1637) ruled with almost the absolutism of the papacy.
When this great convention met the king must show himself ready to recognize that great changes have taken place, that feudalism and absolutism have for ever disappeared, and that a new relation between king and people has arisen, which must be loyally observed on both sides for the future.
A treasonable senate secretly plotting his dethronement, a mutinous diet rejecting the most necessary reforms for fear of "absolutism," ungrateful allies who profited exclusively by his victories - these were his inseparable companions during the remainder of his life.
This is perhaps the best that can be said of a king who incarnated the stolid absolutism of the period.
With the physiocrats, he believed in an enlightened absolutism, and looked to the king to carry through all reforms. As to the parlements, he opposed all interference on their part in legislation, considering that they had no competency outside the sphere of justice.
The Kongelov has the highly dubious honour of being the one written law in the civilized world which fearlessly carries out absolutism to the last consequences.
The Brazilians were universally discontented - on one side fearing absolutism if they supported the emperor, on the other anarchy if he fell.
On July 26 1914 Stiirgkh closed Parliament altogether, and non-parliamentary absolutism reigned for three years.
In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity.
It was a French king who, when the nation had been reduced to order, uttered the famous word of absolutism, "L'Etat, c'est moi."
The theory and practice of papal absolutism was successfully promulgated by Gratian in his Decretum, completed at Bologna about 1142.
There is no doubt that the archons represented the ancient kings, whose absolutism, under conditions which we can only infer, yielded in process of time to the power of the noble families, supported no doubt by the fighting force of the state.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
in European politics was largely due to the statesman who prepared France for his absolutism at home.
Kleinwachter, Untergang der oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie (1920); Seton-Watson, The Future of Austria (1907); The Southern Slav Question; Absolutism in Croatia; Zd.
We can account for this only by emphasizing the fact that the form of Caesar's government became as time went on more undisguised in its absolutism, while the honours conferred upon him seemed designed to raise him above the rest of humanity.
Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparablymore dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, and after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII., the upholding of the comparatively feeble, and ultimately anarchical, parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.
To arbitrary and unverifiable metaphysical speculation, and to forms of "absolutism" which have lost touch with human interests, this humanism is particularly destructive.
His Theorie des lois civiles (London, 1767) is a vigorous defence of absolutism and attack on the politics of Montesquieu.
The Azores, although the majority of their inhabitants favoured absolutism, now became a centre of resistance to D.
and the conjoined Estates in the mysterious conspiracy which established absolutism in Denmark.
It appears to be pretty certain that, at the beginning, he did not want absolutism.
These marks of favour, naturally, did not lessen Hobbes's self-esteem, and perhaps they explain, in his later writings, a certain slavishness toward the regal authority, which is wholly absent from his rational demonstration of absolutism in the earlier works.
To quote Dr Hume Brown again, " When the absolutism of the Stuarts was succeeded by a more rational government (1689), the example of the Indulged ministers, who composed the great mass of the Presbyterian clergy, was of the most potent effect in substituting the idea of toleration for that of the religious absolutism of Knox and Melville."
The upshot was the triumph of the Counter-Reformation, and the establishment of its principle, absolutism, as the basis of French government.
All this while the political policy of Tudors and Stewarts tended towards monarchical absolutism, while the Reformation in England, modified by contact with the Low Countries during their struggles, was narrowing into strict reactionary intolerance.
(7) Between 1755 and 1826 the reforms of Pombal and the Peninsular War prepared the country for a change from absolutism to constitutional monarchy.
But new ideas had been introduced with the new system of education, and the inevitable revolt against absolutism had resulted in the formation of a Radical party, which sympathized with the Revolution in France and carried on an active propaganda through the numerous masonic lodges which were in fact political clubs.
The theologians in Louis's following who were opposed to papal absolutism already spoke of "the new heretic, Jacques de Cahors," and reiterated with increasing insistency their demands for the convocation of a general council to try the pope.
Opposed to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time.
The Arab has built his social structure on the Koran, which inculcates absolutism, aristocracy, theocracy; the Berber, despite his nominal Mahommedanism, is a democrat, with his Jemda or " Witangemot " and his Kanum or unwritten code, the Magna Carta of the individual's liberty as opposed to the community's good.
The Japanese victories resulted for Korea in the solemn renunciation of Chinese suzerainty by the Korean king, the substitution of Japanese for Chinese influence, the introduction of many important reforms under Japanese advisers, and of checks on the absolutism of the throne.
The king, with the checks upon his absolutism removed, reverted to the worst traditions of his dynasty, and the control and arrangements of finance were upset by Russia.
