to dry the pressed retort, its life in the furnaces is longer, its absorption of zinc is less, and the loss of zinc by passage through its walls in the form of vapour is reduced.
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  • Probably this fact, together with the more general fact of the absorption in most things of the German in the Roman, accounts for the substitution of the patrocinium for the comitatus which took place under the Merovingians.
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  • There the synod of Ephesus was declared to have been a "robber synod," its proceedings were annulled, and, in accordance with the rule of Leo as opposed to the doctrines of Eutyches, it was declared that the two natures were united in Christ, but without any alteration, absorption or confusion.
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  • The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort.
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  • Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
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  • Its very principle implies the absorption of all that great thinkers had achieved; while incorporating their results it extended their methods..
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  • That this accuracy may sometimes degenerate into triviality, and that such absorption in trifles may occasionally hide the broad horizon, is conceivable.
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  • The venom is generally introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, whence it reaches the general circulation by absorption through the lymph and blood-vessels.
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  • Lucretius Carus (96-55) were entire seclusion from public life and absorption in the ideal pleasures of contemplation and artistic production.
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  • After absorption, which is very rapid, alcohol exerts a marked action upon the blood.
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  • In the notation of the calculus the relations become - dH/dp (0 const) = odv /do (p const) (4) dH/dv (0 const) =odp/do (v const) The negative sign is prefixed to dH/dp because absorption of heat +dH corresponds to diminution of pressure - dp. The utility of these relations results from the circumstance that the pressure and expansion co efficients are familiar and easily measured, whereas the latent heat of expansion is difficult to determine.
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  • Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
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  • In case of conquest the conquered nationality takes to emigration on an extensive scale, as after the absorption of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany in 1871.
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  • The process of absorption goes on as follows: The inhabitants of the country immediately surrounding a town of rapid growth flock into it; the gaps thus left in the rural population are filled up by migrants from more remote districts, until the attractive force of one of the rapidly-growing cities makes its influence felt, step by step, to the most remote corner of the land.
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  • Migrants enumerated in a certain centre of absorption will consequently grow less with the distance, proportionately to the native population which furnishes them.
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  • The process of dispersion is the inverse of that of absorption, and exhibits similar features.
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  • Many amalgams are formed by the direct contact of a metal with mercury, sometimes with absorption, sometimes with evolution, of heat.
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  • Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
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  • 4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
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  • On this account it is very difficult to know when all the gas is driven out of a sample of sea-water, and a much larger proportion is present than the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere and its coefficient of absorption would indicate.
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  • It is convenient to distinguish between absorption and transmission dynamometers.
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  • On the other hand, the theory encounters a very serious difficulty in the fact that all molecules possess a great number of possibilities of internal motion, as is shown by the number of distinct lines in their spectra both of emission and of absorption.
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  • At the congress of Vienna (1814-15) for the settlement of European affairs, Talleyrand, as the representative of the restored house of Bourbon in France, managed adroitly to break up the league of the Powers (framed at Chaumont in February 1814) and assisted in forming a secret alliance between England, Austria and France in order to prevent the complete absorption of Poland by Russia and of Saxony by Prussia.
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  • They therefore devoted themselves to examining the nature of the soul, and taught that its freedom consists in communion with God, to be achieved by absorption in a sort of ecstatic trance.
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  • It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.
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  • by taking advantage of the different rates of diffusion of the two gases; the solubility of air in water corresponds with the "law of partial pressures," each gas being absorbed in amount proportional to its pressure and coefficient of absorption, and oxygen being much more soluble than nitrogen (in the ratio of 04114 to 02035 at o°); air expelled from water by boiling is always richer in oxygen.
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  • The losses are caused by volatilization, by the absorption of metal by the crucible, stirring rod, &c., and by occasional projection of particles from the pot into the furnace.
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  • Hence the light from the marginal and central portions of the disc is identical in quality, and the limb can be little, if at all, darkened by the" smoke-veil "absorption conspicuous in the sun.
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  • When the Bavarian succession fell open in 1777, Frederick Augustus joined Prussia in protesting against the absorption of Bavaria by Austria, and Saxon troops took part in the bloodless " potato-war."
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  • When taken by the mouth, cod-liver oil shares with other liver-oils the property of ready absorption.
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  • The jealousy of their increasing influence at last led to a massacre, and to the expulsion or absorption of the survivors.
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  • The crystallized salt dissolves very readily in water with a considerable absorption of heat; hence its use in forming "freezing mixtures."
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  • While it cannot be said that the full significance of this very definite phenomenon, consisting of the splitting of the spectral line into a number of polarized components, has yet been made out, a wide field of correlation with optical theory, especially in the neighbourhood of absorption bands, has been developed by Zeeman himself, by A.
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  • Contemporary with him were Hugh of St Victor and his pupil Richard of St Victor, both monks of the abbey of St Victor at Paris, the aim of whose teaching, based on that of the PseudoDionysius, was a mystical absorption of thought in the Godhead and the surrender of self to the Eternal Love.
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  • Thus Cyrenaicism did not entirely vanish with its absorption in Epicureanism.
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  • Sumpner in 1891, an electrostatic voltmeter is employed to measure the fall of potential V 1 down any inductive circuit in which it is desired to measure the power absorption, and also the volt-drop V2 down an inductionless resistance R in series with it, and also the volt-drop V3 down the two together.
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  • The power absorption is then given by the expression (V 3 2 - V i 2 -V2 2)/2R.
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  • For the details of these and many other methods of employing wattmeters to measure the power absorption in single and polyphase circuits the reader is referred to the following works: J.
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  • He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
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  • Its salts are reddish violet in colour, and give a characteristic absorption spectrum.
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  • It is far from easy to determine how far the development of the class of prophets meant the absorption into it of the old seers.
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  • Since the absorption of the aborigines in Israel Canaanite ideas had exercised great influence over the sanctuaries - so much so that the reforming prophets of the 8th century regarded the national religion as having become wholly heathenish; and this influence the ordinary prophets, whom a man like Micah regards as mere diviners, had certainly not escaped.
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  • It is the evident policy of the Mexican government to prevent the absorption of its railways by private monopolies, and this is effected by state ownership of a controlling share in most of the trunk lines.
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  • The number of factories reported for 1899 was 743, but as the consumption of leaf, tobacco increased from 5,546,677 to 8,587,356 kilogrammes, it may be assumed that the decrease in factories is due to the absorption or disappearance of the small shops using old-fashioned methods.
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  • Such bodies show strong absorption bands in those colours which they reflect, while of the transmitted light that which is of a slightly greater wave-length than the absorbed light has an abnormally great refrangibility, and that of a slightly shorter wave-length an abnormally small refrangibility.
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  • Only very thin layers are sufficiently transparent to show the dispersion near or within an absorption band, and a large refracting angle is not required, the dispersion usually being very considerable.
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  • Sellmeier's theory did not take account of absorption, and cannot be applied to calculate the dispersion within a broad absorption band.
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  • von Helmholtz, working on a similar hypothesis, but with a frictional term introduced into his equations, obtained formulae which are applicable to cases of absorption.
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  • The equations finally arrived at are DX2(A2_ 2) (x2_ A2m)2+g2A2 ' DgA3 (A A l m) 2 +g 2 A2 ' where is the wave-length in free ether of light whose refractive index is n, and A m the wave-length of light of the same period as the electron, is a coefficient of absorption, and D and g are constants.
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  • The sign of summation X is used in cases where there are several absorption bands, and consequently several similar terms on the right-hand side, each with a different value of A m.
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  • In a region where there is no absorption, we have = o and therefore g=o, and we have only one equation, namely, x2_ A2m' which is identical with Sellmeier's result.
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  • As A m is a wave-length corresponding to an absorption band, this formula can be used to find values of A m which satisfy the observed values of n within the region of transparency, and so to determine where the absorption bands are situated.
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  • After absorption into the blood, the acetates are oxidized to carbonates, and therefore are remote alkalies, and are administered whenever it is desired to increase the alkalinity of the blood or to reduce the acidity of the urine, without exerting the disturbing influence of alkalies upon the digestive tract.
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  • In the opinion of the writer the latter instrument will ultimately replace the bolometer, its only disadvantage being that the radiations have to traverse the side of a vessel, and are therefore subject to absorption.
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  • When there is appreciable absorption as in the case of the vapours of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, selenium and arsenic, luminosity begins at a red heat.
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  • - The general recognition of spectrum analysis as a method of physical and chemical research occurred simultaneously with the theoretical foundation of the connexion between radiation and absorption.
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  • of two independent factors (i) an absorption of the incident radiation, and (2) the radiation of the absorbing medium, which takes place equally in' all directions.
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  • It is assumed further that the absorption is proportional to the incident radiation and (at any rate approximately) independent of the temperature, while the radiation is assumed to be a function of the temperature 6 Phil.
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  • This division into absorption and radiation is to some extent artificial and will have to be revised when the.
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  • When now a small bead of a salt of sodium or lithium is placed in the flame the spectrum of the white hot platinum is traversed by the dark absorption of the D lines.
    0
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  • This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.
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  • We might probably with advantage find some definition of what may be called " radiation temperature " based on the relation between radiation and absorption in Kirchhoff's sense, but further information based on experimental investigation is required.
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  • The most extensive series which has yet been observed is that of the trunk series of sodium when it is observed as an absorption spectrum; R.
    0
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  • The lines of the trunk seem to appear at lower temperatures, which may account for the fact that it can be observed as absorption lines.
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  • Such spectra seem to be characteristic of complex molecular structure, as they appear when compounds are raised to incandescence without decomposition, or when we examine the absorption spectra of vapours such as iodine and bromine and other cases where we know that the molecule consists of more than one atom.
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  • In investigating the effects of mixture on the widening of lines in absorption spectrum, R.
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  • Experimentally we should be confined to a strict investigation of absorption spectra, because in the electric discharge temperature has no definite meaning, and variations of pressure and density are not easily measured.
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  • Close to and on either side of the absorptive band µ 2 has large positive and negative values, and if the above expression remains correct the change of frequency would, close to the centre of absorption, be 2 k-2"+3, which for n =3 and k= Io is 1/2000, or 500 times greater than the observed shifts, but this represents now the maximum displacement and not the displacement of the most intense portion of the radiation.
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  • The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
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  • But that it may be given by the ordinary diatomic molecule is exemplified by oxygen, which gives in thick layers by absorption one of the typical sets of bands which were used by Deslandres and others to investigate the laws of distribution of frequencies.
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  • These bands appear in the solar spectrum as we observe it, but are due to absorption by the oxygen contained in the atmosphere.
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  • We have therefore five distinct spectra of oxygen apart from the absorption spectra of ozone.
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  • It is just in this degradation of the original period that (according to the present writer) the main phenomenon of absorption consists.
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  • showed that the vibrating system of the fluorescent light seems identical with that observed by absorption in the fluted band spectrum, Wood excited the fluorescence by homogeneous radiation and discovered some remarkable facts.
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  • It is in the case of the absorption spectra of liquids that we can most often discover some connexion between vibrations of a complex system and that of the simpler systems which form the complex.
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  • The most typical case in this respect is the effect of a solvent on the absorption spectrum of a solution.
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  • Kundt,' who initiated this line of investigation, came to the conclusion that the absorption spectra of certain organic substances like cyanin and fuchsin were displaced towards the red by the solvent, and that the displacement was the greater the greater the dispersive power of the solvent.
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  • Gladstone, 2 at an early period of spectroscopy, examined the absorption spectra of the solution of salts, each constituent of which was coloured.
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  • Soret has confirmed, for the ultra-violet rays, Dr Gladstone's conclusions with regard to the identity of the absorption spectra of different chromates.
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  • The chromates of sodium, potassium and ammonium, as well as the bichromates of potassium and ammonium, were found to give the same absorption spectrum.
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  • Nor is the effect of these chromates confined to the blocking out simply of one end of the spectrum, as in the visible part, but two distinct absorption bands are seen, which seem unchanged in position if one of the above-mentioned chromates is replaced by another.
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  • Huntingdon examined by photographic methods the absorption spectra of a great number of organic compounds.
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  • In both cases an increased number of carbon atoms increases the absorption at the most refrangible end.
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  • The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.
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  • He determined that definite absorption bands are only produced by substances in which three pairs of carbon atoms are doubly linked together, as in the benzene ring.
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  • Subsequently 3 he subjected the ultra-violet absorption of the alkaloids to a careful 1 Wied.
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  • Festing, who examined the infra-red absorption of a number of substances.
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  • Certain radicals have a distinctive absorption about 700 together with others about 900, and if the first be visible it almost follows that the distinctive mark of the radical with which it is connected will be found.
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  • Thus in the ethyl series we find an absorption at 740, and a characteristic band, one edge of which is at 892 and the other at 920.
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  • If we find a body containing the 740 absorption and a band with the most refrangible edge commencing at 892, or with the least refrangible edge terminating at 920, we may be pretty sure that we have an ethyl radical present.
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  • The absorption spectra of cobalt and didymium salts also offer many.
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  • Physostigmine, indeed, stimulates nearly all the non-striped muscles in the body, and this action upon the muscular coats of the arteries, and especially of the arterioles, causes a great rise in blood-pressure shortly after its absorption, which is very rapid.
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  • The addition of the -ati- suffix to the -no- ethnicon, as in Iguvinates, is comparatively rare, and no doubt denotes the opposite process, namely, the absorption of a -no- tribe by a population to whom it was natural to use the suffix -ti-.