The revocation of the edict of Nantes owes quite as much to the dream of political absolutism, inherited from Richelieu, as to religious bigotry.
This compact proclaimed the principle of monarchical absolutism, supported by papal authority, itself monarchically absolute, which influenced Europe until the outbreak of the Revolution.
The principle contended for and established by this reaction was absolutism as opposed to freedom - monarchical absolutism, papal absolutism, the suppression of energies liberated by the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Nevertheless, it is possible to trace through the apparent chaos an uninterrupted movement from absolutism to representative institutions.
The events of the Italian campaign of 1859 rendered the continuation of absolutism in the Austrian empire impossible.
But the missionaries were not interested in the settlement of the country by Europeans, the fur traders were generally opposed to it, there was bitter strife between the missionaries and Cadillac, and the French system of absolutism in government and monopoly in trade were further obstacles to progress.
The doctrine of the rights of the lay monarchy sustained by Occam and John of Paris, by Marsilius of Padua, John of Jandun and Leopold of Bamberg, was affirmed by the jurists and theologians, penetrated into the parlements and the universities, and was combated by the upholders of papal absolutism, such as Alvaro Pelayo and Alonzo Trionfo.
In many ways the later years of his reign were marked with all the signs of absolutism.
Louis started the move down the road to royal absolutism.
The draft bill of 1901 had left the autocratic power of the sovereign unchanged; the colonial bill as passed by the commission completely reversed the situation, replacing the absolutism of the king by thorough parliamentary control.
Some suppose that it must be explained as an attempt to avoid absolutism, and is paralleled by the analogous instance of the consuls at Rome.
But the great wisdom of Peisistratus is shown most clearly in the skill with which he blinded the people to his absolutism.
Imagining himself sure of a brilliant destiny in Europe if he lost his Brazilian crown, the emperor attempted to risk a decisive attack against the Liberals, and to form a new ministry composed of men favourable to absolutism.
the dark shadow of Metternich's policy of " stability " fell across the kingdom, and the forces of reactionary absolutism were everywhere supreme.
From that date till 1864 the Radicals ruled the state, their head, Fazy, being an able man, though extravagant and inclined to absolutism.
Further, while Tacitus represents the power of Teutonic kings in general, with reference no doubt primarily to the western tribes, as being of the slightest, he states that among the Goths, an eastern people, they had somewhat more authority, while for the Swedes he gives a picture of absolutism.
By thus devoting itself to material interests, the papacy contemporary with the last Capetians lost its moral greatness Abuse of and fell in the opinion of the peoples; and it did itself no less injury by the abnormal extension of the bounds of its absolutism.
in his controversies with the bishops of Ravenna concerning the use of the pallium, with Maximus the "usurping" bishop of Salona, and with the patriarchs of Constantinople in respect of the title "ecumenical bishops"), contributed greatly to build up the system of papal absolutism.
The ensuing thirteen years were perhaps the best days of the old Danish absolutism.
Hereditary sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, still less absolutism.
It was only crushed by forces generated in the nation that produced it, by the Inquisition and by despotic Catholic absolutism.
At the ensuing diet of 1769, when the Hats returned to power, Fersen was again elected marshal of the diet; but he made no attempt to redeem his pledges to the crown prince Gustavus, as to a very necessary reform of the constitution, which he had made before the elections, and thus involuntarily contributed to the subsequent establishment of absolutism.
No doubt by the prohibition to levy the smallest taille the feudal lords escaped direct taxation; but from the day when the privileged classes selfishly allowed the taxing of the third estate, provided that they themselves were exempt, they opened the door to monarchic absolutism.
In his chteau at Blois he drank greedily solutism of the cup of Renaissance art; but he found the under ~ exciting draughts of diplomacy which he imbibed ranc S from Machiavellis Prince even more intoxicating, and he headed the ship of state straight for the rock of absolutism.
Their masterstroke was the Concordat of 1516, which meant an immense stride in the path towards absolutism.
In rejecting absolutism, Proudhon never waffled on the question of freedom.
William Graham Sumner is a 19th century anthropologist who expressed relativist ideas and J L Mackie is a contemporary philosopher who opposed absolutism.
Relativist mathematics, the criticism goes, by relinquishing absolutism amounts to ' anything goes ' .
How do we resist such ludicrous absolutism, even from such extremely brilliant men?
feudal absolutism had long gone before even the English Civil War.
That surely is the opposite of moral absolutism, namely the ultimate relativism.