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  • The result is to prevent the local corrosive action of the poison and to prevent absorption of the metals.
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  • He finds that throughout the universe there is an unceasing redistribution of matter and motion, and that this redistribution constitutes evolution when there is a predominant integration of matter and dissipation of motion, and constitutes dissolution where there is a predominant absorption of motion and disintegration of matter.
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  • The salts have a faint pink colour, and show a faint absorption spectrum; the spark spectrum is brilliant and well characterized.
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  • But at the head of this vast body there existed a constant tendency which was opposed to the absorption of all the power by a single and unbridled will.
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  • When the mixed gases were in the right proportion, the rate of absorption was about 3 o c.c. per hour, about: thirty times as fast as Cavendish could work with the electrical machine of his day.
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  • Spottiswoode, allows the absorption in the apparatus of fig.
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  • The whole of the interior surface is washed with a fountain of alkali, kept in circulation by means of a small centrifugal pump. In this apparatus, and with about one horse-power utilized at the transformer, the absorption of gas is 21 litres per hour ("The Oxidation of Nitrogen Gas," Trans.
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  • A still more potent absorption is afforded by calcium prepared in situ by heating a mixture of magnesium dust with thoroughly dehydrated quick-lime.
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  • He thus enunciated the law of the expansion of gases, stated some months later by Gay-Lussac. In the two or three years following the reading of these essays, he published several papers on similar topics, that on the "Absorption of gases by water and other liquids" (1803), containing his "Law of partial pressures."
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  • The first published indications of this idea are to be found at the end of his paper on the "Absorption of gases" already mentioned, which was read on the 21st of October 1803 though not published till 1805.
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  • The ground-water is, therefore, relatively very high and the capacity of the soil for further absorption proportionately low.
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  • II) differs from the Whitwell (I) in having not a series of flat smooth walls, but a great number of narrow vertical flues, E, for the alternate absorption and emission of the heat, with the consequence that, for given outside dimensions, it offers about one-half more heating surface than the true Whitwell stove; and (2) in that the gas and the blast pass only once up and once down through it, instead of twice up and twice down as in the modern true Whitwell stoves.
    0
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  • The first demands of Cromwell were impossible, for they aimed at the absorption of the two republics into a single state, but at last in the autumn of 1654 peace was concluded, by which the Dutch made large concessions and agreed to the striking of the flag to English ships in the narrow seas.
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  • Its first action on any of the body-tissues is upon unstriped muscle, so that the first consequence of its absorption is a contraction of the arteries and arterioles.
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  • Certain absorption bands at the blue end of the spectrum are supposed to be due to rare elements such as samarium.
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  • The flat surface is spread to allow the maximum amount of sunlight to fall upon it, as it is by the absorption of energy from the sun's rays by means of the chlorophyll contained in the cells of the leaf that the building up of plant food is rendered possible; this process is known as photo-synthesis; the first stage is the combination of carbon dioxide, absorbed from the air taken in through the stomata into the living cells of the leaf, with water which is brought into the leaf by the wood-vessels.
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  • The test of true pleasure, according to Epicurus, is the removal and absorption of all that gives pain; it implies freedom from pain of body and from trouble of mind.
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  • But it is forgotten that both the plant and the soil enjoy special powers of selective absorption, which remove and fix the better constituents of the water and leave the less valuable.
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  • Toronto, the provincial capital, has grown from S9,000 in 1871 to about 300,000, partly through the absorption of neighbouring towns and villages.
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  • The absorption of South Germany in the German empire took away the chief cause for friction; and from that time warm friendship, based on the maintenance of the established order, has existed between the two empires.
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  • Lastly comes the late absorption of Sicily in the modern kingdom of Italy.
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  • It is especially those long ages, during which Egypt was an independent centre of culture and government, before its absorption in the Persian empire in the 6th century B.C., that make the most powerful appeal to the imagination and can often justify this appeal by the splendour of the monuments representing them.
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  • These measures are, however, usually rendered nugatory by the very rapid absorption of the alkaloid.
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  • The developing embryo at the end of the suspensor grows out to a varying extent into the forming endosperm, from which by surface absorption it derives good material for growth; at the same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of nutrition, and may even develop, where perhaps no endosperm is formed, special absorptive "suspensor roots" which invest the developing embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even into the placenta.
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  • If in its extension to contain the new formations within it the embryo-sac remains narrow, endosperm formation proceeds upon the lines of a cell-division, but in wide embryo-sacs the endosperm is first of all formed as a layer of naked cells around the wall of the sac, and only gradually acquires a pluricellular character, forming a tissue filling the sac. The function of the endosperm is primarily that of nourishing the embryo, and its basal position in the embryo-sac places it favourably for the absorption of food material entering the ovule.
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  • 1 Mystic absorption in the being of God, with an increasing tendency to pantheism and ascetic practices, are the main scope of all Sufiism, which is not necessarily confined to members of orders; indeed the secret practice of contemplation of the love of God and contempt of the world is sometimes viewed as specially meritorious.
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  • This filamentous structure has been attributed to the genus Chantransia, :which it greatly resembles, especially when, as is phaein andphycoerythrin considerabl modifies the p Y absorption spectra for the plants in which they occur.
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  • Thus in the case of phycoerythrin the maximum absorption, apart from the great absorption at the blue end of the spectrum, is not, as in the case where chlorophyll occurs alone, near the Fraunhofer line B, but farther to the right beyond the line D.
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  • By an ingenious method devised by Engelmann, it may be shown that the greatest liberation of oxygen, and consequently the greatest assimilation of carbon, occurs in that region of the spectrum represented by the absorption bands.
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  • He found that these places corresponded closely with the region of the absorption band for the algae under experiment.
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  • Immersed as they usually are in a medium containing in solution the inorganic substances which they require for their nutrition, the absorption of these takes place throughout their whole extent.
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  • Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial.
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  • Composition meant for him intense absorption in his work; solitude and quiet were essential; and he resented interruptions by grotesque explosions of humorously exaggerated wrath.
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  • He is not the only man whom absorption in work and infirmity of temper have made into a provoking husband, though few wives have had Mrs Carlyle's capacity for expressing the sense of injustice.
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  • It causes a local reaction with absorption of the scar tissue.
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  • Such were the consequences, in the sequel, of what seemed a disastrous event, the absorption, by a Celtic kingdom, of a large and fertile region of northern England.
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  • But this version of the idea of Antichrist, hostile to the Jews and better expressing the relation of Christianity to the Roman empire, was prevented from obtaining an absolute ascendancy in Christian tradition by the rise of the belief in the ultimate return of Nero, and by the absorption of this outcome of pagan superstition into the Jewish-Christian apocalyptic conceptions.
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  • The clear atmosphere is in its upper strata free from clouds and dust, so that the sun's rays undergo scarcely any absorption and strike down with full force on the light-brown desert soil, from which they are radiated and reflected to a great extent.
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  • It consists essentially of cinnamic aldehyde, and by the absorption of oxygen as it becomes old it darkens in colour and develops resinous compounds.
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  • While the cult of the other great gods and goddesses of Babylonia was transferred to Assyria, the worship of Assur so overshadowed that of the rest as to give the impression of a decided tendency towards the absorption of all divine powers by the one god.
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  • Two:new interests, however, strengthened the ties between Goethe and Weimar, - ties which the Italian journey had threatened to sever: his appointment in 1791 as director of the ducal theatre, a post which he occupied for twenty-two years, and his absorption in scientific studies.
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  • The sharp contrasts between its compulsory religious observances and those of the rest of the world prevented such an absorption of the Jewish people into the Roman Empire as had caused the disappearance of the ten tribes of Israel by their merging with the Assyrians.
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  • When its deleterious effects upon vegetation, building materials, &c., became better known, and when at the same time an outlet had been found for moderate quantities of hydrochloric acid, most factories made more or less successful attempts to " condense " the gas by absorption in water.
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  • absorption becomes slow, the gas is cut off and the chamber is left to itself for twelve hours or more, when it will be found that all the chlorine has been taken up. Now the door of the chamber is opened, the powder lying at the bottom is turned over and the treatment with gas is repeated.
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  • Originally the absorption of the Deacon chlorine took place in a set of chambers, constructed of large slabs of stone, containing a great many horizontal shelves superposed over one another.
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  • This ratio will become more equal for larger sizes on account of the additional thickness of larger object-glasses and the consequent additional absorption of light in transmission.
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  • less number of dark absorption lines or bands.
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  • the case of the sun, this indicates an incandescent body which might be solid, liquid, or a not too rare gas, surrounded by and seen through an atmosphere of somewhat cooler gases and vapours; it is this cooler envelope whose nature the spectroscope reveals to us, and in it the presence of many terrestrial elements has been detected by identifying in the spectrum their characteristic absorption lines.
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  • or " Sirian " type includes most of the bright white stars, such as Sirius, Vega, Rigel, &c.; it is characterized by strong broad hydrogen lines, which are often the only absorption lines visible.
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  • spectra has been recognized, in which, as well as the usual absorption bands, bright emission lines of hydrogen appear; stars having this particular spectrum are always variable.
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  • Then follows a gradual absorption of first the helium and then the hydrogen, the photosphere grows continually cooler, and the star passes successively through the stages exemplified by Sirius, Procyon, the Sun, Arcturus and Antares.
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  • It can be shown that, if the density of distribution of the stars through infinite space is nowhere less than a certain limit (which may be as small as we please), the total amount of light received from them (assuming that there is no absorption of light in space) would be infinitely great, so that the background of the sky would shine with a dazzling brilliancy.
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  • Recently, however, the trend of astronomical opinion has been rather in favour of the belief that diffused matter may exist through space in sufficient quantity to cause appreciable absorption; so that the argument has no longer the weight formerly attached to it.
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  • There is a Stoic element in the ethic of the Pauline epistles, but the theological affinity that the Johannine gospel, with its background of philosophic ideas, exhibits to Platonic and Neoplatonist teaching caused the effort at absorption to be directed rather in that direction.
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  • Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.
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  • There was much retrogression with the intrusion of new barbarian races; but from their absorption by the 10th century until the 10th there is not a century in which some notable gain was not made towards the attainments of modern civilization.
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  • In this way there arose a conservative school who admitted more or less freely the absorption of pre-existing lays in the formation of the Iliad and Odyssey, and also the existence of considerable interpolations, but assigned the main work of formation to prehistoric times, and to the genius of a great poet.
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  • His philosophical theory was a dualistic one, postulating distinctness of nature for the divine and the human soul, and hence independent existence, instead of absorption, after the completion of mundane existence.
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  • It must not be employed in cases of renal disease, owing to the risks attendant upon absorption.
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  • The Holy See, however, has never withdrawn its claim to jurisdiction over it, nor have the Ruthenians ever been wholly reconciled to their absorption in the Russian Church.
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  • Bourne in an article entitled "The Proposed Absorption of Mexico in 18 471848," published in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1899, i.
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  • Bourne discusses the part which Polk took in preventing the complete absorption of Mexico.
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  • There has been - taking long periods - a steady absorption of special taxes into more general categories.
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  • In the lowlands it loses much of its volume through evaporation and absorption by the sands, and through irrigation, and in its lower course in New Mexico its bed is frequently dry.
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  • With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character.
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  • This, like the excretion of the sundew and other insectivorous plants, contains a digestive ferment (or enzyme) which renders the nitrogenous substances of the body of the insect soluble, and capable of absorption by the leaf.
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  • For his absolute individualism, which recognizes in the state, the church, the family only so many superficial and incidental provisions of human craft, the means of relief was absorption in the intellectual and purely ideal aims which prepare the way for the cessation of temporal individuality altogether.
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  • In various ways a reaction arose against this absorption of everything in reason.
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  • This follows by considering equation (4) for the two pairs of colours ac and bc. Until recently no glasses were known with a proportional degree of absorption; but R.
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  • But with the Indians this speculation leads to the complete abolition of all barriers between God and man, to a mystic pantheism, and to absorption in the universal Ego, in contrast with which the world becomes an unsubstantial phantasm and sinks into nothingness.
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  • In the latter, an allegorical poem, interspel~sed with moral tales and pious contemplations, the final absorption of the 5tI11 in the deity is most ingeniously illustrated.
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  • Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.
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  • One of the great difficulties in the way of applying this treatment is that in all probability many of the ferments or enzymes are altered during the process of absorption in the same way as the normal ferments of digestion, and unless the tissue enzymes can be isolated and injected subcutaneously the desired results will not be obtained.
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  • The health of the body depends upon the proper kind and supply of food, upon its proper digestion and absorption, on the proper metabolism or tissue-change in the body, and the proper excretion of waste.
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  • This centralizing policy is as much the cardinal fact of Theban history as the counteracting effort of the smaller towns to resist absorption forms the main chapter of the story of Boeotia.
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  • Tartar emetic (antimony tartrate) when swallowed, acts directly on the wall of the stomach, producing vomiting, and after absorption continues this effect by its action on the medulla.
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  • Its outlet is through the Lacahahuira river into the Coipasa swamp, and it is estimated that the outflow is much less than the inflow, showing a considerable loss by evaporation and earth absorption.
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  • Engelmann showed, for instance, that these red-purple bacteria collect in the ultra-red, and to a less extent in the orange and green, in bands which agree with the absorption spectrum of the extracted colouring matter.
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  • Not only so, but the evident parallelism between this absorption of light and that by the chlorophyll of green plants, is completed by the demonstration that oxygen is set free by these bacteria - i.e.