This may have been driven by simple political absolutism, in which nothing but the whole goal would suffice.
The Balkan people do not seem to be very susceptible to the ideological temptations of the lackeys of Russian absolutism.
Exploiting the latter, it creates the regime of bureaucratic absolutism.
The study of Paris that follows traces the developments of the architectural forms of Absolutism and of bourgeois domesticity between 1600 and 1800.
For it is the recuperation of the conventional that allows one to reject absolutism and yet avoid nihilism.
His administration as it stands in history is undoubtedly open to the charge that after abolishing the absolutism of the ancient monarchy he substituted for it, not law and liberty, but a military tyranny far more despotic than the most arbitrary administration of Charles I.
He promised, indeed, a consultative council of state, and granted an amnesty from which no less than 25,000 persons were excluded; but on his return to Rome (12th April 1850), after he was quite certain that France had given up all idea of imposing constitutional limitations on him, he re-established his government on the old lines of priestly absolutism, and, devoting himself to religious practices, left political affairs mostly to the astute cardinal Antonelli, who repressed with great severity the political agitation which still continued.
In politics he remained a constitutional Liberal of the old type, and for him the people were the middle classes in opposition to the lower, which he saw to have been the supporters of tyranny in all ages, while he considered Radicalism to mean a return via anarchy to absolutism.
The pope and the representatives of the council made no serious effort to remedy the abuses suggested under these several captions; but the idea of the superiority of a council over the pope, and the right of those who felt aggrieved by papal decisions to appeal to a future council, remained a serious menace to the theory of papal absolutism.
They included Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye, who had practised this polity during exile abroad and now strove to avert the substitution of Presbyterian uniformity for the Episcopacy which, as the ally of absolutism, had alienated its own children (see Presbyterianism).
The value of this latter account is, of course, debatable, but it is at least compatible with the general trend of development from hereditary absolutism, civil, military and religious, in the person of the " king," to a constitutional oligarchy.
Under the influence of the July revolution of 1830, however, he also began to be drawn into the current of reaction; and though he still declared himself openly against absolutism, and never took up such a hostile attitude towards constitutional ideas as his brother-in-law King Frederick William IV., he allowed the reactionary system of surveillance which commended itself to the German Confederation after 1830 to be introduced into Bavaria (see Bavaria: History).
His motto, Perinde ac cadaver, expressed that recognition of absolutism which papacy and monarchy demanded for their consolidation (see Jesuits and Loyola).
The sensational school quite naturally produced the demagogic party, and the theological school became quite as naturally absolutism, safe to borrow from time to time the mask of the demagogue in order the better to reach its ends, as in philosophy it is by scepticism that it undertakes to restore theocracy.
Those, on the contrary, who think that the nation which was on the very eve of surrendering itself to the Napoleonic absolutism was not in a hopeful humour for peace and the European order, will believe that Burke's protests were as perspicacious as they were powerful, and that anything which chilled the energy of the war was as fatal as he declared it to be.
ABSOLUTISM, in aesthetics, a term applied to the theory that beauty is an objective attribute of things, not merely a subjective feeling of pleasure in him who perceives.
(See Aesthetics.) In political philosophy absolutism, as opposed to constitutional government, is the despotic rule of a sovereign unrestrained by laws and based directly upon force.
Feudalism was replaced by absolutism and many territories seceded from the Empire to form their own centralized states.
these respects it formed a marked and valuable contrast to the arrogance of absolutism, to the dogmatism of sensationalism, and to the doctrine of church authority, preached by the theological school of his day.
When his forecast was fulfilled, and the system of absolutism broke down, he became minister in January 1862.
When, however, we look closer, we find that the principle of order, or obedience to government, is not seriously intended to imply the political absolutism which it seems to express, and which English common sense emphatically repudiates; while the formula of justice is given in the tautological or perfectly indefinite proposition " that every man ought to have his own."
Meanwhile he had begun to differ from Lauderdale, whose policy after the failure of the scheme of "Accommodation" moved in the direction of absolutism and repression, and during Lauderdale's visit to Scotland in 1672 the divergence rapidly developed into opposition.
A happy awakening, although it went too far in establishing royal absolutism; and a victory too complete, in that it enervated all the forces of resistance.
Of the two contrary currents which have continually mingled and conflicted throughout the course of French history, that of monarchic absolutism and that of aristocratic and democratic liberty, the former was now to carry all before it.
His passion for absolutism made him consider himself master of souls as well as bodies, and Bossuet did nothing to contravene an opinion which was, indeed, common to every and the sovereign of his day.
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