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  • cyanogenus gives a band in the yellow and strong lines at E and F in the solar spectrum - an absorption spectrum almost identical with that of triphenyl-rosaniline.
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  • Their spectra are only imperfectly known in a few cases, and the bearing of the absorption on the life-history is still a mystery.
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  • The purple bacteria have thus two sources of energy, one by the oxidation of sulphur and another by the absorption of " dark rays."
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  • The effects produced by bacteria may be considered under the following heads: (I) tissue changes produced in the vicinity of the bacteria, either at the primary or secondary foci; (2) tissue changes produced at a distance by absorption of their toxins; (3) symptoms. The changes in the vicinity of bacteria are to be regarded partly as the direct result of the action of toxins on living cells, and partly as indicating a reaction on the part of the tissues.
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  • The word " palingenesis " or rather " palingenesia " may be traced back to the Stoics, who used the term for the continual re-creation of the universe by the Demiurgus (Creator) after its absorption into himself.
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  • These differences took two separate and extreme types, the one of which forcibly separated the two natures so as to deny anything like a real union, while the other insisted upon a mixture of the two, or an absorption of the human in the divine.
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  • In addition to the ancient churches which have separated themselves from the Orthodox faith, many have ceased to have an independent existence, owing either to the conquests of Islam or to their absorption by other churches.
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  • Under the most favourable conditions there is a slight loss of gold and silver in the fusion, the scorification and the cupellation, both by absorption in the slag and by actual volatilization and absorption in the cupel.
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  • This must be repeated at intervals of about half an hour, since some of the opium is excreted into the stomach after its absorption into the blood.
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  • Abney and Baker have shown that the pure dry chloride does not blacken when exposed in a vacuous tube to light, and that the blackening is due to absorption of oxygen accompanied by a loss of chlorine.
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  • In many mystical Oriental religions the perfection of the human self is absorption in the infinite, as a ripple dies away on the surface of water.
    0
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  • The mid-gut is essentially the digestive and absorptive region of the alimentary canal, and its surface is, in most cases, increased by pouch-like or tubular outgrowths which not only serve as glands for the secretion of the digestive juices, but may also become filled by the more fluid portion of the partially digested food and facilitate its absorption.
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  • The process is normal: first, there is an unqualified adoption of a foreign culture by the Sadducees of the time being: then, after unqualified opposition, the Pharisees of the time admit whatever is admissible within the four corners of the Law and are confronted by other Sadducees who have not followed the first into temporary or permanent separation from the existing Jewish way of life and absorption in the immediate foreign environment, and who, therefore, will have none of the current innovations which the Pharisees have in course of time selected as capable of assimilation and reconciliation with the existing body of growing doctrine and practice.
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  • In this sense alone quinine is a tonic. The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is stated to convert any salt of quinine into a chloride, and it seems probable that the absorption of quinine takes place mainly from the stomach, for when the drug reaches the alkaline secretions of the duodenum it is precipitated, and probably none of it is thereafter absorbed.
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  • The absorption of the acid hydrochloride is much more complete.
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  • He has indeed praised "the self-sufficing power of solitude" in almost the same phrase as Wordsworth, and from time to time would even in youth seclude himself for a season in complete intellectual absorption, as when he toiled among his.
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  • In both cases there is absorption and administration by the state of so much of the income of the community, and it may be a question whether the private ownership of the property would not be more expedient both for the state and its subjects than state ownership is, in spite of the apparent advantage to all concerned in the state getting so much of its income without the compulsion of a tax.
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  • ABSORPTION OF LIGHT.
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  • The term "absorption" (from Lat.
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  • absorbere) means literally "sucking up" or "swallowing," and thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively; it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media.
    0
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  • On the other hand, light can penetrate some distance into all substances, even the most opaque, the absorption being, however, extremely rapid in the latter case.
    0
    0
  • The question of absorption may be considered from either of two points of view.
    0
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  • We have then 11=Io(1 j) I =I 1(1j) =Io(1 j)2 1 3 =1 2 (1 - j) =Io(11)3 and so on, so that if I is the intensity after passing through a thickness t in centimetres I = Io(1 We might call j, which is the proportion absorbed in one centimetre, the "coefficient of absorption" of the medium.
    0
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  • It is better then to define the coefficient of absorption as a quantity k such that kln of the light is absorbed in i/nth part of a centimetre, where n may be taken to be a very large number.
    0
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  • There is another coefficient of absorption (K) which occurs in Helmholtz's theory of dispersion (see Dispersion).
    0
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  • The law of absorption expressed by the formula (2) has been verified by experiments for various solids, liquids and gases.
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  • In the case of solutions, if the absorption of the solvent is negligible, the effect of increasing the concentration of the absorbing solute is the same as that of increasing the thickness in the same ratio.
    0
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  • In a similar way the absorption of light in the coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness is reduced by compression, because the density is increased in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced.
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  • This is not strictly the case, however, for such gases and vapours as exhibit well-defined bands of absorption in the spectrum, as these bands are altered in character by compression.
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  • The small amount of red transmitted is at first quite overpowered by the green, but having a smaller coefficient of absorption, it becomes finally predominant.
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  • For the molecular theory of absorption, see SPECTROSCOPY.
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  • The important thing is to prevent the absorption of the poison, so emetics and purgatives should be given at once.
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  • The " black body " is an ideal body with surface so constituted as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the case of such a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that unless energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption must be in fixed ratio for each specific wave-length.
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  • The bolograph thus obtained must be cleared of the absorption of the earth's atmosphere, and that of the transmitting apparatus - a spectroscope and siderostat.
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  • The ultra-violet and the visual portion are recorded photographically; Rowland's classical work shows some 5700 lines in the former, and 14,200 in the latter, on a graduated scale of intensities from moo to o, or 0000, for the faintest lines; between a quarter and a third of these lines have been identified, fully 2000 belonging to iron, and several hundred to water vapour and other atmospheric absorption.
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  • The first problem of the spectrum is to identify the effects of atmospheric absorption, especially oxygen, carbonic acid and water vapour; this is done generally by comparing the spectra of the sun at great and small zenith-distances, or by reducing the atmospheric effect by observing from a great elevation, as did P. J.
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  • The absence of lines of the spectrum of any element from the solar spectrum is no proof that the element is absent from the sun; apart from the possibility that the high temperature and other circumstances may show it transformed into some unknown mode, which is perhaps the explanation of the absence of nitrogen, chlorine and other non-metals; if the element is of high atomic weight we should expect it to be found only in the lowest strata of the sun's atmosphere, where its temperature was nearly equal to that of the central globe, and so any absorption line which it showed would be weak.
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  • The spectrum taken near the limb of the sun shows increased general absorption, but also definite peculiarities of great interest in connexion with the spectra of the spots, which it will be convenient to describe first.
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  • Generally speaking, the same absorption lines are present, but with altered intensities, which differ from one spot to another.
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  • Some lines of certain elements are always seen fainter or thinner than on the photosphere, or even wholly obliterated; others sometimes show the same features, but not always; other lines of the same elements, perhaps originating at a level above the spot, are not affected; there are also bright streaks where even the general absorption of the spot is absent, and sometimes such a bright line will correspond to a dark line on the photosphere; most generally the lines are intensified, generally in breadth, sometimes in darkness, sometimes in both together, sometimes in one at the expense of the other; certain lines not seen in the photosphere show only across the umbra, others cross umbra and penumbra, others reach a short distance over the photosphere.
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  • A few of the lines show a double reversal, the dark absorption line being greatly increased in breadth and showing a bright emission line in its centre.
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  • The radiation from a spot changes little as it approaches the sun's limb; in fact Hale and Adams find that the absorption from the limb itself differs from that of the centre of the disk in a manner exactly resembling that from a spot, the same lines being strengthened or weakened in the same way, though in much less degree, with, however, one material exception: if a line is winged in the photosphere the wings are generally increased in the spot, but on the limb they are weakened or obliterated.
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  • Hence when the photosphere is viewed through it an absorption spectrum is shown, but when it can be viewed separately a bright line spectrum appears.
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  • The helium formations do not reach the sun's limb, and it is another puzzling detail that the spectrum of the disk shows no absorption line of anything like an intensity to correspond with the emission line of helium in the chromosphere.
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  • Theoretically anomalous dispersion is inseparable from absorption.
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  • Omitting extreme examples, like fuchsin, where the spectrum is actually cut in two, it is of more general importance to detect the phenomenon in the ordinary absorption lines of the metallic elements.
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  • They are formed now on one side, now on the other, of the absorption line; but the rapid increase of refractive index which accompanies true anomalous dispersion, and might be expected to produce similar bands by scattering the light, appears both from theory and experiment to belong to the side of greater wave-length exclusively.
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  • Apart then from absorption there will be a discontinuous change in brightness in the apparent disk at that value of the angular radius d which corresponds to tangential emission from the upper lever r' of this mirage-forming region.
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  • Where in this article the term " evaporation " is used alone, it is to be understood to include absorption by vegetation.
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  • In conformity with the above-mentioned convention (by which compensation water is determined as a certain fraction of the average flow during the three driest consecutive years) the available supply or flow from a given area is still understood to be the average annual rainfall during those years, less the corresponding evaporation and absorption by vegetation.
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  • of evaporation and absorption by vegetation as stated in the note on the diagram.
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  • during 50 years, subject to evaporation and absorption equal to 14 in.
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  • It is merely a geometrical determination of the conditions necessarily consequent in England, Scotland and Wales, upon a given mean rainfall over many years, upon evaporation and absorption in particular years (both of which he must judge or determine for himself), and upon certain limiting variations of the rainfall, already stated to be the result of numerous records maintained in Great Britain for more than 50 years.
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  • Upon such areas the Springs loss by percolation into the ground, not retrieved in and the form of springs above the point of interception may be neglected, and the only loss to the stream is that already considered of re-evaporation into the air and of absorption by vegetation.
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  • The Public Money Drainage Acts 1846-1856 authorized the advance of public money to landowners to enable them to make improvements in their lands, not only by draining, but by irrigation, the making of permanent roads, clearing, erecting buildings, planting for shelter, &c. The rapid absorption of the funds provided by these acts led to further legislative measures by which private capital was rendered available for the improvement of land.
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  • The main body appointed in 1890 a standing committee on Christian union; their aim in this respect is not for absorption, as was clearly shown by their answer in 1887 to overtures from the Protestant Episcopal Church regarding Christian unity.
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  • led to a gradual absorption of socage in the general class of freehold tenures.
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  • After absorption it slows the pulse by stimulation of the vagus nerves.
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  • The great increase during the decade 1890-1900 was partly due to the absorption by Clinton in 1895 of the city of Lyons (pop. in 1890, 5700).
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  • 900955) to the task of conquering the Danelagh, and ended by making England into a single unified kingdom, not by admitting the conquered to homage and tribute, in the old style of the 7th century, but by their complete absorption.
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  • This wedlock would have led to a permanent union of the English and Scottish crowns, but not to an absorption of the lesser in the greater state, for the rights of Scotland were carefully guarded in the marriage-treaty.
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  • They knew that his blandishments were dictated by ulterior designs, and that the absorption of England in the Habsburg empire was his ultimate aim.
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  • Only those who know the incredible rashness of the revolutionary doctrine in the mouths of its most powerful professors at that time; only those who know their absorption in ends and their inconsiderateness about means, can feel how profoundly right Burke was in all this part of his contention.
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  • 16 series of absorption pipettes.
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  • If the tests be carried out rapidly, the temperature and pressure may be assumed to be constant, and any diminution in volume due to the absorption of a constituent may be readily expressed as a percentage.
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  • Some common forms of absorption pipettes are shown in figs.
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  • The operation is repeated until there is no further absorption.
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  • The temperature must be above 18'; and the absorption is prevented by ammonia, olefines, alcohol, and some other substances.
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  • Hydrogen may be estimated by absorption by heated palladium contained in a capillary through which the gas is passed, or by exploding (under reduced pressure) with an excess of oxygen, and measuring the diminution in volume, two-thirds of which is the volume of hydrogen.
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  • Methane cannot be burnt in this way even when there is much hydrogen present, and several other methods have been proposed, such as mixing with air and aspirating over copper oxide heated to redness, or mixing with oxygen and burning in a platinum tube heated to redness, the carbon dioxide formed being estimated by absorption in potash.
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  • Many types of absorption vessel are in use, and the standard solutions are generally such that I c.c. of the solution corresponds to i c.c. of the gas under normal conditions.
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  • The absorption is effected by opening the cock of an absorbing vessel and raising the levelling bottle.
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  • The same order of absorption and general directions pertaining to the use of Hempel pipettes have to be adopted.
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  • This operation was necessitated by the fact that carbon dioxide has the power of breaking up the sulphur compounds formed by the lime, so that until all carbon dioxide is absorbed with the formation of calcium carbonate, the withdrawal of sulphuretted hydrogen cannot proceed, whilst since it is calcium sulphide formed by the absorption of sulphuretted hydrogen by the slaked lime that absorbs the vapour of carbon disulphide, purification from the latter can only be accomplished after the necessary calcium sulphide has been formed.
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  • The second theory is that there is no absorption of iron given by the mouth, but it acts as a local stimulant to the mucous membrane, and so improves anaemia by increasing the digestion of the food.
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  • While the relationship between Ea (q.v.) and Marduk is thus marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Bel of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige.
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  • The same problem, variously expressed, has engaged the attention of philosophers throughout the ages_ In Christian theology God is conceived as infinite in power, knowledge and goodness, uncreated and immortal: in some Oriental systems the end of man is absorption into the infinite, his perfection the breaking down of his human limitations.
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  • Absorption of Light >>
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  • The exhausting pain, the serious haemorrhages, and the abdominal septicity associated with a repulsive odour and the absorption of toxic products, which are the chief and ultimately fatal symptoms of that disease, are all directly combated by the administration of oil of turpentine.
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  • There can be little doubt that this absorption softened and enriched the Serbo-Croatian dialects, a process to which climatic conditions and intercourse with Italy also contributed, until Serbo-Croatian became one of the richest and most melodious of Slavonic languages.
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  • The first conspicuous triumph of the new " spectrographic " art thus established was the record by Huggins in 1879 of the dispersed light of several " white " or Sirian stars, in which the chief traits of absorption were the rhythmical series of hydrogen-lines, then memorably discovered.
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  • It is evident from the material at our disposal that the Shamash cults at Sippara and Larsa so overshadowed local sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one.
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  • The salts show absorption bands in the ultra-violet.
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  • This effect is the same however the drug be administered, as, even after subcutaneous injection, the arsenic is excreted into the stomach after absorption, and thus sets up gastritis in its passage through the mucous membrane.
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  • Disinclination for the self-sacrifice of active life and weariness of the things of the earth lead naturally to absorption in the things of heaven.
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  • In their mystical intuition of the laws of life, and absorption in the immanent Deity, he at last found peace.
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  • The polarizing action of such crystals is due to the unequal absorption that they exert on polarized streams. Thus a plate of tourmaline of from I mm.
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  • The sensitiveness of the instrument depends upon the exactness of the sensitive tint, when the colour of the two halves of the field are the same, and this is liable to be upset by absorption in the substance under investigation.
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  • (2) If the Peltier effect was proportional to the thermoelectric power and changed sign with it, as all experiments appeared to indicate, there would A B be no absorption of heat C in the circuit due to the Peltier effect, and therefore no thermal source to account for the energy of the current, in the case in which the hot junction was at or above the neutral temperature.
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  • absorption of heat in some other part of the circuit due to the flow of the current through the unequally heated conductors.
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  • He succeeded a few years afterwards in verifying this remarkable prediction by the experimental demonstration that a current of positive electricity flowing from hot to cold in iron produced an absorption of heat, as though it possessed negative specific heat in the metal iron.
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  • The most accurate measurements of the heat absorption due to the Peltier effect at present available are probably those of H.
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  • But the reason for concluding that there is no other effective source of potential difference at the junction besides the Peltier effect, is simply that no other appreciable action takes place at the junction when a current passes except the Peltier generation or absorption of heat.
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  • The absorption of heat was considered as representing an equivalent conversion of heat energy into electrical energy in the element.
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  • p"dT, because on this theory the absorption of heat is masked by the convection.
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  • He communicated papers to the Philosophical Society of Glasgow before the work of that society was recorded in Transactions, but his first published paper, "On the Absorption of Gases by Liquids," appeared in the Annals of Philosophy for 1826.
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  • Having this position, the conditions of visibility will be best when the ecliptic, and therefore the axis of the light, are nearly perpendicular to the horizon, and, as the angle between the ecliptic and horizon becomes acute, will deteriorate, slowly at first, more and more rapidly afterwards, owing to the increasing effect of atmospheric absorption.
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  • He found that as the observer moved to the north or south the axis of the light appeared to be displaced in the direction of the motion, which is the opposite of the effect due to parallax, but in the same sense as the effect of the greater atmospheric absorption of the light on the side nearest the horizon.
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  • The Bagratids founded dynasties at Kars, 962-1080, and in Georgia, which they held until its absorption, 1801, by Russia.
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  • Losses due to absorption are almost zero when the lenses are very thin, as with lenses of small diameter.
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  • The bliss to which the soul attains, by the extinction of desire, in the supreme home, is not absorption in the Lord, but union with Him in abiding individuality.
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  • The property of the semi-drying oils to absorb oxygen is accelerated by spreading such oils over a large surface, notably over woollen or cotton fibres, when absorption proceeds so rapidly that frequently spontaneous combustion will ensue.
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  • We thus measure the alkali absorption value of all fatty acids contained in an oil or fat.
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  • (c) Those in which the agent is recovered by means of absorption by a liquid; they are known as " Absorption machines."
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  • As soon as the pump has sufficiently exhausted the air from the vessel containing the water, vapour is rapidly given off and is absorbed by the acid until sufficient heat has been abstracted to bring about the desired reduction in temperature, the acid becoming heated by the absorption of water vapour, while the water freezes.
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  • The principle of the absorption process is chemical or physical rather than mechanical; it depends on the fact that many Absorp- vapours of low boiling-point are readily absorbed in water, and can be separated again by the application of heat.
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  • In its simplest form an absorption machine consists of two iron vessels connected together by a bent pipe.
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  • In 1867 Rees Reece, taking advantage of the fact that two vapours of different boiling-points, when mixed, can be separated by means of fractional condensation, brought out an absorption machine in which the distillate was very nearly anhydrous.
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  • 4 is a diagram of an absorption apparatus.
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  • With the same temperature range, however, the same amount of heat has to be acquired in both cases, though from the nature of the process the actual amount of heat demanded from the steam is much greater in the absorption system than in the compression.
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  • On the other hand, a great advantage is gained in the absorption machine by using the direct heat of the steam, without first converting it into mechanical work, for in this way its latent heat of vaporization can be utilized by condensing the steam in the coils and letting it escape in the form of water.
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  • In the absorption machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being twice liquefied - namely, once in the absorber and once in the condenser.
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  • The absorption machine is not so economical as the compression; but an actual comparison between the two systems is difficult to make.
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  • Sometimes an additional vessel is employed for heating liquor by means of the exhaust steam from the engine driving the ammonia pump. Absorption machines are also made without a pump for returning the strong liquor to the generator.
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  • With liquid machines of the compression and absorption system, the rooms are either cooled by means of cold pipes or surfaces placed in them, or by a circulation of air cooled in an apparatus separated from the rooms. The cold pipes may be direct-expansion pipes in which the liquid evaporates, or they may be pipes or walls through which circulates an uncongealable brine previously cooled to the desired temperature.
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  • But on account of the threatened absorption of a part of the Connecticut territory by the Colony of New York granted to the duke of York in 1664, and the news that a commission had been appointed in England to settle intercolonial disputes, they finally assented to the union in 1665.
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  • When drugs are swallowed no absorption may take place from the alimentary canal; but, as a rule, they pass from there into the blood.
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  • Absorption may also take place from the skin, from the rectum, from the respiratory passages, or from wounds, and from direct injection into the subcutaneous tissue or into a blood vessel.
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  • While in the alimentary canal they are subjected to the action of the digestive fluids and the varied contents of the stomach and intestines, and after absorption they come under the influence of the constituents of the blood and lymph, and of the chemical action of the tissue cells.
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  • After absorption into the blood, which they make somewhat more alkaline, they are excreted chiefly in the urine, to which they impart an alkaline reaction if given in sufficient quantity.
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  • Although some of these differ very greatly in their actions after absorption, still locally they have certain effects in common due chiefly to their chemical action on albumen.
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  • After absorption into the blood it loses this effect, as it is partly broken up into gallic acid and partly combined with alkalis, both of which changes nullify its action upon albumen.
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  • After absorption their action, speaking generally, is exerted on the brain and spinal cord, and is at first slightly stimulant and afterwards depressing, even to the causing of sleepiness and stupor.
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  • Locally their destructive and irritating effects vary a good deal, but even when very dilute they all have a marked poisonous action on bacteria, white blood corpuscles, yeast and similar organisms. After absorption most of them exercise a depressing effect upon the nervous system, and are capable of reducing high temperature.
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  • Some of them are so volatile that they produce their effects when inhaled, others when sprayed upon the skin cause intense cold and then anaesthesia; but taken in the broadest sense the action of all of them after absorption into the blood is very similar, and is exerted upon the central nervous system, more especially the cerebrum.
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  • They all act as local irritants in the alimentary canal, and after absorption are more or less depressing to the muscular and nervous systems. They produce slight nausea and increased secretion of mucus.
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  • With water it swells by absorption, and with even fifty times its weight of that liquid forms a thick mucilage.
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  • The effects of its absorption, whether it be swallowed or smoked, vary within wide limits in different individuals and races.
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  • The presence of food may enhance or inhibit the absorption of a drug.
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  • In addition, according to one recent study, tea may reduce the intestinal absorption of glucose.
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  • Buccal and topical delivery of drugs for systemic absorption.
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  • The percutaneous absorption of hydroquinone (HQ) through rat and human skin in-vitro.
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  • The sources exhibit a very wide range of spectral hardness, with interstellar absorption identified as a major influence.
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  • absorption into the bloodstream.
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  • absorption spectroscopy to inorganic chemistry.
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  • absorption coefficient maps can be calculated based on an adequate model of the sample.
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  • absorption spectra of pure samples of some of these pigments are shown in the graph on the left.
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  • absorption chiller raises the overall efficiency figure to around 80% .
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  • absorption spectrophotometry.
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  • The formulation includes vitamin D to promote calcium absorption in the gut.
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  • X-ray absorption column plotted against galaxy axial ratio from Malizia et al.
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  • It was not possible to define a clear response curve of PD excretion to purine absorption from that data set.
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  • The fat coats flour particles, and prevents moisture absorption which inhibits gluten formation.
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  • Features High density ' rebound ' fabric assists in shock absorption.
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  • It is also required for calcium and phosphorus absorption and utilization.
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  • absorption of calcium.
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  • absorption of nutrients or interferes with the cells ' ability to use them.
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  • absorption of a single photon could produce two or even three excited electrons.
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  • After oral administration, metformin absorption is saturable and incomplete.
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  • alveolusr, deep inhalation is still required to produce the rapid pulse of nicotine to the brain associated with absorption in the lung alveoli.
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  • anomalous dispersion " corrections for the correction of resonance effects in the absorption of x-rays.
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  • betaine hydrochloride, which increase absorption from food.
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  • caecumexample, many fish have pyloric caeca connected with the intestine - structures that aid the digestion and absorption of food.
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  • Bran, an insoluble fiber, reduces the absorption of calcium enough to cause urinary calcium to fall.
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  • cell membranence of the cell wall membrane also plays a major part in sound absorption in PU foams.
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  • chelated minerals achieve maximum absorption in the body - an increase of up to 60% .
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  • Use of the otherwise waste heat to produce hot water or power an absorption chiller raises the overall efficiency figure to around 80% .
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  • cholesterol absorption inhibitor.
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  • Looking at the map of percentages for lactose absorption in Europe one can see a distinct cline from the northwest to the south east.
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  • Alternatively, the absorption coefficient maps can be calculated based on an adequate model of the sample.
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  • The field had must-have sports collectibles on teflon-lined bushings absorption probably he.
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  • The short wavelength limit is due to atmospheric absorption and depends on atmospheric composition such as the presence of cloud cover.
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  • convoluted with a line shape function giving the absorption line.
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  • Here is the spectrum of cytochrome c. The absorption pattern for all three cytochrome c. The absorption pattern for all three cytochromes changes markedly when these molecules are oxidized and reduced.
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  • dermal absorption in this study.
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  • diffuser based on partial absorption, another is to use resonant devices.
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  • The program has includes " Anomalous dispersion " corrections for the correction of resonance effects in the absorption of x-rays.
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  • applying dressings over the area of skin treated with the steroid increases the absorption of steroid into the skin.
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  • echinacea pressed Syrup has been specially formulated and designed for rapid absorption and maximum bioavailability.
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  • The change in absorption is measured as a modulated electric field is applied to the sample.
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  • emulsify fats to promote their absorption.
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  • The way that the plant stanol ester in Benecol works is by blocking the absorption of cholesterol from the gut.
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  • For example, if the photon energy exceeds the bulk absorption threshold, then bulk excitons and/or electron-hole pairs are produced.
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  • extent of absorption, regardless of the dosage form of Tegretol.
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  • Absorption of food, especially fatty foods cannot take place, producing bulky foul smelling, frequent stools.
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  • I award her now the medal for total absorption, for being so forgetful of her father's fondness for hitting.
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  • It complements the action of insulin by slowing gastric emptying, which delays the absorption of sugars from food.
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  • Bradley is also unduly harsh on the usefulness of a chair absorption measurement method involving screens.
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  • Absorption by the forest gas in the equivalent resonance line of singly ionized helium also appears to be ubiquitous.
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  • hinder zinc absorption.
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  • This absorption would in part produce hot spots from near field radiation.
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  • Some enzymatic hydrolysis of the drug may occur in the gastrointestinal tract prior to its absorption.
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  • Good sight lines are important acoustically as they prevent absorption of the direct sound by grazing incidence over the heads of the audience.
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  • However, deep inhalation is still required to produce the rapid pulse of nicotine to the brain associated with absorption in the lung alveoli.
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  • The nicotine absorption profile and the dose delivered from the preparation are similar to that of nicotine chewing gum and nicotine inhalator.
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  • inhibit the absorption of a drug.
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  • For extragalactic sources with either negligible or highly inhomogeneous internal absorption, please provide the value for the Galactic foreground absorption.
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  • insoluble fiber, reduces the absorption of calcium enough to cause urinary calcium to fall.
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